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Historic,  archived  document 

Do  not  assume  content  reflects  current 
scientific  knowledge,  policies,  or  practices. 


UNITED    STATES    DEPARTMENT    OF    AGRICULTURE 
Library 

Library  List  No.  43  Washington  25,  D.  C,  June  T948 


MARKETING    OF    DAIRY    PRODUCTS,  1936  -  1940 
A  List  of  References 


Compiled  by 
Donald  W.  Gooch,  Robert  M.  Harmon,  and  Oliver  M.  Shipley 


This  list  contains  references  to  reports  of  studies  and  research  in  the  economics  of  the  marketing  of 
dairy  products  for  the  period  1936  through  1940.    References  apply  to  the  United  States,  Canada,  and 
western  Europe,  particularly  Great  Britain,  Germany,  Holland,  and  the  Scandinavian  countries.    Some 
references  on  Australia,  New  Zealand  and  a  few  of  the  Latin  American  countries  are  included  also. 

References  wholly  or  largely  on  cooperative  marketing  are  omitted  because  this  aspect  has  been 
covered  in  Library  List  41,  Bibliography  on  Cooperation  in  Agriculture.    Technological  aspects  of 
the  marketing  of  dairy  products  are  also  omitted.    Hence  references  on  refrigeration,  storage  and 
warehousing,  and  transportation  deal  not  with  technology,  but  with  economic  subjects  such  as  the 
impact  on  costs  and  prices  of  dairy  products. 

References  are  arranged  chronologically.   Within  each  year  they  are  arranged  alphabetically  by 
author,  or  by  title  where  no  author  is  given. 

A  list  giving  the  principal  official  source  for  each  country  of  statistics  of  production  and  trade  in 
dairy  products  is  appended. 

Material  which  was  not  available  for  examination  is  marked  with  an  asterisk  (*). 

The  Index  is  arranged  alphabetically  by  author  and  subject. 

Call  numbers  are  those  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  Library. 


1 1 l B * A  RY 


■■:.. 


SOURCES    CONSULTED 

Card  catalog,  U.  S.  D.  A.  Library.  - 

Agricultural  Economics  Literature,  1936  -  1940. 

Agricultural  Index,  1936  -  Sept.  1942. 

Experiment  Station  Record,  1936  -  1941. 

Public  Affairs  Information  Serv.  Bulletin,  1936  -  1940. 

Bercaw,  L.  O.  ,.•_•»-!.'■•<=«! 

The  dairy  industry  in  the  United  States.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Libr.  List  11,  56  p. 

July  1940. 

Bercaw,  L.  O. 
State  trade  barriers;  selected  references.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Lib.  List  1,  rev. 
June  1940. 

Colvin,  E.  M. 
Transportation  of  agricultural  products  in  the  United  States,  1920  -  June  1939.    U.  S.  Bur. 
Agr.  Econ.  Bibliogr.  81,  812  p.    Nov.  1939. 

Hannay,  A.  M. 
Price  fixing  by  government  in  foreign  countries,  1926  -  1939.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ. 
Bibliogr.  86,  631  p.    July  1940. 

Larson,  N.  G. 
The  dairy  industry  in  the  United  States,  1940  -  1941.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Bibliogr.  97, 
133  p.    Feb.  1942.    (Supplements  Economic  Library  List  No.  11.) 

U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agriculture.    Office  of  Information.    Div.  of  Publications. 
Index  to  publications  of  the  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture,  1936  -  1940,  edited 
by  Mary  A.  Bradley.    Washington,  1943. 

U.  S.  Supt.  of  Documents. 
Catalog  of  the  public  documents.  .  .of  the  Government  of  the  United  States,  1935  -  1940. 
Washington,  1940  -  1945. 

U.  S.  Supt.  of  Documents. 
United  States  Government  publications:  monthly  catalog,  1936  -  1941.    Washington, 
1936  -  1942. 


MARKETING    OF    DAIRY    PRODUCTS,  1936  -  1940 


1936 


1.  ABBOTT,  F.  H.     California's  butter  labeling  act- 
and  factors  leading  to  its  adoption.     Natl.  Butter  and 
Cheese  J.  27:  6-8.    Dec.  10,  1936.     286.85  B98Bu 

Steps  leading  to  the  improvement  of  milk  and  cream 
quality  and  of  the  butter  product  itself  indicate  the  pro- 
gram which  has  been  under  way  in  California  for  approx- 
imately 15  years,  eventually  resulting  in  a  State  law  re- 
quiring all  butter  sold  in  package  form  to  be  labeled  as 
to  quality.    A  survey  of  the  percentage  of  first  quality 
♦ratter  sold  in  comparison  with  other  grades  indicates  a 
large  reduction  in  the  sales  of  all  undergrades  with  a 
comparable  increase  in  volume  Of  sales  of  first  quality 
hiitter. 

2.  ALLRED,  C.  E.,  and  POWELL,  J.  C.     Consump- 
tion of  dairy  products  and  eggs  in  rural  Tennessee  with 
regional  comparisons.     Tenn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Rural  Res. 
Ser.  Monog.  19,  22  p.     Ref.     Aug.  15,  1936. 

173.2  W89Co 

"The  principal  objectives  of  this  study  are  to  ascertain 
(1)  the  per  capita  consumption  of  dairy  products  and  eggs 
among  white  farm  owners  in  the  different  regions  of 
Tennessee;  (2)  the  main  causes  of  the  regional  differen- 
ces; and  (3)  the  regional  variations  in  amount  sold  and 
purchased  for  home  consumption."    Schedules  completed 
by  663  farm  owners  form  the  basis  for  the  results  given 
in  the  study. 

3.  AMESS,  A.  H.  R.,  and  JOHNSON,  H.  C.    The  science 
of  dairying.     Ed.  2.     Auckland,  Whitcombe  &  Tombs, 
1936?     260p.,illus.     44  Am36 

A  well -illustrated  textbook.    The  economics  of  dairy 
farming,  marketing  and  care  of  milk,  and  dairy  legisla- 
tion and  standards  are  treated  in  separate  chapters. 

4.  ANOTHER  milk  agreement.  New  A.  A.  A.  order 
gives  it  control  over  Washington,  D.  C.  milk  supply. 
Amer.  Creamery  82:  810.     Oct.  7,  1936.     286.85  N482 

Provisions  of  the  order  are  noted.  These  include  classi- 
fication of  milk  into  two  classes  according  to  use,  estab- 
lishment of  minimum  prices  which  handlers  are  to  pay 
producers,  and  establishment  of  a  differential  for  butter 
fat  content.  The  order  does  not  involve  prices  which  con- 
sumers are  to  pay  for  milk  bought  from  handlers. 

5.  ARMENTROUT,  W.  W.,  and  STELZER,  R.  O.     Milk- 
distribution  costs  in  West  Virginia.  H.  A  study  of  the 
costs  incurred  by  75  producer-distributors  in  the  Clarks- 
burg, Fairmont,  Morgantown,  and  Wheeling  markets  for  a 
twelve-month  period  during  1934-1935.     W.  Va.  Agr. 
Expt.  Sta.  B.  270,  32  p.     June  1936.     100  W52 

Results  of  the  study  show  that  the  average  cost  of  distri- 
buting milk  was  $1.76  per  100  pounds  of  milk-equivalent 
sold,  and  that  the  distribution  cost  of  producer-distribu- 
tors was  lower  than  that  of  milk  distributing  plants. 

6.  BACKMAN,  J.     Adventures  in  price  fixing.     New 
York,  Farrar  &  Rinehart,  1936.     57  p.     284.3  B12 

Discusses  the  Paterson  Butter  Plan  in  Australia,  Ch.  8. 

7.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.  Changes  in  city  market  outlets 
for  fluid  milk.  111.  Agr.  Ext.  Serv.  Paper  32,  12  p.  Nov. 
1936.     275.2  n62C 

Shows  that  the  responsible  factors  are:  changes  in  pur- 
chasing power  of  consumers,  a  marked  decline  in  the  rate 
of  increase  in  population,  a  shift  in  the  distribution  of 
foods  from  independent  to  chain  stores,  the  use  of  a  class 
I  price  that  has  been  too  high  in  relation  to  prices  for 
milk  for  manufactured  products,  and  the  use  of  gross 
handling  margins  for  wagon  deliveries  of  milk  which  have 
been  too  high  in  relation  to  store  margins  of  milk  and 
margins  of  competing  foods. 

8.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Transportation  of  milk  in  the 
St.  Louis  milkshed.     Farm  Econ.  18:  352-362.     Mav  1936 
280.8  J822  ' 

Paper  presented  at  the  Twenty-sixth  Annual  Meeting  of 
the  American  Farm  Economic  Association  at  New  York, 
December  28,  1935.  A  study  by  the  Illinois  Agricultural 
Experiment  Station. 


9.  BAXTER,  T.     Stimulating  a  lasting  revival, 
farmer  &  Stock-Breeder  50:  2315,  2317.     Sept.  29,  1936. 
10  F228 

Tells  of  the  accomplishments  of  the  British  Milk  Market- 
ing Board  and  points  out  that  organization  of  milk  market- 
ing has  brought  the  best  milk  prices  since  1924.  Legisla- 
tion is  needed  to  protect  the  home  producer  from  the  low 
prices  of  competing  products  from  overseas. 

10.  BELSHAW,  H.,  WILLIAMS,  D.  O.,  and  STEPHENS 
F/  iB'  j  Agricultural  organization  in  New  Zealand;  a  survey 
of  land  utilization,  farm  organization,  finance  and  market- 
ing.    Melbourne,  Melbourne  Univ.  Press,  1936.     818  d 
281.1993  B41  y' 

Partial  contents:  Ch.  28,  General  survey  of  markets  and 
price  movements  (including  butter  and  cheese),  by  D.  O. 
Williams;  Ch.  30,  The  processing  and  marketing  of  dairv 
produce,  by  F.  B.  Stephens;  Ch.  35,  Control  boards  (in- 
cluding the  Dairy  Control  Board,  1923),  by  F.  B.  Stephens- 
Ch.  36,  Farming  industries  during  the  world  crisis-  HI 
Ottawa  and  after  -  D,  United  Kingdom  policy  in  reeard  'to 
dairy  produce. 

11.  BENDKEN,  H.  A.     An  American  looks  at  European 
indifference  to  ice  cream.     Food  Indus.  8:  15.     Jan 
1936.     389.8  F737 

Ice  cream,  while  available  in  all  European  countries 
has  nowhere  become  a  staple  commodity  or  an  important 
industry.  Ice  cream  manufacturing  is  not  a  distinct  indus- 
try as  most  of  it  is  made  by  confectioners,  hotels  and 
peddlers.  Economic  conditions  which  have  kept  ice  cream 
in  the  luxury  food  class  are  the  principal  reasons  for  the 
lack  of  success  in  the  introduction  of  the  industry  to 
Europe. 

12.  BENDLXEN,  H.  A.     Three  years  of  educational 
butter  scoring  work  at  the  State  College  of  Washington 
Inst,  of  Dairying,  State  Col.  of  Wash.  Proc.  9:  60-68 
Mar.  1936.     44.9  W27 

Results  of  testing  733  samples  of  butter  sent  in  bv  77 
plants. 

*  A~'  BERRY»  A-  E.     Milk  control  regulations  in  Ontario, 
1936.     Canad.  Pub.  Health  J.  27:  504-510.     Oct.  1936 
449.8  P964 

Reviews  the  more  important  sections  relating  to  pas- 
teurization plants  and  to  milk  plants  handling  raw  milk 

14.  BESANA,  G.,  and  DEL  GUERRA,  M.     Sottoprodotti 
del  latte  e  loro  utilizzazione.     Milan,  Ulrico  Hoepli,  1936. 
435  p.     44  B462 

Skim  milk,  casein,  whey,  lactose,  lactic  acid,  and  butter 
residues. 

15.  BONOW,  M.     Developments  in  Swedish  production 
of  margarine,  1919-1935.     Rev.  Internatl.  Coop.  29(7): 
249-255.     July  1936.     280.28  In8B 

Table,  p.  252,  gives  production,  home  consumption  and 
retail  price  of  butter,  1925-1934. 

16.  BOUCHER,  G.  P.     Some  facts  concerning  milk  con- 
sumption in  Canada.     Econ.  AnnaL  6(3):  35-37.     June 
1936.     281.8  Ec72 

An  analysis  of  records  obtained  in  1935  by  the  Econom- 
ics and  Dairy  Branches  of  the  Dominion  Department  of 
Agriculture  in  cooperation  with  the  Quebec  and  Alberta 
Departments  of  Agriculture  from  3213  families  in  the 
provinces  of  Quebec,  Ontario  and  Alberta.  The  survey 
showed  that  the  amount  of  milk  used  as  a  beverage  repre 
sented  62  percent  of  all  the  milk  consumed. 

17.  BROOKE,  SIR  B.     Control  of  milk  industry.  Suc- 
cessful marketing  scheme.     Times  Trade  and  Engin. 
(n.  s.)  40(873,  Northern  Ireland  Sect.):  xxiv.     Nov.  1936. 
286.8  T482 

The  Milk  and  Milk  Products  Act  (Northern  Ireland), 
1934,  brought  both  producers  and  distributors  under  a 
uniform  system  of  control.  This  article  deals  with  grad- 
ing, and  the  regulation  of  sanitation  and  prices.  Prices  to 
the  producer,  as  well  as  retail  prices,  are  fixed  by  the 
Joint  Milk  Council.  Retail  prices  are  subject  to  the  ap- 
proval of  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture. 


18.  BROWN,  C.  A.  Problems  arising  from  the  basic- 
surplus  milk  marketing  plan.  Milk  Plant  Monthly  25(9): 
40,  42.     Sept.  1936.     44.8  C864 

Discusses  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  this  plan, 
and  gives  factors  which  raise  production  costs. 

19.  BROWN,  E.  F.     Current  trends  in  milk  consump- 
tion; performance  of  the  milk  market  in  N.  Y.,  Boston 
and  Philadelphia.     Ser.  2-4.     New  York,  Milk  Res.  Coun- 
cil, 1936.     3  v.     281.344  M59C 

2nd  series  covers  1935;  3rd,  Jan.-Apr.  1936;  4th,  Apr.- 
July  1936.  Fourth  series  contains  "Note  on  the  Trends  in 
Rochester,  New  York."  New  York  experienced  a  steady 
rise  in  total  consumption  until  1930.  There  is  evidence 
that  this  represented  a  net  gain  in  per  capita  consumption 
also.  From  the  peak  year,  1930,  consumption  dropped  off 
rapidly  to  1932,  then  more  rapidly  still  to  1934,  at  which 
time  a  comparatively  slight  gain  commenced. 
Boston,  on  the  other  hand,  experienced  increased  milk 
consumption  until  1931,  and  even  in  1932  had  a  greater 
consumption  than  in  1930.  After  1933  the  consumption 
plummeted,  reaching  a  low  in  1933,  showing  a  slight  gain 
in  1934,  then  sinking  again.  Comparatively,  Boston's 
consumption  is  still  considerably  above  New  York's.  The 
trend  in  Philadelphia  followed  a  middle  course.  Remain- 
ing level  from  1929  to  1930,  it  sagged  slightly  in  1931, 
rapidly  in  1932,  then  began  to  gain.  Philadelphia  is  now 
appreciably  ahead  of  both  Boston  and  New  York  on  the 
path"  back  to  normal  milk  consumption. 

20.  BROWN,  H.  L.     Accounting  and  overhead.  Proper 
accounting  will  give  facts  on  motor  vs.  horse  delivery 
costs.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  25(3):  28-30;  (4):  36-38;  (5): 
32-34.     Mar.-May  1936.     44.8  C864 

Results  of  the  study  show  the  motortruck  to  be  the  most 
economical  and  efficient  means  of  delivering  milk. 

21.  CASKEY,  W.     Effects  of  seasonal  milk  production 
on  marketing  costs.     Milk  Dealer  25(6):  68,  70,  72. 
Mar.  1936.     44.8  M595 

Based  on  a  thesis  submitted  in  partial  fulfillment  of  the 
requirements  for  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  at 
the  University  of  Illinois  in  1936.  Results  of  the  study 
show  that  the  use  of  the  classified  price  plan  in  the  New 
York  mUkshed  resulted  in  widening  the  seasonal  produc- 
tion in  the  area,  whereas  the  use  of  the  basic -surplus 
8 Ian  in  the  Philadelphia  milkshed  resulted  in  substan- 
lally  narrowing  seasonal  production;  also  that  a  wide 
seasonal  production  lowers  the  average  price  to  produc- 
ers and  results  in  higher  unit  costs  of  country  plant  opera- 
tions. 

22.  CASKEY,  W.     The  relation  of  seasonal  milk  pro- 
duction to  costs  of  production  and  marketing.     111.  Farm 
Econ.  11:  54-55.     Apr.  1936.     275.28  H5 

To  bring  about  a  more  even  seasonal  production  of  milk 
is  sound  economically  because  it  tends  to  produce  a  lower 
unit  cost  of  production,  lower  total  costs  for  maintaining 
high  quality  of  a  sufficient  volume  of  milk  to  meet  market 
requirements,  lower  transportation  costs,  and  lower  costs 
of  maintaining  milk-receiving  stations.  These  aggregate 
reductions  in  costs  would  materially  increase  the  incomes 
of  dairymen  producing  for  city  markets  without  increased 
cost  to  the  consumer. 

23.  COHEN,  R.  L.     The  history  of  milk  prices;  an 
analysis  of  the  factors  affecting  the  prices  of  milk  and 
milk  products.     Oxford,  Agr.  Econ.  Res.  Inst.,  1936. 
205  p.     284.344  C66H 

"This  study  is  an  attempt  to  show,  both  analytically  and 
statistically,  the  factors  which  have  determined  the  prices 
and  supplies  of  milk  and  milk  products  during  the  pre-war 
period  of  individual  buying  and  selling,  the  period  of  war- 
time control,  the  post-war  period  of  partially  organized 
bargaining,  and  the  period  up  to  the  end  of  1934,  when  the 
Milk  Marketing  Scheme  was  in  operation." 


24.  CONFEDERAZIONE  FASCISTA  DEI  LAVORATORI 
DELL'AGRICOLTURA.     n  lavoro  agrtcolo  nelle  attivtta 
delle  corporazioni;  relazioni  proposte  e  deliberazioni. 
Rome,  S.  A.  Arte  della  stampa,  1938-     557  p. 

281.176  C762L 

Includes  information  on  the  dairy  industry  in  Italy:  pro- 
duction and  production  costs,  consumption,  prices,  and 
commerce. 

25.  CONNECTICUT  MILK  MARKETING  PROGRAM 
COMMITTEE.     Report.     Sept.  28,  1936.     16  p. 
280.344  C762 

A  study  of  price  structure,  distribution,  production 
costs,  and  sanitary  requirements.  Recommendations  for 
a  milk  plan. 

26.  CONSUMERS'  COMMITTEE  FOR  ENGLAND.  Milk 
marketing  scheme,  1933.  London,  1934-36.  3  v.  (18  p.) 
284.344  C76M1 

Shows  trend  of  prices  under  the  scheme. 

"27.  CORBIN,  C.  L,  ERWIN,  R.  E„  and  FRANK,  L.  C. 
Interstate  uniformity  of  milk  laws  and  regulations. 
Internatl.  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk  Insp.  Ann.  Rpt.  (1935) 
24:  222-237.     1936.     44.9  In89 

Offers  views  for  and  against  uniformity  from  the  stand- 
points of  scientists,  municipalities  of  the  same  area,  con- 
trol officials,  the  dairy  farmer,  and  the  distributor; 
states  the  case  of  the  consumer  and  considers  the  possi- 
bility of  realizing  increased  consumption  through  uni- 
formity. Discusses  Public  Health  Service  Standard  Milk 
Ordinance  in  connection  with  such  a  program. 

Discussion,  p.  237-247. 

28.  COUNCIL  OF  STATE  GOVERNMENTS.  Milk  con- 
trol hearing.  Held  in  New  York  City,  Feb.  1,  1936.  17  p. 
280.344  C83 

Discusses  the  milk  control  problem  in  the  New  York 
City  region  and  proposals  made  for  its  solution. 

29.  COWDEN,  T.  K.,  and  FOUSE,  E.  G.     The  supply 
and  utilization  of  milk  in  Pennsylvania.     Pa.  Agr.  Expt. 
Sta.  B.  327,  111  p.     1936.     100  P381 

Presents  data  on  the  quantity  of  milk  handled  and  daily 
per  capita  sales;  number  of  dealers  and  distributors,  and* 
the  volume  of  their  sales;  utilization  of  milk  in  manufac- 
tured products;  ownership  of  milk  plants;  average  pro- 
duction per  farm;  participation  of  farmer  organizations  in 
milk  marketing;  inspection  of  milk  plants  by  health  au- 
thorities; and  interstate  trade  in  milk. 

30.  CREDICOTT,  J.  W.     The  cost  of  serving  small 
dealers.    Ice  Cream  Rev.  19(9):  37,  82,  84,  86,  88.     Apr. 
1936.     389.8  Ic22 

The  components  of  this  cost  are  the  cost  of  manufactur- 
ing the  ice  cream  and  the  cost  of  the  service,  or  the  dis- 
tribution cost,  which  is  more  variable.  The  latter  is 
studied  in  its  four  divisions:  cabinet  depreciation,  cabinet 
maintenance,  selling  cost,  and  delivery  and  truck  cost. 

31.  CUNNINGHAM,  L.  C.     Seasonal  costs  and  returns 
in  producing  milk  in  Orange  county,  N.  Y.    N.  Y.  (Cornell)' 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  641,  41  p.     Jan.  1936.     100  N48C 

Describes  the  dairy  situation  in  1930-31,  and  presents 
data  on  yearly  costs  and  returns  in  producing  milk,  sea- 
sonal and  monthly  costs,  and  factors  affecting  costs  and 
returns. 

32.  CUNNINGHAM,  L.  C     Seasonal  variation  in  the 
cost  of  producing  milk.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  97: 
2383-2384.     Nov.  1936.     280.8  C812 

A  study  based  on  records  of  437  dairy  farms  in  four 
representative  sections  of  New  York  State.  The  cost  of 
producing  100  pounds  of  milk  was  found  to  vary  from  54 
percent  of  the  yearly  average  cost  in  June  to  128  percent 
in  January  and  February.  Tables  show  seasonal  variation 
(month  by  month)  in  the  cost  of  producing  milk  and  in  the 
farm  price  of  milk  in  New  York,  and  the  cost  of  produc- 
ing 100  pounds  of  milk  by  formula. 


33.  CUNNINGHAM,  L.  C.     Trends  of  the  important 
costs  of  producing  milk.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  95: 
2338-2339.     May  1936.     280.8  C812 

In  terms  of  the  amounts  of  milk  required  to  meet  them, 
the  trends  of  the  important  costs  of  producing  milk  from 
1900  to  1935  have  been  upward  in  the  case  of  hired  men's 
wages  and  of  dairy  cow  prices,  and  downward  in  the  case 
of  grain  and  hay  prices. 

34.  DAIRY  INDUSTRY  COMMITTEE.     Vital  facts  about 
a  vital  food.     Washington,  1936.     24  p.     281.344  D142V 

Contains  material  on  amount  of  fluid  milk  utilized  for 
cheese,  dry  milk,  evaporated  milk,  and  ice  cream. 

.  DAVIS,  E.  M.,  and  MORBECK,  G.  C.     Test  of  woods 
Dutter  containers  with  reference  to  imparting  odor  and 
flavor.     U.  S.  D.  A.  Misc.  P.  250,  4  p.     1936.     I  Ag84M 
The  tests  are  described.  Woods  of  14  species  are  listed 
in  order  of  freedom  from  imparting  odor  or  flavor  to 
butter  as  determined  from  the  tests. 

36.  DAWE,  C.  V.,  and  BLUNDELL,  J.  E.     The  financial 
aspect  of  milk  production.     Bristol  U.  Dept.  Agr.  and 
Hort.  B.  15,  17  p.     1936?     10  B775 

Costs  and  profits  of  110  Bristol  Province,  England, 
dairy  farms  Oct.  1934-Sept.  1935.  On  a  basis  of  2,425,336 
gallons  of  milk  a  profit  is  shown  which  amounts  to  almost 
three  farthings  per  gallon,  or  to  7.8  percent  on  costs. 

37.  DAWE,  C.  V.,  and  BLUNDELL,  J.  E.     Winter  feed- 
ing for  milk  production  (an  economic  study).     Bristol  U. 
Dept.  Agr.  and  Hort.  B.  16,  55  p.     1936?     10  B775 

Based  upon  data  collected  from  records  of  133  herds, 
Oct.  1934-Mar.  1935.    Studies  winter  feeding  costs  and 
endeavors  to  establish  general  principles  which  are  valid 
for  any  winter.    A  statistical  table  showing  food  cost  per 
cow  per  day  and  food  cost  per  gallon  is  included. 

38.  DEVAULT,  S.  H.,  and  HAMILTON,  A.  B.     Economic 
study  of  dairy  farms  in  Maryland.     Md.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta. 
B.  405:  221-251.     Oct.  1936.     100  M36S 

Records  were  obtained  on  540  dairy  farms  in  Maryland 
during  1931-33.    About  90  percent  of  the  records  obtained 
in  1933  were  for  the  same  farms  that  were  surveyed  the 
first  year.    Farm  organization  and  operation  practices 
are  reported,  and  incomes,  costs  and  profits  analyzed. 
Some  of  the  factors  that  determine  the  efficiency  of  pro- 
duction and  organization  are  evaluated  to  show  how  they 
affect  farm  profits. 

39.  DIETZE,  C.  VON.     Preispolitik  in  der  weltagrar- 
krise.     Berlin,  Weidmannsche  Buchhandlung,  1936. 

248  p.     Ref.     284.3  D56 

Considers  prices  and  price  plans  for  basic  commodities, 
including  dairy  products,  by  country. 

40.  DISCOUNT  for  cash  illegal.     Amer.  Creamery  82: 
237.     June  17,  1936.     286.85  N482 

New  York  State  milk  control  officials  ruled  that  a  2  per- 
cent discount  on  milk  and  cream  bills,  allowed  the  A.  P. 
Company  by  certain  dairies,  was  illegal.    Because  of  the 
discount,  the  officials  ruled,  the  A.  P.  Company  was  pur- 
chasing milk  at  prices  lower  than  the  minimums  estab- 
lished by  law  and  the  official  orders  of  the  milk  commis- 
sion. 

41.  DDCEY,  R.  N.     Milk:  delivery  to  the  station.     Farm 
Econ.  2(2):  27-28.     Apr.  1936.     281.8  F223 

A  count  made  once  every  four  years  between  1924  and 
1936  at  a  railway  station  about  40  miles  from  London 
shows  that  the  quantity  of  milk  handled  in  1936  was  only 
about  one-quarter  of  that  in  1924,  due  to  the  competition 
of  road  transportation. 

42.  DOAN,  F.  J.     Sunlight  causes  "off-flavors"  in  milk 
and  other  dairy  products.     Penn  StateFarmer  2:  67,  82. 
Dec.  1936.     276.8  P38 

Includes  information  on  the  degree  of  protection  afforded 
by  paper  as  against  glass  bottles,  and  the  effect  of  colored 
containers  on  the  development  of  these  "off -flavors." 

43.  DOUTHITT  CORPORATION.     Charting  the  course; 
a  compendium  history  of  the  dry  milk  industry.     Chicago, 
1936.     15  p.     44  D742 

Processes  for  drying  skim-  milk  are  described  and  po- 
tential uses  for  the  product  are  discussed. 


44.  DOW,  G.  .F.     An  economic  study  of  milk  production 
costs  in  herds  of  producer -distributors  in  Maine.     Maine. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  385,  51  p.     1936.     100  M28S 

Information  for  this  study  was  secured  by  the  survey 
method  and  includes  costs  for  the  year  ending  April  30, 

1935.  Records  of  108  producers,  who  distribute  all  or 
part  of  their  own  milk  supply  in  local  markets,  were  stud- 
ied.  The  records  include  information  from  three  areas, 
Portland,  Bangor  and  Waterville.    Milk  production  was 
higher  for  the  Portland  area. 

45.  DUANE,  M.     Government  regulation  of  prices  in 
competitive  business.     Temple  Law  Q.  10:  262-271.     May 

1936.  284.3  D85 

Cites  judicial  decisions  respecting  milk  price-fixing 
laws  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania. 

46.  ECKLES,  C.  H.,  COMBS,  W.  B.,  and  MACY,  H. 
Milk  and  milk  products;  prepared  for  the  use  of  agricul- 
tural college  students.     Ed.  2.     New  York,  McGraw-Hill, 
1936.     386  p.     44  Ec5M 

Chapters  and  sections  discuss  market  milk,  manufacture 
and  marketing  of  butter  and  dried  milk. 

47.  FABIAN,  F.  W.     New  problems  in  ice  cream  sani- 
tation.    Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk  Sanit.  Ann.  Rpt.  25:  330- 
346.     1936.     44.9  In89 

Grading,  and  the  regulation  of  sanitation  in  the  manu- 
facture of  ice  cream. 

48..  FRANK,  L.  C.     Coordination  of  American  milk  con- 
trol report.     Internatl.  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk  Insp.  Rpt. 
1935:  9-17,  19-21.     1936.     44.9  In89 

Coordination  of  control  efforts  is  needed  to  solve  the  two 
principal  milk  problems  which  confront  the  industry: 
1.  The  production  of  more  milk  than  can  be  sold  at  a  prof- 
itable price,  and  2.  The  sale  of  milk  of  inferior  quality. 
These  problems  are  closely  related  and  production  of 
quality  milk  in  accordance  with  the  Public  Health  Service 
plan  would  help  solve  them. 

Discussion,  by  J.  R.  Jennings,  S.  V.  Layson,  and  W.  B. 
Palmer,  p.  21-27. 

49.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.,  REED,  O.  M.,  and  STECK,  L.  J. 
An  analysis  of  the  possibilities  of  increasing  returns  to 
dairy  farmers  through  the  subsidization  of  exports  of  but- 
ter from  the  United  States.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjustment  Admin. 
Paper  (Dairy  Foreign  Trade  Ser.)  1,  28  p.     1936.     Ref. 
1.94  D14Pfo 

World  trade  barriers  in  relation  to  butter  are  discussed 
and  the  encouragement  of  exports  of  butter  by  foreign 
countries  is  commented  upon.    Concludes  that  the  exporta- 
tion of  a  substantial  quantity  of  butter  would  have  the  ef- 
fect of  increasing  domestic  prices  to  such  a  degree  that 
returns  to  producers  from  a  given  volume  of  production 
would  be  greater,  assuming  that  foreign  markets  could  be 
developed. 

50.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.,  and  STECK,  L.  J.     Possibilities 
of  increasing  exports  of  dry  skim  milk  from  the  United 
States.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust.  Admin.  Paper  (Dairy  Foreign 
Trade  Ser.)  2,  16  p.     1936.     1.94  D14Pfo 

The  factors  involved  in  a  program  pointing  towards  the 
exportation  of  dry  skim  milk  from  the  United  States 
through  the  payment  of  bounties  to  exporters  are  analyzed. 
Because  of  limited  markets  and  import  restructions,  ex- 
pansion of  exports  through  subsidies  would  be  difficult. 

51.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.,  and  REED,  O.  M.     The  price 
structure  for  milk.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust.  Admin.  Tech. 
Paper  1,  81  p.  .  1936?      1.94  D14Tec 

Discusses  the  situation  for  the  country  as  a  whole  and 
within  a  milkshed,  and  the  utilization  of  milk  in  a  market 
as  influenced  by  the  demand. 

52.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.     The  status  of  the  Agricultural 
Adjustment  programs  with  respect  to  the  dairy  industry. 
Dry  Milk  Indus.  Ann.  Mtg.  Proc.  3:  35-45.     Apr.  16,  1936. 
44.9  D84 

Discusses  the  effect  of  recent  court  decisions  on  the 
operation  of  the  marketing  agreements,  with  special  ref- 
erence to  the  dry  skim  milk  industry. 

54.  GOLDSMITH,  I.  B.,  and  WINKS,  G.  W.     Price  fixing: 
from  Nebbia  to  Guffey.     111.  Law  Rev.  31(2):  179-201. 
June  1936.     284.3  G572 

An  examination  and  discussion  of  several  Supreme  Court 
decisions  in  cases  regarding  price  fixing.   A  favorable  de- 
cision by  the  Court  in  the  Nebbia  v.  New  York  case  per- 
mitted regulation  of  milk  prices  by  the  State  of  New  York. 


55.  GT.  BRIT.  COMMITTEE  OF  INVESTIGATION. 
Milk  marketing  scheme.     Gt.  Brit.  Min.  Agr.  J.  43(3): 
219-225.     June  1936.     10  G79J 

Recommendations  on  the  average  wholesale  price  of 
milk  sold  for  liquid  consumption;  on  the  minimum  retail 
prices;  on  means  to  effect  substantial  reductions  in  dis- 
tributive costs;  and  on  the  price  of  milk  for  manufacture 
into  butter. 

56.  GT.  BRIT.  MILK  MARKETING  BOARD.     Amend- 
ment of  milk  marketing  scheme,  1933.     London,  1936. 
42  p.     280.344  G794 

These  proposed  amendments  to  the  Scheme  relate  to 
depot  transport  charges  and  deductions,  contributions  by 
producer-retailers,  election  procedure;  abolition  of  ex- 
emption of  wholesale  producers  having  four  cows  or  less, 
and  procedure  for  revocation  of  the  scheme.        ^ 

57.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Arrangements  under  the  milk  acts,  1934 
and  1936,  for  increasing  the  demand  for  milk  within  the 
area  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Board  for  England  and  Wales 
by  publicity  and  propaganda.     London,  H.  M.  Stationery 
Off.,  1936.     3  p.     280.344  G792Ar 

Outlines  a  campaign  to  stimulate  the  consumption  of 
milk.    Cost  of  the  campaign  is  estimated  at  £60,000. 

58.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Report  of  the  Committee  of  Investigation  for 
England  on  complaints  made  by  the  Central  Milk  Distribu- 
tive Committee  and  the  Parliamentary  Committee  of  the 
Co-operative  Congress  as  to  the  operation  of  the  Milk 
Marketing  Scheme,  1933.     London,  H.  M.  Stationery  Off., 
1936.     93  p.     280.344  G7922 

Complaints  regarding  reduction  in  the  transit  risk  allow- 
ance and  the  prices  for  milk  utilized  for  manufacture  and 
for  liquid  consumption  established  by  the  Milk  Marketing 
Board  for  the  contract  period,  1935-1936. 

59.  GT.  BRIT.  SCOTTISH  OFFICE.     Arrangements 
under  section  H  of  the  Milk  Act,  1934...  for  increasing  the 
demand  for  milk  by  the  supply  of  milk  at  reduced  rates  in 
schools  within  the  area  of  the  Aberdeen  and  District  Milk 
Marketing  Scheme,  1933.     Edinburgh,  H.  M.  Stationery 
Off.,  1936.     4  p.     280.344  G793 

Milk  is  to  be  supplied  at  the  price  of  one  half  penny  per 
third  of  a  pint. 

60.  *GT.  BRIT.  SCOTTISH  OFFICE.  COMMITTEE  OF 
INVESTIGATION  FOR  SCOTLAND.     Report... on  com- 
plaint made  by  representatives  of  milk  distributors  on  the 
Permanent  Joint  Committee  appointed  under  the  scheme 
as  to  the  operation  of  the  Scottish  Milk  Marketing  Scheme 
1933.     London,  1936.     16  p.     280.344  G7932 

61.  GREENE,  H.  T.     Milk  kept  fresh  42  days  by  vacuum 
packing.     Food  Indus.  8(7):  328-329.     July  1936. 

389.8  F737 

A  system  whereby  the  air  in  the  top  of  the  filled  bottle 
is  replaced  with  dry  steam  just  before  a  gasketed  metal 
cap  is  pressed  on  to  assure  closing  of  the  bottle  mouth. 

62.  GUILD,  H.  C.     Paklce— saving  money  in  the  ice  de- 
partment.    Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk  Dealers.  Plant  Sect. 
Proc.  29:  46-51.     Oct.  12-14,  1936.     44.9  In8 

Considers  the  use  of  the  ice  in  dairies,  and  the  cost  of 
making  compared  with  purchasing  it. 

63.  HALE,  R.  W.     Milk-production  costs  at  the  Agri- 
cultural Research  Institute  of  Northern  Ireland,     Gt.  Brit. 
Min.  Agr.  J.  43:  768-776.     Nov.  1936.     10  G79J 

Includes  tables  giving  average  prime  costs  per  cow,  and 
average  prime  costs  per  gallon  of  milk  produced,  1928-29 
through  1935-36. 

64.  HALF  and  half  milk.  Business  Week  356:  27-28. 
June  27,  1936.     280.8  Sy8 

Concentrated  fresh  milk  carrying  a  minimum  of  7.8  per- 
cent butterfat  and  25.5  percent  total  solids  is  sold  in  Ohio 
at  8  c.  a  pt.,  with  pasteurized  milk  selling  at  10  c.  or  more 
a  qt.   Profits  apparently  depend  on  the  dairy's  having  vac- 
uum pans  available  without  extra  investment  and  on  the 
use  of  milk  brought  at  the  surplus  price  to  the  farmer. 


65.  HAMILTON,  W.  A.     The  milk  supply  of  London. 
South.  Austral.  Dept.  Agr.  J.  39:  1421-1431.     July  1936. 
23  So84 

The  Milk  Marketing  Scheme  is  seen  to  provide  for  unity 
of  control,  improvement  in  prices  to  the  producer  and  dis 
tributor  and  in  the  quality  of  milk,  more  reasonable  hours 
of  labor  in  production,  more  rational  distribution,  and 
greater  extension  of  the  supply  of  milk.    Disadvantages 
noted  are  the  danger  of  overproduction  caused  by  a  fixed 
price,  the  fact  that  farmers  are  neglecting  other  forms  of 
produce  for  the  more  profitable  one  of  milk,  and  the  Gov- 
ernment subsidy  which  maybe  regarded  by  the  industry  as 
an  essential  for  all  time. 

66.  HERRMANN,  L.  F.,  STELZER,  R.  O.,  and  BOWLING, 
G.  A.     Milk-production  costs  in  West  Virginia:  I.  A  study 
of  the  costs  incurred  by  51  farms  in  the  Morgantown  and 
Fairmont  markets  in  1934-1935.     W.  Va.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta. 
B.  268,  32  p.     1936.     100  W52 

The  total  cost  of  producing  100  lbs.  of  4  percent  milk 
was  $2.15  in  the  Morgantown  market  and  $2.14  in  the 
Fairmont  market.    Feed  was  the  largest  item  of  expense 
with  labor  costs  next  in  importance. 

67.  HINE,  G.  S.     Kansas  cream  quality  campaign. 
Kans.  State  Bd.  Agr.  Rpt.  55(217A):  93-97.     Mar.  1936. 
2  K13Re 

The  Food  and  Drug  Administration  of  the  U.  S.  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  provided  impetus  for  this  campaign, 
inaugurated  January  1,  1935.  The  organization  behind  it 
consists  of  an  executive  board  and  ten  district  chairmen 
with  county  committees  for  each  county.  One  can  out  of 
every  twelve  inspected  was  condemned  on  the  first  govern- 
ment inspection  as  unfit  for  food  purposes.  Various  regu- 
latory factors  are  discussed. 

68.  HITCHCOCK,  J.  A.,  and  WILLIAMS,  S.  W.     Studies 
in  Vermont  dairy  farming.  The  Champlain  Valley  during  a 
major  depression.     Vt.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  405,  24  p. 
July  1936.     100  V59 

Discusses  production  per  cow,  labor  efficiency,  type  of 
market  (grade  A  or  grade  B),  and  size  of  business  in  rela- 
tion to  returns  for  the  year  1932-33. 

69.  HOLMAN,  C.  W.     Present  day  problems  of  dairy 
farmers. .    Natl.  Coop.  Milk  \  rod.  Fed.  Ed.  Ser.  6,  28  p. 
1936.     281.3449  N21 

Deals  with  the  effect  upon  dairy  farmers  of  Government 
foreign  trade  policy  as  exemplified  in  reciprocal  trade 
agreements,  the  problem  of  butter  surpluses  and  butter 
substitutes,  and  the  expansion  of  dairying  under  the  new 
soil  conservation  program. 

70.  HOMOGENIZED  milk-a  true  "child"  of  the  past  25 
years  gains  earned  recognition.     Milk  Dealer  26(3):  64. 
Dec.  1936.     44.8  M595 

Consumer  preference  in  the  United  States  and  Canada. 

71.  HOPPER,  W.  C.  Charge  account  records  of  pur- 
chases of  cheese  by  92  families  in  the  cities  of  Oshawa 
and  Montreal.     Sci.  Agr.  17:  162-163.     Nov.  1936. 

7  Sci2 

The  per  capita  consumption  during  1935  of  150  indivi- 
duals in  50  Oshawa  families  was  6.9  pounds  of  all  types  of 
cheese.   In  Montreal,  for  214  individuals  in  42  families, 
it  was  5.6  pounds.    However,  these  figures  do  not  accurate- 
ly reflect  the  average  consumption  of  cheese  for  either 
city  as  a  whole,  since  the  majority  of  the  families  whose 
charge  accounts  were  examined  had  medium  or  high  in- 
comes.  Monthly  sales  of  cheese  for  the  same  year  to  the 
50  Oshawa  families  are  also  shown. 

72.  HORN,  D.-'W.  Ice  cream  contamination  by  dippers 
in  retail  stores.  Internatl.  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk  Insps. 
Ann.  Rpt.  1935:  249-252,  254-256.     1936.     44.9  In89 

Also  in  Milk  Insp.  5(8):  21-23.     Aug.  1936.     44.8  M5929 
Results  of  bacterial  counts  from  samples  taken  in  Dela- 
ware County,  Pa.,  by  a  health  officer,  1929-1935.   Deals 
in  part  with  function  of  Board  of  Health. 


*Not  examined. 


73.  HUDSON,  S.  C.     A  classification  and  summary  of 
research  projects  in  dairy  marketing,  including  a  classi- 
fied list  of  research  projects  in  the  marketing  of  dairy 
products  in  the  United  States  and  Canada.     Ithaca,  N.  Y., 
Cornell  Col.  Agr.,  Dept.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Farm  Mgt,  1936. 
33  p.     280.344  C81 

The  introductory  part  of  this  publication  appears  also  in 
J.  Farm  Econ.  18:  320-329.     May  1936.     280.8  J822 

A  classified  list  of  240  projects  in  progress  or  com- 
pleted, with  introductory  analysis  including  agencies  en- 
gaged in  such  research,  distribution  of  projects  by  areas, 
and  number  of  pages,  figures,  etc.  in  published  studies. 

74.  JACKSON,  C.  J.,  HOWAT,  G.  R.,  and  HOAR,  T.  P. 
Discoloration  and  corrosion  in  canned  cream.  J.  Dairy 
Res.  7(3):  284-290.     Sept.  1936.     44.8  J823 

Investigation  initiated  by  "defects  in  canned  cream  which 
must  be  considered  as  a  potential  source  of  danger  to  the 
cream-canning  industry.   The  defects  are  discoloration  of 
the  can  and,  what  is  more  serious,  of  the  contents." 

75.  JACOBSON.  M.  S.     Butterfat  and  total  solids  in  New 
England  farmers   milk  as  delivered  to  processing  plants. 
J.  Dairy  Sci.  19:  171-176.     Mar.  1936.     44.8  J822 

Results  of  analysis  over  a  16-month  period  of  more 
than  100,000  samples  of  milk  from  Massachusetts,  New 
Hampshire,  Vermont,  Maine,  Connecticut  and  Rhode 
Island  producers.   Samples  represented  all  breeds  and 
grades  of  cows. 

76.  JEANNENEY,  J.  M.     Essai  sur  les  mouvements 
des  prix  en  France  depuis  la  stabilisation  monetaire 
(1927-1935).     Paris,  Librairie  du  Recueil  Sirey,  1936. 
257  p.     (Etudes  economiques  publiees  sous  la  direction  de 
M.  Gaetan  Pirou...  t.  1)     284.3  J34 

Includes  a  study  of  price  movements  of  milk,  butter  and 
cheese,  p.  95-174. 

77.  JESNESS,  O.  B.,  WAITE,  W.  C,  and  QUINTUS, 

P.  E.     Twin  City  milk  market.     Minn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B. 
331,  24  p.     July  1936.     100  M66 

Retail  prices  of  milk,  Minneapolis  and  St.  Paul,  1919- 
1935;  distributors'  spread  on  the  basis  of  3.5  percent  milk 
annual  averages  1919-1935;  and  distribution  costs  per 
unit  of  product,  1929-1933  are  included. 

78.  KAHLER,  K.  M.     A  study  of  the  control  of  butterfat 
testing.     Columbus,  Ohio  State  U.,  1936.     13  p.     44  K12 

Describes  the  control  of  testing  in  Columbus  and  Dayton, 
Ohio,  and  gives  extracts  from  regulations  in  California, 
New  York,  Pennsylvania,  Maryland,  and  Indiana.   Suggests 
provisions  of  a  testing  law  for  Ohio. 

79.  "KILLING  two  birds  with  one  stone"  with  combina- 
tion truck.    Ice  Cream  Rev.  20(2):  31.     Sept.  1936. 
389.8  Ic22 

The  truck  is  arranged  in  two  compartments  with  suita- 
ble temperatures  for  milk  and  butter  in  one,  and  ice 
cream  in  the  other.   Refrigeration  costs  of  the  truck  and 
a  similar  one  described  are  half  or  less  than  formerly. 

80.  LAYSON,  S.  V.     Experiences  of  milk  dealers  with 
homogenized  milk.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  25(11):  23-27. 
Dec.  1936.     Ref.     44.8  C864 

Results  of  a  survey  of  16  pasteurization  plant  operators 
in  Illinois,  show  that  consumers  generally  prefer  it  to 
regular  milk  and  that  sales  of  cream  increase  where 
homogenized  milk  is  handled. 

81.  LAYSON,  S.  V.,  HUFFER,  E.  G.,  and  BRANNON, 

J.  M.     Results  of  bacteriological  survey  of  milk  jugs  and 
milk  bottles.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  25(2):  34-36,  90.     Feb. 
1936.     44.8  C864 
Report  on  tests  made  at  a  number  of  Illinois  plants. 

82.  LEFEBURE,  R.     Scientific  feeding,  stable  labor 
control  reduce  horse  route  costs.     Milk  Dealer  25(4):  40- 
41.    Jan.  1936.     44.8  M595 

Horse  costs  have  dropped  approximately  $4.00  per 
route  per  month  according  to  a  study  made  by  the  Horse 
and  Mule  Association  of  America. 

83.  LOUWES,  S.  L.     Measures  taken  by  the  Dutch  Gov- 
ernment in  connection  with  the  agricultural  crisis. 
Amsterdamsche  Bank,  n.  v.,  Statis.  Dept.  Financ.  &  Econ. 
Rev.  48:  1-8.     July  1936.     280.9  Am7 

Deals  in  part  with  the  scheme  to  keep  up  the  prices  of 
dairy  products,  involving  a  system  of  levies  out  of  which 
a  subsidy  is  paid  to  the  farmer. 


84.  MCDOWALL,  F,  H.     The  cheese  yielding  capacity 
of  milk,  and  its  relation  to  the  method  of  payment  for  milk 
for  cheesemaking.     New  Zeal.  J.  Sci.  and  Technol.  18(3):. 
137-364.     Aug.  1936.     Ref.     514  N48 

Yield  of  cheese  is  not  directly  proportional  to  the  fat 
content  of  the  milk:    Three  systems  of  payment  are 
studied  and  compared.    Payment  on  the  cheese  test  de- 
rived from  the  casein/fat  ratio  in  the  milk  is  preferred. 
Details  of  this  system  and  the  general  implications  of  its 
adoption  are  outlined. 

85.  MACK,  M.  J.  Dairying  observations  in  Sweden. 
Hoard's  Dairyman  81:  58-59.     Feb.  10,  1936.     44.8  H65 

Compares  conditions  in  that  country  with  those  in  the 
United  States.    Points  out  that  dairying  in  Sweden  has 
reached  a  sound  and  stable  position  due  to  national  con- 
trol and  subsidizing  of  export  butter  and  cheese. 

86.  MACKLIN,  T.     Developments  under  California  fluid 
milk  and  cream  stabilization  act.     Pacific  Rural  Press 
132(19):  525.     Nov.  7,  1936.     6  P112 

Explains  provisions  of  the  law  under  which  producers  of 
fluid  milk  in  seven  marketing  areas  have  taken  steps  to 
develop  stabilization  and  marketing  plans. 

87.  MACKLIN,  T.,  KUHRT,  W.  J.,  and  VEHLOW,  E.  L. 
Regulating  the  marketing  of  farm  products  by  State  author- 
ity.    Calif.  Dept  Agr.  Monthly  B.  25:  295-340.     July- 
Sept.  1936.     2  C12M 

Reports  developments  under  the  State  fluid  milk  and 
cream  stablization  and  marketing  law  of  1935. 

88.  MANHART,  V.  C.  Effect  of  a  milk  plant  quality 
program  on  the  price  paid  to  producers  for  milk.  Ind. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  404,  12  p.     Mar.  1936.     100  In2P 

A  study  of  a  milk  quality  program  in  an  Indiana  milk 
plant  to  determine  the  equitableness  of  the  program  to  the 
producers.   Grading  and  costs  are  included. 

89.  MANHART,  V.  C„  and  MOORE,  A.  V.     Milk  quality 
improvement  effected  at  the  farm  by  a  plant  program. 
Ind.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  405,  16  p.     Mar.  1936.     100  In2P 

A  simple,  inexpensive  milk  quality  program  requiring  no 
skilled  technician  or  special  laboratory  was  put  into  effect 
by  an  Indiana  dairy  plant.    Milk  pruchases  were  made  on 
the  basis  of  three  grades— premium,  regular  and  low— as 
determined  by  flavor,  methylene  blue  and  sediment  tests. 
Benefits  were:  (1)  The  milk  plant  received  a  better  quality 
milk  which,  when  sold  as  fluid  milk,  commanded  a  price 
of  more  than  lea  qt.  higher  than  the  prevailing  price  for 
pasteurized  milk  in  the  same  market;  (2)  the  consumer 
received  a  safe,  good  quality  milk;  (3)  the  producer  of 
premium  milk  received  a  premium  of  about  4.5  c.  per  lb. 
milk  fat  which  represented  an  increase  of  more  than  17 
percent  over  the  prevailing  price  paid  in  the  territory. 

90.  MASSACHUSETTS.  MILK  CONTROL  BOARD.     Sum- 
mary report  on  cost  of  distributing  milk  in  the  Boston 
market.     Boston,  Rittenhouse,  1936.     204  p. 

280.344  M383 

An  exhaustive  analysis  of  data  on  dealers'  spreads  and 
the  relative  costs  of  the  principal  methods  of  distributing 
cream  and  milk  to  consumers. 

91.  MATTHEWS,  H.  T.     The  Accredited  Milk  Scheme  in 
operation.     Roy.  Sanit.  Inst.  J.  57:  231-236.     Oct  1936. 
449.9  R812 

In  less  than  a  year's  operation  of  the  Accredited  Milk 
Scheme,  the  volume  of  accredited  milk  produced  is  very 
nearly  one-third  of  the  whole,  and  10  percent  of  aU  pro- 
ducers are  accredited.    These  are  paid  a  bonus  of  1  d.  per 
gal.  derived  from  levies  paid  by  themselves  and  all  other 
producers.    The  scheme  is  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Milk  Marketing  Board  of  Great  Britain. 

Discussion,  p.  236-244. 

92.  MEADE,  D.,  and  MEAD,  R.  K.     Sale  of  dairy  prod- 
ucts at  roadside  markets  in  Maryland.     Md.  Agr.  Expt. 
Sta.  B.  394:  595-626.     Mar.  1936.     100  M36S 

A  survey  of  13  dairy  roadside  markets  made  during  the 
summer  of  1934.   Factors  such  as  weather,  time  of  day, 
direction  of  traffic,  qualities  of  products  that  appeal,  and 
prices  are  considered  in  relation  to  sales. 


93.  MILK  hearing  at  Albany.     Amer.  Creamery  82:  654- 
655.     Sept.  13,  1936.     286.85  N482 

Report  of  a  meeting  to  consider  various  changes  in  the 
present  method  of  milk  control  in  New  York  State.    Ques- 
tions considered  were:  1,  price  return  to  the  producer;  2, 
method  of  pricing,  with  especial  reference  to  the  milk 
price  classification  plan;  and  3,  control  of  prices  to  con- 
sumer. 

94.  MISNER,  E.  G.     Cycles  of  the  numbers  of  cattle  and 
of  the  prices  of  dairy  products.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm 
Econ.  93:  2278-2279.     Feb.  1936.     280.8  C812 

Cycles  for  the  period  1921-1935  of  the  prices  received 
by  New  York  farmers  for  3.7  percent  milk  in  the  201-210- 
mile  freight  zone,  of  the  wholesale  price  of  92  score  but- 
ter at  New  York  City,  and  of  the  number  of  all  cattle  on 
farms  in  the  United  States  and  of  dairy  cows  and  heifers 
on  farms  in  New  York,  show  that  milk  and  butter  prices 
deviated  from  their  trends  inversely  to  numbers  of  cattle. 
The  price  of  butter  rose  and  fell  slightly  ahead  of  the 
price  of  milk. 

95.  MOFFITT,  E.  L.     The  cost  of  producing  milk. 
Penn  State  Farmer  2:  70,  82.    Dec.  r936.     276.8  F38 

The  importance  of  feed  as  a  cost  factor  in  relation  to 
constant  costs. 

96.  MORTENSEN,  M.     Standardization  of  butter  and  the 
value  of  graphic  chart.     Wash.  State  Col.  Inst.  Dairying. 
Proc.  9:  26-35.     Mar.  1936.     44.9  W27 

Analyses  by  the  Iowa  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  of 
samples  of  butter  from  88  creameries. 

97.  MORTENSON,  W.  P.  Distribution  of  milk  under 
public  utility  regulation.  Amer.  Econ.  Rev.  26:  23-40. 
Mar.  1936.     280.8  Am32 

A  study  of  distributors'  margins,  the  effect  of  a  reduc- 
tion of  distributors'  margins  on  prices  paid  farmers, 
profits  and  salaries,  developments  leading  to  present  in- 
efficiencies, experiences  in  public  control,  and  legal  and 
economic  features  of  public  control. 

98.  MUNN,  M.  D.  Increasing  the  use  of  dairy  products. 
Hoard's  Dairyman  81:  236.     May  10,  1936.     44.8  H65 

Present  daily  milk  consumption  is  1  1/2  qts  per  family 
of  five.    For  an  optimum  diet  it  should  be  4  qts.  and  some 
of  the  total  should  be  taken  in  the  form  of  milk  products. 
Increases  in  yearly  production  of  dairy  products  needed  to 
meet  this  nutritional  goal  are  shown. 

99.  NATIONAL  DAIRY  COUNCIL.     What  is  "quality" 
milk?     Hoard's  Dairyman  81:  343.     July  10,  1936. 
44.8  H65 

To  summarize:  1,  Certified  milk  is  so  designated  by 
medical  milk  commissions  which  establish  optional  stand- 
ards for  care  of  cows,  for  handling  the  milk,  and  for  the 
bacterial  content  of  milk;  2,  The  American  Association  of 
Medical  Commissions  has  agreed  to  permit  producers  of 
certified  milk  to  pasteurize  their  milk  under  certain  con- 
ditions; 3,  I  asteurization  does  not  affect  unfavorably  the 
nutritive  constituents  present  in  milk. 

100.  NEVOT,  A.     La  loi  du  2  juillet  1935  sur  l'assainis- 
sement  des  marches  du  lait.     Lait  16:  383-389.     Apr. 
1936.     44.8  L143 

Discusses  the  application  of  this  French  law  to  the  sani- 
tary control  of  milk  production,  processing,  and  distribu- 
tion. 

101.  NEW  RAIL-TRUCK  containers  permit  rapid  trans- 
fer, save  handling  costs.  Food  Indus.  8:  113-114.  Mar. 
1936.     389.8  F737 

Savings. in  operations  such  as  cleaning  the  tanks,  pump- 
ing, and  actual  transfer  of  milk  are  realized. 

102.  NOVA  SCOTIA  ECONOMIC  COUNCIL.  Marketing 
of  fluid  milk  in  Nova  Scotia.  Nova  Scotia  Econ.  Council. 
Rpt  1:  14-16.     1936.     280.9  N85 

Recommends  the  establishment  by  the  Provincial  Gov- 
ernment of  a  board  of  control  for  the  provincial  milk 
trade.    "This  Board  would  have  two  functions:  1.  Close 
inspection  by  full  time  inspectors.  2.  Regulation  of  the 
price  structure  to  adjust  prices  and  qualities,  and  to  re- 
move uneconomic  and  unfair  practices  as  they  affect 
farmers,  distributors  and  consumers.  The  legislation 
towards  this  end  would  incorporate  that  in  the  Health  Act 
and  in  the  Milk  and  Cream  P  roducers  Protective  Act,  and 
would  establish  the  machinery  to  make  the  control  effec- 
tive." 


103.  NOYES,  H.  V.  Report  on  milk  marketing.  Hol- 
stein-Friesian  World  33:  509,  520,  522.  June  13,  1936. 
43.8  H742 

This  report,  on  work  of  the  Holstein-Friesian  Associa- 
tion of  America,  notes  the  need  for  uniformity  in  state 
dairy  legislation.   Also  notes  that  since  butterfat  content 
is  generally  recognized  as  the  measure  of  value  when 
milk  is  sold  by  the  farmer,  some  way  should  be  found  to 
apply  the  same  measure  when  it  is  sold  at  retail.    "The 
ideal  arrangement  would  be  to  have  every  bottle  of  milk 
labelled  showing  the  fat  content  and  the  price  graded  ac- 
cording to  such  content."    " 

104.  ODELL,  E.  A.  Swiss  cheese  industry.  Monroe, 
Wis.,  1936.     88  p.     44  Od2 

Discusses  the  origin  and  development  of  the  industry  in 
Green  County,  Wis.,  centering  in  Monroe,  and  gives  in- 
formation on  leading  producers  and  interests. 

105.  PALMER,  J.  T.  Some  effects  of  maintaining  retail 
prices  of  whole  milk  at  artificial  levels.  J.  Farm  Econ. 
18:  759-761.     Nov.  1936.     280.8  J822 

Abstract  of  thesis  (Fh.D)— University  of  Illinois. 

A  study  to  determine  the  extent  to  which  retail  prices  of 
whole  milk  in  Boston,  Chicago,  New  York  City,  Connecti- 
cut and  the  United  States  had  been  maintained  at  artificial 
levels  from  1913  to  1935  and  the  effect  of  such  control  on 
the  consumption  of  whole  milk.   High  retail  prices  of 
whole  milk  in  addition  to  causing  increased  consumption 
of  canned  milk  and  tending  to  reduce  more  milk  sales, 
have  encouraged  new  distributing  agencies  to  enter  a  milk 
market.   In  the  smaller  markets,  high  retail  prices  have 
been  accompanied  by  an  increase  in  the  number  of  pro- 
ducer-distributors. 

106.  PARSONS,  M.  S.     Changes  in  the  seasonal  variation 
of  milk  prices  and  milk  production.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col. 
Farm  Econ.  98:  2398-2400.     Dec.  1938.     280.8  C812 

A  study  of  the  causes  of  shifts  in  seasonality  of  New 
York  State  milk  prices  and  production.    From  a  short- 
time  point  of  view,  price  changes  have  their  greatest  ef- 
fect on  later  production  in  from  two  to  eight  months,  and 
explain  as  high  as  50  percent  of  production  changes. 

107.  PETTIT,  G.  H.  N.     Food  costs  in  milk  production. 
Farmer  &  Stock-Breeder  50:  643.     Mar.  16,  1936. 

10  F228 

Records  collected  by  the  Cambridge  School  of  Agricul- 
ture from  a  group  of  English  dairy  farmers  show  feed 
costs  to  represent  twice  the  cost  of  labor  and  four  times 
the  cost  of  herd  depreciation.   Indicates  how  these  costs 
may  be  minimized  without  impairing  cow  nutrition  and 
therefore  milk  yield. 

108.  PETTIT,  G.  H.  N.     Labour  costs  in  milk  production. 
Farmer  &  Stock-Breeder  50:  1011.     Apr.  27,  1936. 

10  F228 

Shows  how  labor  costs  in  producing  milk  may  be  as  high 
as  5  3/4  d.  per  gal.  or  as  low  as  1  3/4  d. 

109.  FIERCE,  C.  W.     Sharing  of  surplus  milk  among 
producers  and  dealers  In  the  New  York  milk  shed.     N.  Y. 
Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  97:  2380-2383.     Nov.  1936. 

280.8  C812 

Differences  in  returns  are  due  not  only  to  variations  in 
the  proportions  of  fluid  sales  and  surplus,  but  also  to  the 
methods  of  utilizing  surplus  milk.   In  general,  the  highest 
returns  for  surplus  milk  are  realized  for  that  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  evaporated  milk;  the  lowest  returns,  for 
milk  used  in  the  manufacture  of  butter.    On  the  basis  of 
class  prices  established  by  the  New  York  Division  of  Milk 
Control,  the  metropolitan  distributors  made  the  best  use 
of  surplus  milk. 

110.  POST,  J.  W.     Standardization  of  "field"  grade 
cream.     Amer.  Creamery  82:  44,  46,  48.     May  13,  1936. 
286.85  N482 

"Field"  grading  on  a  true  interpretation  of  State  defini- 
tions of  No.  1  and  No.  2  cream;  inconsistencies  in  grading 
according  to  these  definitions;  how  correcting  them  can 
result  in  an  economic  saving. 


111.  PRENTICE,  E.  P.     Daily  milk  delivery.     Hoard's 
Dairyman  81:  55,  74-75,  87,  97.     Feb.  10-25,  1936. 
44.8  H65 

An  historical  account  of  the  fluid  milk  trade  is  given, 
and  the  importance  of  the  railroads  in  the  development  of 
the  trade  is  pointed  out.    Concludes  that  there  is  no  over- 
production and  that  the  market  for  milk  should  be  in- 
creased through  a  reduction  in  the  retail  price  of  milk. 

112.  PRENTICE,  E.  P.     Farming  for  famine.     New 
York,  Doubleday,  Doran,  1936.     146  p.     281.12  P91 

Ch.  n,  "The  milk  industry,  its  history  and  present  prob- 
lems," deals  in  part  with  prices  and  returns. 

113.  PYLE,  J.  F.     Marketing  principles,  organization 
and  policies.     Rev.  ed.     New  York,  McGraw-Hill,  1936. 
783  p.     Ref.     280.3  P99 

Ch.  11,  Marketing  agricultural  products— milk. 

114.  RAEBURN,  J.  R.     Economic  studies  of  dairy  farm- 
ing in  New  York.  XII.  150  farms  in  the  Tully-Homer  area, 
crop  year  1931.     N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  644, 
53  p.     Mar.  1936.     100  N48C 

Includes  study  of  costs  and  returns  in  milk  production, 
and  of  factors  affecting  these  costs  and  returns. 

115.  RANDELL,  H.  H.     Theory  of  cream  grading.     Agr. 
Gaz.  N.  S.  Wales  47:  529-531.     Sept.  1936.     23  N472 

Classification  of  cream  into  quality  grades,  based  on 
flavor  and  aroma  determinations,  is  the  basis  of  the  pres- 
ent cream  grading  systems.    The  grades  and  representa- 
tive scale  of  points  used  are  designated.    Absorbed  and 
chemical  flavors  and  flavors  due  to  bacteria,  yeasts  or 
molds  are  off -flavors  specifically  discussed. 

116.  RIDDELL,  W.  H.     Are  special  milks  justified? 
Hoard's  Dairyman  81:  69.     Feb.  10,  1936.     44.8  H65 

Objects  to  the  marketing  of  special  milks,  such  as  vita- 
min D,  soft  curd,  irradiated,  etc.  Such  special  milks  give 
the  consumer  the  impression  that  regular  milk  is  lacking 
in  important  food  properties.  Milk  is  a  near  perfect  food 
and  should  remain  the  normal  product  of  healthy  cows. 

117.  RILEY,  H.  W.     A  economic  comparison  of  different 
methods  of  milk  cooling.     N.  Y.  State  Assoc.  Dairy  and 
Milk  Insp.  Proc.  14:  21.     1936.     44.9  N4833 

A  discussion  of  the  cooling  of  milk  in  40  qt.  cans  by  well 
water,  ice,  and  mechanical  refrigeration,  with  costs. 

118.  RINEAR,  E.  H.,  and  MOORE,  H.  C.     Maintenance  of 
grade  A  milk.     N.  H.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  291,  24  p.     Mar. 
1936.     100  N45 

A  survey  of  82  grade  A  and  20  grade  B  producers  ship- 
ping milk  to  Boston  through  the  Pattee  receiving  station  at 
West  Canaan,  N.  H.   In  summer  fewer  grade  A  producers 
kept  their  bacteria  counts  under  10,000  than  at  any  other 
time  of  year.    Premium  rates  were  the  highest  during 
that  season.    Premiums  are  compared  for  1931-33. 

119.  ROGERS,  L.  A.  The  dairy  by-products  problem. 
Wash.  State  Col.  Inst.  Dairying.  Proc.  9:  47-53.  Mar. 
1936.     44.9  W27 

A  discussion  of  problems  with  respect  to  skim  milk, 
juttermilk  and  whey. 

120.  ROGERS,  L.  A.     Problems  of  the  fluid  milk  indus- 
try.    Wash.  State  Col.  Inst.  Dairying.  Proc.  9:  120-129. 
Mar.  1936.     44.9  W27 

Includes  problems  of  distribution. 

121.  ROSS,  H.  A.     Marketing  research  needs  of  the  dairy 
industry.     J.  Farm  Econ.  18:  363-368.     May  1936. 

280.8  J822 

Dairy  marketing  research  studies  are  classified  as 
those  which  make  available,  for  the  use  of  all,  informa- 
tion that  is  already  known  to  a  part  of  the  industry,  and 
those  which  discover  new  facts  and  principles  hitherto  un- 
known.   The  second  category  is  found  more  significant, 
and  problems  of  production,  milk  prices,  price  forecast- 
ing, and  consumption  are  suggested  for  investigation. 


122.  SCHAARS,  M.  A.     Secure  data  on  retailers'  mar- 

fins  in  handling  cheese.     Wis.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  435:  135- 
36.     Mar.  1936.     100  W75 

Margins  for  the  different  kinds  of  cheese  are  very  simi- 
lar, with  little  variation  in  different  sections  of  the  coun- 
try.   For  eight  out  of  11  kinds  of  cheese,  the  average  re- 
tail margin  was  approximately  27  percent.    A  slightly 
higher  margin  (usually  1  to  2  percent  greater)  was 
charged  by  stores  granting  credit  than  by  those  operating 
on  a  cash  basis.    Specialty  stores,  such  as  delicatessens, 
usually  charged  higher  margins  than  meat  and  grocery 
stores.    Margins  on  processed  cheese  were  about  the 
same  as  those  on  the  natural  type. 

123.  SCHOEN,  A.     Le  marche  agricole  francais  et  les 
interventions  de  l'etat.     Paris,  1936.     358  p."    280.3  Sch6 

These.— Paris. 

Sect.  5  deals  in  part  with  governmental  regulation  of 
milk  and  milk  products,  and  with  the  results  thereof. 

124.  SCOTLAND.  DEPT.  OF  HEALTH.     Explanatory 
memorandum  on  the  sale  of  milk  under  special  designa- 
tions.    Edinburgh,  1936.     8  p.     44  Sco33E 

Defines  the  following  grades  of  milk:  certified,  tubercu- 
lin tested,  standard,  and  pasteurized. 

1  25.  SEXAUER,  F.  H.     Presentation  to  meeting  of  farm 
organizations  of  four  States.     New  York?  1936.     15  p. 
281.344  Se9 

Considers  the  form,  administration  and  effectiveness  of 
regulatory  milk  legislation  in  the  New  York  milkshed. 
The  problem  is  resolve.d  into  one  affecting  the  intrastate 
market  and  production  areas  on  the  one  hand  and  the  inter- 
state market  and  production  areas  on  the  other. 

126.  SILCOX,  W.  B.     Some  economic  aspects  of  the 
cheese  industry  in  Minnesota.     Minn.  U.  Divs.  Agr.  Econ. 
and  Agr.  Ext.  Farm  Business  Notes  165:  1-3.     Sept.  20, 
1936.     275.29  M663 

A  survey  of  the  operations  of  20  cheese  factories  located 
in  Dodge,  Goodhue,  and  Olmsted  counties.    Discusses  busi- 
ness organization,  marketing  facilities,  prices  paid  pro- 
ducers in  comparison  with  creamery  returns,  and  the 
volume  of  business.    Points  to  the  effect  of  the  size  of  the 
plant  on  the  cost  of  manufacturing  cheese  and  on  returns. 

127.  SIMPLIFIED  containers  for  dairy  products.     Food 
Indus.  8(4):  181-182.     Apr.  1936.     389.8  F737 

Work  of  the  Division  of  Simplified  Practice,  U.  S.  Bu- 
reau of  Standards,  in  collaboration  with  food  and  con- 
tainers manufacturers  and  others  interested  in  the  pro- 
mulgation of  simplified  practice  recommendations  cover- 
ing details  of  specifications  such  as  dimensions,  capaci- 
ties, and  similar  basic  factors  in  container  design— a 
result  of  the  passage  of  the  United  States  Container  Act 
in  1916. 

128.  SORENSON,  H.,  and  CASSELS,  J.  M.     English  milk 
market.     Quart.  J.  Econ.  50:  275-296.     Feb.  1936. 

280.8  Q2 

Discusses  the  English  Milk  Marketing  Scheme  with  re- 
gard to  effects  on  producers,  consumers,  and  distributors, 
gains  of  different  producer  groups,  problems  of  produc- 
tion control,  and  consumption  and  marketing.    Comparison 
is  made  with  the  A. A. A.  dairy  program. 

129.  SOUTH  DAKOTA.  AGRICULTURAL  EXPERIMENT 
STATION.     Cost  of  delivering  milk  in  small  cities  with 
different  types  of  conveyances.     S.  D.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta. 
Ann.  Rpt.  1936:  20.     100  So82 

Indicates  that  delivery  by  truck  is  cheaper  than  by  horse- 
drawn  wagon  where  the  route  extends  over  five  or  more 
miles. 

130.  SPENCER,  L.     The  changing  picture  of  fluid  milk 
marketing.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  A.  E.  143,  15  p.     Nov.  1936. 

281.9  C81 

Studies  price  relationships,  consumption,  methods  of 
distribution,  and  public  control  of  milk  prices. 


10 


131.  SPENCER,  L.     Research  in  costs  of  distributing 
milk.     J.  Farm  Econ.  18:  338-351.     May  1936. 

280.8  J822 

Discusses  the  plan  and  procedure  for  conducting  studies 
of  milk  distribution  costs  and  profits.    Considers  the 
scope  of  each  project,  selection  of  business  units,  access 
to  data,  physical  units  of  product  and  cost,  verification  of 
records,  problems  projected  when  more  than  one  corpora- 
tion is  involved  in  a  single  business,  debatable  items,  and 
allocations  of  costs.    Gives  data  and  illustrations  of  sev- 
eral items  of  cost  and  their  treatment. 

132.  SPENCER,  L.     Spread  between  farm  and  retail 
prices  for  milk.     Hoard's  Dairyman  81:  114,  134-135; 
176,  192-193.     Mar.  10,  Apr.  10,  1936.     44.8  H65 

Discusses  the  subject  in  relation  to  dealers'  cost  and 
profits. 

133.  SPENCER,  L.     Use  of  paper  milk  bottles.     Amer. 
Creamery  82:  252-253.     June  25,  1936.     286.85  N482 

Tells  of  the  use  of  paper  bottles  for  milk  since  they 
were  first  used  commercially  in  New  York  in  1929,  and 
discusses  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  their  use. 

134.  STANLEY,  L.     Consumer  acceptance  of  dry  milk 
solids.     Amer.  Dry  Milk  Inst.  Proc.  Ann.  Mtg.  11:  54-60. 
1936.     44.9  Am35 

Discusses  consumer  attitude  toward  dried  skimmed 
milk,  as  revealed  through  relief  distribution  of  the  prod- 
uct and  through  regional  surveys. 

135.  STATE  regulation  of  bottled,  homogenized  milk. 
Milk  Dealer  25(8):  36-37.     May  1936.     44.8  M595 

Of  those  surveyed,  15  States  had  no  laws  or  regulations 
governing  homogenized  milk;  in  18  States  and  the  District 
of  Columbia,  its  sale  was  or  would  be  permitted  upon 
proper  labeling;  no  question  of  the  legality  of  such  sales 
had  come  up  in  two  States;  and  in  four  States  the  homoge- 
nization  of  whole  milk  was  not  permitted. 

136.  STEPHENS,  F.  B.     The  processing  and  marketing 
of  dairy  produce.     In  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  New 
Zealand  Br.     Agricultural  organization  in  New  Zealand, 
p.  648-689.     Melbourne,  Melbourne  U.  Press,  1936. 
818  p.     281.1993  B41 

Includes  material  on  utilization  of  butterfat;  prices  and 
price  trends  of  butter  and  cheese,  1922-1931;  prices  of 
butter  and  cheese,  in  relation  to  quality,  season  1929-30 
and  1933-1934;  and  costs  of  butter  and  cheese  manufac- 
ture, 1925-1934. 

137.  STIRITZ,  B.  A.  Responsibility  of  the  station  oper- 
ator in  the  grading  of  cream.  Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J. 
27:  8.     Mar.  25,  1936.     286.85  B98Bu 

Also  in  Amer.  Creamery  81:  840,  842.     Apr.  8,  1936. 
286.85  N482 

The  success  of  cream  grading  or  improvement  plans  is 
linked  up  with  the  factors  of  production,  procurement, 
transportation,  and  processing.    The  higher  price  paid  the 
producer  by  the  station  operator  for  better  cream  deter- 
mines to  what  extent  such  a  program  can  be  economically 
justified.    How  the  station  operator  can  be  influential  in 
maintaining  the  quality  of  the  cream  after  it  leaves  the 
producer  is  shown. 

138.  STITTS,  T.  G.  Truck  route  procurement  of  cream. 
Amer.  Creamery  and  Poultry  Prod.  Rev.  83:  62-65.  Nov. 
11,  1936.     286.85  N482 

Finds  that  better  control  of  hauling  by  the  creamery  is 
essential  to  economical  operation  and  quality  maintenance 

139.  TAYLOR,  C.  C.     The  British  import  control  of 
milk  products.     Foreign  Crops  and  Markets  32:  10-13. 
Jan.  6,  1936.     1.9  St2F 

Shows  reduction  in  permitted  imports  of  milk  products 
(chiefly  condensed  and  dried  milk),  June  1933-March  1936. 
The  import  limitations  have  been  designed  to  raise  the 
value  of  the  domestic  milk  not  sold  as  market  milk,  and 
to  further  develop  the  milk  manufacturing  industry  in 
Great  Britain. 

140.  TAYLOR,  C.  C.     British  Milk  Marketing  Scheme.. 
Foreign  Crops  and  Markets  33:  634-640.     Nov.  23,  1936. 
1.9  St2F 

Description  of  the  six  marketing  schemes  set  up  under 
the  authority  of  the  Agricultural  Marketing  Acts  of  1931 
and  1933  for  various  areas  in  the  United  Kingdom. 


141.  TAYLOR,  C.  C.     Trends  in  British  agricultural 
policy.     Foreign  Crops,  and  Markets  33:459-465.     Oct. 
19,  1936.     1.9  St2F 

Contains  account  of  operation  of  Milk  Marketing  Scheme. 

142.  TEN  EYCK,  P.  G.,  and  B1DDLE,  F.  The  milk  con- 
tainer controversy.  Amer.  Creamery  82:  254-257.  June 
24,  1936.     286.85  N482 

The  New  York  Supreme  Court  decided  against  the  New 
York  Milk  Control  Board  in  a  case  regarding  the  price  of 
milk  sold  in  paper  containers  in  New  York.    Statements 
and  brief  presented  to  the  Court  are  given. 

143.  THOMSEN,  F.  L.  Agricultural  prices.  New  York, 
McGraw-Hill,  1936.     471  p.     284.3  T83 

Ch.  18,  Prices  of  Dairy  Products,  discusses  differences 
in  product  prices,  butter  and  cheese  prices,  oleomarga- 
rine and  butter,  trends  in  prices  of  dairy  products  and  in 
cattle  numbers  and  milk  production,  and  the  dairy  outlook 
on  the  bases  of  demand  and  the  general  price  level, 
changes  in  milk  production,  and  feed  prices. 

144.  TILSON,  D.  H.     Marketing  milk  in  Europe.     Milk 
Dealer  25(12):  142,  144,  146,  148,  150.     Sept.  1936. 
44.8  M595 

Information  is  given  on  the  approximate  number  of 
operating  dairies,  milk  sold  by  dairies  rather  than  direct 
to  consumer  by  farmers,  and  on  milk  bottles  and  seals  in 
use  for  most  of  the  countries  in  western  Europe. 

145.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     Plant  operating  efficiency  in  the 
market  milk  industry.     Berkeley,  Calif.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.. 
1936.     13  p.     280.344  C122P 

Plant  operating  efficiency  is  considered  in  connection 
with  delivery  and  industry  efficiency.    Increased  advertis- 
ing and  selling  activities,  quality  and  services,  price 
cutting,  and  the  merging  of  plants  are  methods  discussed 
for  the  expansion  of  volume  of  output.    A  hypothetical  ex- 
ample is  given  of  relation  between  capacity,  output,  in- 
vestments, and  return  on  capital. 

146.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     Price  factors  in  the  Los  Angeles 
milk  market.     Giannini  Found.  Mimeo.  Rpt.  48,  41  p. 
1936.     281.9  G34M 

i  A  supplement  and  extension  to  Spencer's  study  of  the 
Los  Angeles  milk  market  (California  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B. 
513.  1931),  which  brings  up  to  date  some  of  the  more  sig- 
nificant tables  and  figures  related  to  producer  prices  ap- 
pearing in  the  above  bulletin  and  analyzes  the  economic 
effects  of  some  of  the  recent  developments  in  the  Los 
Angeles  milk  market. 

147.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     Price  factors  in  the  San  Diego  milk 
market.     Giannini  Found.  Mimeog.  Rpt.  54,  25  p.     1936. 
281.9  G34M 

Includes  material  on  milk  prices  and  cost  factors  of  pro- 
duction, 1929-1936. 

148.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     Supplementary  report  on  the  Los 
Angeles  milk  market.     Giannini  Found.  Mimeog.  Rpt.  51, 
3  p.     Aug.  1946.     281.9  G34M 

Supplements  the  author's  "Price  Factors  in  the  Los 
Angeles  Milk  Market." 

149.  TOBEY,  J.  A.     Legal  aspects  of  milk  control. 
Chicago,  111.,  Internatl.  Assoc,  of  Milk  Dealers,  1936. 
102  p.     Ref.     44.5  T55 

A  guide  to  the  constitutional,  administrative,  public  and 
private  law  in  the  United  States  as  it  applies  to  the  produc- 
tion, handling,  processing  and  distribution  of  milk  and 
dairy  products.    A  table  of  court  cases,  arranged  by 
States,  is  given  on  p.  89-98. 

150.  TRACY,  P.  H.     Bottled  concentrated  whole  milk. 
Amer.  Creamery  and  Poultry  Prod.  Rev.  82:  258-259. 
June  24,  1936.     286.85  N482 

From  an  address,  Dairy  Manufacturers  Conference, 
University  of  Illinois. 

Results  of  laboratory  experiments  on  the  bacterial  qual- 
ities of  concentrated  milk,  and  of  a  study  of  consumer  re- 
action to  this  milk. 


11 


151.  TRACY,  P.  H.     Certain  problems  related  to  the 
marketing  of  homogenized  milk.     Milk  Dealer  25(4):  30- 
32;  (5):  60,  62,  64,  66,  68.     Jan. -Feb.  1936.     44.8  M595 

Paper  read  before  the  Indiana  Manufacturers  of  Dairy 
Products,  Indianapolis,  November  22,  1935. 

Conclusions  from  a  study  carried  on  over  a  three -year 
period  at  the  University  of  Illinois.    Deals  with  many 
phases  of  the  subject,  including  consumer  preference  for 
homogenized  milk  over  regular  milk,  nutritive  value  of 
homogenized  milk,  methods  of  homogenization,  and  the 
homogenizer  as  a  source  of  bacterial  contamination. 

152.  TROVATTEN,  R.  A.     Benefits  of  the  cream  grading 
law.    Natl.  Assoc.  Comnrs.,  Sees.  &  Dirs.  Agr.  Proc.  19: 
50-53.     1936.     4  N217 

Discusses  the  Minnesota  Cream  Grading  and  Testing 
Law  passed  in  1935,  which  provides  for  separate  grades 
for  sweet  cream  and  for  a  price  differential  or  premium 
to  be  paid  to  the  farmer  producing  high  quality  cream. 

153.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN.     A 
survey  of  milk  consumption  in  59  cities  of  the  United 
States.     Consumers'  Counsel  Ser.  Pub.  2,  33  p.     1936. 
1.4Ad422 

This  survey  of  purchases  of  whole  and  evaporated  milk 
by  28,966  families  during  a  single  week  in  1934  shows 
weekly  per  capita  consumption  to  be  2.44  quarts.    A  satis-  . 
factory  allowance,  according  to  nutritionists,  is  between 
3  to  5  quarts  a  person  each  week. 

154.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS.     The 
effect  of  the  trade  agreements  program  on  the  United 
States  dairy  industry.     Washington,  1936.     11  p. 

1.9  Ec753 

Shows  reductions  made  by  the  United  States  in  its  im- 
port duties  on  dairy  products  and  those  obtained  from 
foreign  countries,  and  the  benefits  to  the  American  dairy 
industry. 

155.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Milk  and  milk  products  used  in  the  manufacture  of  milk 
chocolate,  cocoa  and  chocolate  coatings.     Washington, 
1936.     1  p.     1.9  Ec724Mi 

•Amount  of  dairy  products  used  during  1935  by  the  cocoa 
and  chocolate  products  industry  as  reported  by  59  firms. 
Comparative  figures  for  1934  and  1935  are  given  on  the 
basis  of  reports  from  37  firms. 

156.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  DAIRY  INDUSTRY.     Legal  stand- 
ards for  dairy  products.     Washington,  1936.     51  p. 
(BDIM  583)     1.9  D145L 

State  standards  for  milk,  skim  milk,  cream,  butter,  con- 
densed and  evaporated  milk,  ice  cream,  and  cheese  are 
given,  for  all  States  in  the  United  States  in  effect  in  1935. 

157.  U.  S.  FEDERAL  TRADE  COMMISSION.     Report... 
on  the  distribution  and  sale  of  milk  and  milk  products, 
Boston,  Baltimore,  Cincinnati,  St.  Louis.    Letter  trans- 
mitting the  fourth  report...  entitled  "Report  of  Federal 
Trade  Commission  on  milk-market  regulation  and  prac- 
tices of  distributors  in  relation  to  margins,  costs,  and 
profits  of  distributors  in  Boston,  Baltimore,  Cincinnati, 
and  Saint  Louis."     74th  Cong.,  2d  sess.,  House  Doc.  501, 
243  p.    1936.     173  F32Mi 

Includes  description  of  markets,  cooperative  associa- 
tions, and  regulatory  agencies. 

158.  U.  S.  FEDERAL  TRADE  COMMISSION.     Report... 
on  the  sale  and  distribution  of  milk  and  milk  products, 
Chicago  sales  area.    Letter  transmitting  an  interim  re- 
port... with  respect  to  the  sale  and  distribution  of  milk 
products.     74th  Cong.,  2d  sess.,  H.  Doc.  451,  103  p. 
1936.     173  F32Mi 

Milk  distribution,  prices  of  milk  and  cheese,  activities 
of  distributors,  and  of  farmers'  cooperatives. 

159.  U.  S.  FEDERAL  TRADE  COMMISSION.     Report- 
on  the  sale  and  distribution  of  milk  and  milk  products. 
Letter  transmitting  an  interim  report.     74th  Cong.,  2d 
sess.,H.  Doc.  387,  125  p.     1936.     173  F32Mi 

Discusses  the  determination  of  prices  to  milk  producers, 
investments,  costs,  and  net  profits  of  milk  distributors, 
effects  of  different  methods  of  allocating  expense  on  de- 
livery costs  of  products,  and  margins  and  costs  per  unit. 


160.  U.  S.  FEDERAL  TRADE  COMMISSION.     Report... 
on  the  sale  and  distribution  of  milk  and  milk  products, 
Twin  City  sales  area.    Letter  from  the  Chairman...  trans- 
mitting an  interim  report...  with  respect  to  the  sale  and 
distribution  of  milk  and  milk  products  in  pursuance  of  H. 
Con.  Res.  32,  73rd  Cong.,  2d  sess.,  adopted  June  15,  1934. 
74th  Cong.,  2d  sess.  H.  Doc.  506,  71  p.     1936.     173  F32Mi 

Deals  with  milk  distributors,  health  regulations,  the 
Twin  City  Milk  Producers  Association,  and  milk  prices  in 
the  area. 

161.  VAN  BUSKIRK,  M.  G.  Illinois  cheesemakers  have 
unified  quality  drive.  Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  27(15): 
27-29.     Aug.  10,  1936.     286.85  B98Bu 

Rules  and  regulations  of  the  Illinois  Cheese  Manufactur- 
ers Association  leading  to  the  production  of  higher  quality 
cheese. 

162.  VARNEY,  H.  R.  Transportation  of  milk  and  cream 
to  the  New  York  market.  N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt.  Sta. 
B.  655,  79  p.     1936.     100  N48C 

Discusses  and  compares  the  costs  of  transportation  of 
milk  by  different  methods.    For  distances  greater  than 
200  miles,  railroads  appear  to  offer  more  economical 
transportation  than  motor  trucks. 

163.  WAITE,  W.  C.     Research  in  the  consumption  and 
demand  for  milk.     J.  Farm  Econ.  18:  330-337.     May 
1936.     280.8  J822 

Needed  research  in  milk. 

164.  WATSON,  J.     Fluid  milk  market  stabilization  for 
the  Bay  region.     Calif.  Dept.  Agr.  Monthly  B.  25:  101-106. 
Mar.  1936.     2  C12M 

Discusses  milk  marketing  conditions  peculiar  to  this  re- 
gion and  shows  what  voluntary  and  State  action  has  been 
taken  in  attempts  to  alleviate  them. 

165.  WEST  VIRGINIA.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.  Milk 
testing  requirements.     Charleston,  1936.     32  p.     44  W525 

The  milk  testing  law,  passed  Mar.  6,  1931,  was  designed 
to  regulate  the  weighing  and  testing,  buying  and  selling  of 
milk  and  cream,  and  to  assure  to  producers  correct 
weights  and  tests  for  deliveries.    Procedures  set  up  for 
carrying  out  provisions  of  the  law  are  given. 

166.  WHITE,  E.  D.,  and  GREGG,  V.  L.     Grading  and 
marketing  sour  cream.     Ark.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  C.  314,. rev., 
7  p.     June  1936.     275.29  Ar4 

Presents  various  methods  of  grading  and  marketing 
cream  to  serve  as  a  guide  in  improving  the  average  grade. 

167.  WILSON,  G.  S.     The  grading  of  raw  milk  on  the 
basis  of  bacterial  cleanliness.     Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk 
Dealers.  Lab.  Sect.  Proc.  29:  11-20.     1936.     44.9  In8 

Recommends  the  use  of  the  modified  methylene  blue  re- 
duction test  for  this  purpose. 

168.  WILSON,  G.  S.     Milk:  but  what  milk?     Spectator 
157:  782,  784.     Oct.  30,  1936.     110  Sp3 

Discusses  the  different  grades  of  milk  sold  in  Great 
Britain. 
Discussion,  p.  813-814,  922.    Nov.  6,  20,  1936. 

169.  WINKLER,  W.,  GRIMMER,  W.,  and  WEIGMANN,  H. 
Handbuch  der  milchwirtschaft.     Wien,  Springer,  1936. 

3  v.     Ref.     44  W725H 

In  Bd.  3,  t.  2.  is  included  information  on  the  status  of 
the  industry,  organization,  quality  improvement  and  con- 
trol, regulation,  public  relations,  standards,  prices,  and 
commerce  and  trade,  for  the  principal  countries  of  the 
world. 

170.  WRIGHT,  K.  T.,  and  BALTZER,  A.  C.  Dairy  costs 
and  returns  in  Michigan.  Mich.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Q.  B.  19 
(2):  75-81.     Nov.  1936.     100  M58S 

Dairy  costs  and  returns,  1932-1936;  dairy  costs  and  re- 
turns per  unit  of  product,  relation  of  production  per  cow 
to  costs  and  returns,  influence  of  feeding  efficiency  on 
dairy  costs,  and  costs  of  operating  milking  machines, 
1935-1936;  seasonal  variations  in  dairy  costs  and  returns. 

171.  WRIGHT,  K.  T.,  and  BALTZER,  A.  C.     Dairy  costs 
and  returns  1935-36.     Mich.  State  Col.  Agr.  Ext.  F.  M., 
177,  18  p.     Aug.  1936.     275.29  M581 

Dairy  cost  records  were  kept  on  148  Michigan  herds 
in  cooperation  with  the  Dairy  and  Farm  Management 
Departments  during  the  1935/36  testing  year. 


12 


172.  WRIGHT,  N.  C.     An  inquiry  into  the  drinking  habits 
of  children  of  school  age,  with  special  reference  to  milk 
drinking.     Glasgow  U.  Hannah  Dairy  Res.  Inst.  B.  7,  50  p. 
1936.     44.9  H19B 

This  inquiry  covers  nearly  14,000  school  children  in 
Glasgow  and  the  rural  and  urban  districts  of  Ayrshire. 
Results  show  that  more  than  half  of  the  children  did  not 
drink  milk  at  all,  while  of  the  remainder  about  two-thirds 
took  it  only  once  a  day.     The  effect  of  the  milk-schools 
scheme  has  been  practically  to  double  the  frequency  of 
milk  drinking  among  school  children. 


173.  YALE,  M.  W.,  and  BREED,  R.  S.     Comparative 
fairness  of  single  can  and  weigh  vat  samples  of  milk  for 
bacterial  counts  as  a  basis  of  premium  payments  to 
Grade  A  dairymen.     N.  Y.  State  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  673, 
22  p.     July  1936.     100  N48 

A  study  of  the  methods  and  the  results  obtained.    Eleven 
hundred  samples  were  collected  from  178  dairies  at 
three  grade  A  plants  at  Cortland  and  Homer,  N.  Y.,  in 
Dec.  1934.    In  a  second  study  in  Apr.  1935,  197  samples 
were  taken  from  49  dairies  at  one  of  these  plants. 


1937 


174.  ABELE,  C.  A.  Milk  control  in  small  communities 
on  a  mandatory  versus  a  voluntary  basis.  Internatl.  As- 
soc. Milk  Sanit.  Ann.  Rpt.  1936:  382-390.     1937. 

44.9  In89 

Advantages  of  a  policy  of  encouraging  voluntary  pro- 
duction of  grade  A  milk  over  mandatory  compliance  with 
milk  regulations  are:  (1)  Competition  forces  more  produc- 
er-distributors to  produce  grade  A  milk;  (2)  appeal   to  the 
courts  and  pressure  upon  municipal  authorities  are  not 
necessary;  (3)  the  health  officer  is  in  a  more  tenable  posi- 
tion with  respect  to  the  control  of  commercial  and  neigh- 
borhood milk. 
Discussion,  p.  390-391. 

175.  AKTIEBOLAGET  ALKA.     Die  Alkamaschinen.     In- 
ternatl. Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  374-375. 
44.9  In8211 

Discusses  the  advantages  of  the  Alka  milk  bottle  sealing 
machines  made  in  Sweden. 

176.  AMERICAN  CHAMBER  OF  COMMERCE  IN 
FRANCE,  INC.     [A  booklet  about  cheeses].     Paris? 
1937?     16  p.     44  Am332 

Contains  outline  of  French  cheese  regulations  and  de- 
scribes various  cheeses  produced. 

177.  AMERICAN  MUNICIPAL  ASSOCIATION.     Milk  con- 
trol. Government  regulation  of  the  dairy  industry  in  the 
United  States.     Pub.  Admin.  Serv.  P.  57A,  49  p.     1937. 
280.9  P96 

Summary  and  conclusions  in  Milk  Plant  Monthly  27:  52- 
54.     Jan.  1938.     44.3  C864 

Outlines  steps  taken  by  various  governmental  agencies 
to  control  milk  production  and  distribution.     The  success 
of  these  efforts  is  measured  by  the  increased  consump- 
tion of  milk  and  the  comparative  safety  of  the  milk  supply, 
although  outbreaks  of  milkborne  diseases  are  still  fre- 
quent. 

178.  ANDERSON,  H.  B.  How  to  process  surplus  milk 
profitably  in  the  small  dairy  plant.  Milk  Plant  Monthly 
26(9):  46,  48.     Sept.  1937.     44.8  C864 

Disposing  of  surplus  milk  in  the  form  of  butter,  cottage 
cheese,  and  buttermilk  is  the  method  recommended,  al- 
though it  requires  an  added  investment  for  equipment. 

179.  ANDES,  J.  Problems  in  the  basic -surplus  plan  in 
the  Philadelphia  milk  shed.  Philadelphia,  1937.  166  p. 
Ref.     281.344  An2 

Thesis  (Ph.D)  -  University  of  Pennsylvania. 

Factors  that  determine  the  price  of  milk  under  unre- 
stricted competition  are  analyzed  and  the  need  and  reasons 
for  artificial  control  over  production  are  shown.    The 
basic -surplus,  or  base-rating,  plan  is  stated  to  be  one 
which  distributes  to  producers  the  proceeds  from  the  sale 
of  milk  at  various  prices  according  to  the  market  value  of 
the  milk  contributed  by  each  dairyman.    Development  and 
operation  of  the  plan  in  Philadelphia  are  treated  in  detail 
and  objections  to  the  plan  are  noted. 

180.  ASHBY,  A.  W.,  and  PHILLIPS,  J.  R.  E.     The 
Southern  region  under  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  1933- 
36.     Berkshire  Farmers'  Ybk.  1937:  51-52,  54,  56-59. 
1937.     10  B45 

If  this  region  could  be  controlled  as  a  self-contained 
market  under  the  powers  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Board  it 
would  have  considerable  advantages:  it  has  a  relatively 
high  proportion  of  total  yearly  sales  in  the  winter  months 
and  of  liquid  sales,  and  its  manufacturing  milk  has  a  rela- 
tively high  value. 


181.  BABBITT,  M.     Reid's  centermould  package  tells  a 
sales  story.     Ice  Cream  Rev.  20(11):  28-30.    June  1937. 
389.8  Ic22 

The  first  container  in  the  ice  cream  field  to  make  use  of 
the  open  window  carton  is  described. 

182.  BACCHETTI,  S.     Les  differentes  systemes  d' or- 
ganisation de  l'industrie  laitiere.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  86-91.     44.9  In8211 

Presents  data  on  the  production  of  milk  and  cheese  in 
Italy.    Three-fourths  of  the  dairies  are  small  private  en- 
terprises and  one -fourth  cooperative. 

183.  BACON,  L.  B.,  andCASSELS,  J.  M.    The  milk  supply 
of  Paris,  Rome  and  Berlin.     Q.  J.  Econ.  51:  626-648. 
Aug.  1937.     280.8  Q2 

A  study  of  price  and  sanitation  regulation  of  milk  in  the 
markets  of  these  three  cities.    The  Rome  and  Paris  mar- 
kets were  visited  personally  for  the  purpose  of  the  col- 
lection of  data. 

184.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Distribution  of  milk  through 
stores  and  depots.     111.  Farm  Econ.  24/25:  116-119. 
May /June  1937.     275.28  IL15 

Includes  data  on  costs  of  such  distribution  in  Boston, 
Mass.,  and  Danville,  HI. 

185.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.,  and  CASKEY,  W.  F.     Milk 
transportation  problems  in  the  Si.  Louis  milkshed,  with 
suggested  solutions.     TJ.1.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  430:  423-470. 
1937.     100  IL6S 

This  analysis,  "indicates  that  substantial  savings  to 
producers,  better  pay  to  haulers,  and  more  efficient  serv- 
ice to  distributor  and  to  consumer  can  be  developed  in 
this  area  by  certain  changes  in  present  practices."    Three 
major  adjustments  are  suggested:  1,  Rearrangement  of 
hauling  routes,  so  as  to  reduce  milage  and  increase  vol- 
ume per  load;  2,  Marketing  more  milk  through  country 
plants;  and  3,  Narrowing  the  seasonal  variations  in  milk 
production. 

186.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     The  relation  oi  international 
trade  agreements  to  incomes  of  dairy  producers.     111. 
Farm  Econ.  20/21:  93-97.     Jan./Feb.  1937.     275.28  IL5 

Includes  not  only  the  direct  effects  of  increased  impor- 
tation of  dairy  products,  but  also  indirect  effects  which 
result  from  an  increase  in  foreign  trade. 

187.  BAUER,  H.     Die  bestimmungen  iiber  die  milch- 
pasteurisierung  in  Deutschland  und  deren  uberwachung. 
Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  307-310. 
44.9  In8211 

Reviews  regulations  pertaining  to  the  use  of  pasteuriza- 
tion methods  and  equipment,  and  to  licensing  and  supervi- 
sory aspects. 

188.  BELL,  E.  W.     Three  years  under  Federal  milk  con- 
trol.    Mass.  U.  Agr.  Ext.  Farm  Facts  10(5):  1-2.     May- 
June  1937.     275.29  M381Fa 

Price  regulation  under  the  milk  license  signed  March 
1934  by  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture  establishing  Federal 
milk  licenses  in  New  Bedford  and  Fall  River,  Mass. 

189.  BELLI  R.  W.  Extent  of  production  of  casein  of  dif- 
ferent types  and  of  casein  whey  in  the  United  States. 

U.  S.  Bur.  Dairy  Indus.  B.D.I.M.  747,  3  p.     Mar.  1937. 
1.9  D14Ex 

Estimated  quantities  of  skim  milk  used  and  whey  pro- 
duced in  the  manufacture  of  casein  during  the  calendar 
year  1934,  are  noted. 


13 


190.  BENDDCEN,  H.  C,  and  others.     The  milk  problem- 
a  critical  study  of  its  nutritional,  hygienic,  economic  and 
social  aspects.     League  of  Nations  Health  Organ.  B. 6: 
371-504.    June  1937.     Ref.     449.8  L47 

G.  J.  Blink,  J.  C.  Drummond,  A.  M.  Leroy,  and  G.  S. 
Wilson,  joint  authors. 

Considers  dairy  herd  management  in  relation  to  the  nu- 
tritive value  and  production  of  milk;  milk  quality  and  sani- 
tation, including  their  regulation;  and  production  costs. 
Consumption  and  distribution  of  milk  and  measures  adopt- 
ed in  different  countries  to  counteract  the  effects  of  the 
economic  depression  on  the  dairy  industry  are  discussed. 

191.  BERLIN.  INSTITUT  FUR  KONJUNKTURFOR- 
SCHUNG.    Problems  of  milk  utilization.    Berlin.  Inst.  f. 
Konjunkturforsch.  Weekly  Rpt.  Sup.,  4  p.     Aug.  25,  1937. 
280.9  B45We 

"Without  basic  changes  in  the  German  nourishment  it  is 
impossible  to  prevent  fully  the  use  of  separated  milk  as 
fodder  and  maintain  it  solely  for  human  nourishment. 
However,  a  limited  expansion,  even  a  trebling  of  the  pres- 
ent human  consumption  of  separated  milk  is  possible, 
without  causing  disadvantages  in  the  supply  of  pork  and 
lard,  especially  since  milk  production  is  to  be  increased. 
In  this  increased  consumption  of  separated  milk  (in  the 
form  of  fresh  milk,  or  mixed  milk  drinks --adding  fruit  or 
fruit  juices — dry  milk,  cottage  cheese  or  protein  cheese) 
the  consumer  would  receive  a. cheap  and  highly  nutritive 
protein.    This  would  make  possible,  especially  in  the 
poorer  classes,  a  favorable  distribution  of  the  protein 
necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  the  public  health." 

192.  BERTRAND,  R.     Le  corporatisme  agricole  et 

1' organisation  des  marches  en  Allemagne.     Paris,  Li- 
brairie  GGn6rale  de  Droit  et  de  Jurisprudence,  1937. 
349  p.      280.3  B462 

Ch.  4  includes  a  subsection,  "Le  marche  du  lait," 
p.  255-269,  which  discusses  the  organization  of  the  Ger- 
man milk  trade  and  price  plans  in  operation  there. 

193.  BITZAN,  R.     Der  einfluss  wirtschaftseigener  fut- 
terung  auf  die  rentabilit'at  der  milcherzeugung  in  ge- 
birgslagen. .    Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11 
(1):  94-101.     44.9  In8211 

A  survey  on  the  general  conditions  of  production  in  the 
tiairy  district  of  the  Styrian  Enns  Valley,  based  entirely 
on  home-grown  feeds.    Shows  that  it  is  always  possible  to 
change  the  extensive  system  of  dairy  farming  into  a  more 
intensive  one.    Prices  are  of  particular  importance  in 
this  respect,  since  the  costs  of  production  must  be  cov- 
ered and  a  profit  secured  to  the  farmer. 

194.  BLANrORD,  C.  J.  Competition  among  dealers  in 
the  delivery  of  milk  in  New  York  City.  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col. 
Farm  Econ.  99:  2427-2428.     Feb.  1937.     280.8  C812 

Measures  the  amount  of  duplication  in  the  delivery  of 
milk  to  families  in  apartment  houses  and  to  stores  and 
other  wholesale  customers. 

195.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.      Factors  affecting  size  of  loads 
on  retail  milk  delivery  routes  in  New  York  City.     N.  Y. 
Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  101:  2484-2486.     May  1937. 
280.8  C812 

Material  from  a  study  of  ccsts  of  selling  and  delivering 
milk  in  New  York  City,  based  on  data  collected  in  1933 
under  the  supervision  of  Dr.  Leland  Spencer  for  the  Divi- 
sion of  Milk  Control,  New  York  Department  of  Agricul- 
ture and  Markets.    The  amount  of  milk  and  other  products 
taken  per  customer,  the  number  of  customers  per  mile  of 
route,  and  the  number  of  flights  of  stairs  climbed  in  serv- 
ing a  given  number  of  customers  are  among  the  subjects 
studied. 

196.  BOND,  G.  E.,  and  HITCHCOCK,  J.  A.     Studies  in 
Vermont  dairy  farming;  feed  as  a  cost  of  milk  production. 
Vt.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  421,  38  p.     May  1937.      100  V59 

Feed  and  labor,  respectively,  were  the  two  largest  items 
of  cost  in  milk  production  in  the  Lake  Champlain  Valley  in 
western  Vermont,  according  to  a  survey  of  452  dairy 
farms  for  the  year  ending  March  31,  1933.  Variations  in 
the  cost  of  feeding  the  dairy  herds  are  studied  in  relation 
to  the  cost  of  milk  production.  Data  are  included  on  feed- 
ing practices  as  they  bear  on  milk  production  itself. 


197    BRABANT,  VAN.     Le  controle  des  beurres  beiges. 
Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  310-314. 
44.9  In8211  ,       j      „_ 

Describes  the  system  of  butter  quality  control  under  the 
Union  Nationale  des  Laiteries  Beiges. 

198.  BREED,  R.  S.     Conference  on  sanitation  of  paper 
milk  containers.     Milk  Sanit.  6(9):  11-13.     Sept.  1937. 
44.8  M5929 

Report  of  conference  held  at  the  New  York  Agricultural 
Experiment  Station  on  July  12,  1937.    A  statement  of  the 
principles  of  sanitation  to  be  observed  in  the  manufacture 
and  use  of  paper  containers,  as  revised  at  the  conference, 
is  given. 

199.  BREMER,  K.     Die  sozialen  leistungen  und  aufgaben 
der  milchwirtschaftlichen  marktordnung.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  19-23.     44.9  In8211 

Measures  benefits  accruing  from  the  program  to  the 
producer,  distributor,  and  consumer. 

200.  BRONSON,  W.  H.     Problems  of  milk  marketing 
regulation.     Internatl.  Conf.  Agr.  Econ.  Proc.  (1936):  297- 
307.      1937.      281.9  In82 

Shows  the  need  for  regulation,  and  discusses  Federal 
and  State  control  and  price  systems,  with  specific  refer- 
ence to  the  Boston  market. 

Discussion,  p.  307-321. 

201.  BROWN,  A.  J.     Premiums  for  high-quality  cream 
and  butter.     111.  Farm  Econ.  24/25:  115-116.     May /June 
1937.      275.28  IL5 

Deals  with  premium -payment  for  high  quality  cream  and 
butter  in  Minnesota  and  surrounding  states;  with  the  es- 
tablishment in  Oregon  and  California  of  a  system  of  con- 
sumer's grades  under  state  inspection;  and  with  the  price 
spread  of  butter  on  the  Chicago  and  San  Francisco  mar- 
kets with  reference  to  butter  score. 

202.  BUNDESEN,  H.  N.     Chicago's  milk  supply -what 
does  it  mean?     Amer.  Vet.  Med.  Assoc.  J.  90:  419-424. 
Mar.  1937.     41.8  Am3 

-  Steps  essential  to  a  well-developed  milk  control  program 
are  discussed.    The  legal  basis  for  such  a  program  in 
Chicago  is  the  Mayor  Kelly  Milk  Ordinance,  patterned 
after  the  Standard  Milk  Ordinance  and  Code  of  the  U.  S. 
Public  Health  Service,  and  passed  in  1935.    Some  of  the 
questions  that  have  been  raised  in  connection  with  the 
adoption  and  enforcement  of  the  Code  are  considered. 

203.  BUNDESEN,  H.  N.     Inaugurating  grade  A  pasteur- 
i7ed  milk  in  the  city  of  Chicago.     Amer.  J.  Pub.  Health 
27:  680-684.    July  1937.     449.9  Am3J 

Read  before  the  Public  Health  Engineering  Section  of  the 
American  Public  Health  Association,  New  Orleans, 
Oct.  22,  1936. 

The  U.  S.  Public  Health  Service  ordinance  was  adopted. 
Methods  of  enforcing  it  are  brought  out. 

204.  BURLINGAME,  B.  B„,  and  FLEMING,  W.  C.     Dairy 
management  study.  4th  annual  report,  San  Joaquin  County. 
Berkeley,  Calif.  U.,  Agr.  Ext.  Serv.,  1937.     12  p. 
275.29  C12En 

In  cooperation  with  the  Dairy  Department,  San  Joaquin 
County  Farm  Bureau. 

Management  records  of  16  dairy  farms  for  the  year 
ending  September  30,  1936,  are  summarized.    Eight  of 
these  produced  milk  which  was  sold  as  creamery  milk. 
Milk  produced  by  the  other  eight  was  sold  as  market  milk. 
Gross  returns,  average  total  income  and  expense  per  cow, 
average  investment  oer  cow,  and  average  net  cost  of  pro- 
ducing a  pound  of  butterfat  are  discussed  and  shown  in 
tables. 

205.  CALIFORNIA.  UNIVERSITY.  COLLEGE  OF  AGRI- 
CULTURE. AGRICULTURAL  EXTENSION  SERVICE.     A 
comparison  of  spring  and  fall  freshening  of  dairy  cows,  by 
W.  Sullivan.     Berkeley,  1937.      13  p.     275.2  C12Cs 

U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  cooperating. 
Difference  in  cash  income  from  the  sale  of  dairy  prod- 
ucts from  these  cows. 


14 


200.  CANADA.  DOMINION  BUR.  OF  STATISTICS.  AGRI- 
CULTURAL BR.     The  dairy  situation  in  Canada,  Dec- 
May,  1936-1937.     Canada.  Bur.  Statis.  Agr.  Br.  (ser.  4) 
Rpt.  1,  30  p.     1937.      281.3449  C163 

Reviews  weather  and  pasture  conditions,  milk  cow  num- 
bers and  milk  production  by  provinces,  as  well  as  agen- 
eral  analysis  of  the  butter  and  cheese  position,  the  6ro- 
duction  and  stocks  of  concentrated  milk,  and  the  prices  of 
dairy  products. 

207.  CAPSTICK,  E.     Utilization  of  buttermilk  and  whey 
in  England.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wis.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2): 
261-265.     44.9In8211 

Discusses  the  disposal  of  buttermilk  and  whey  on  the 
farm  and  by  creameries.    Attempts  are  being  made  to  de- 
velop markets  for  the  dried  products.    Specialized  whey 
foods  are  appearing,  and  a  considerable  quantity  is  going 
into  balanced  cattle  feed. 

208.  CASSELS,  J.  M.     A  study  of  fluid  milk  prices. 
Harvard  Econ.  Studies  54,  303  p.     1937.     Ref. 
284.344  C27 

Deals  with  factors  affecting  supply  and  demand;  price 
plans  and  bargaining  methods;  consumption  of  milk  and 
milk  products;  dealers  margins  and  chain-store  differen- 
tials; transportation  rates  and  services;  production  re- 
sponses; market  areas  and  product  zones;  and  a  case 
study  of  Boston-New  York  price  relations. 

209.  CHAIN  store  tax  and  Wisconsin's  dairy  industry. 
Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28(12):  32.  June  25,  1937. 
286.85  B98Bu 

The  proposed  bill  would  impose  a  graduated  tax,  based 
not  upon  the  number  of  stores  in  the  State,  but  upon  the 
number  operated  elsewhere  in  the  United  States.    Passage 
of  the  chain-store  tax  bill  is  opposed,  as  it  would  force 
many  stores  in  Wisconsin  to  close  and  cause  chain  organi- 
zations to  turn  to  other  dairy  States  for  their  supplies  of 
dairy  products. 

210.  CHIPLETS  present  new  idea  in  butter  packaging. 
Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  23(22):  14.  Nov.  25,  1937. 
286.85  B98Bu 

"Chiplets"  are  butter  ready-cut  in  neat  convenient 
squares  and  packed  in  two  layers  in  an  attractive  carton. 
Use  of  "chiplets"  eliminates  waste  and  results  in  savings 
to  the  housewife  of  as  much  as  15  percent  on  butter  bills. 

211.  CLAUSEN,  P.     Die  verwertung  iiberschussiger 
milch  unter  berucksichtigung  der  herstellung  von  milch- 
dauerwaren.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wis.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(2):  233-237.     44.9  In8211 

The  question  of  disposal  of  surplus  milk  partly  resolves 
itself  into  one  of  the  utilization  of  protein.    The  German 
evaporated  milk  industry  is  potentially  in  a  position  to 
absorb  this  surplus.    Efforts  are  being  made  to  introduce 
into  households  greater  quantities  of  milk  products  with 
high  protein  content. 

212.  CLAUSS,  W.  Einfiihrung  milchwirtschaftlicher 
markenerzeugnisse  in  Deutschland.  Internatl.  Dairy 
Cong.  Wis.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  330-335.     44.9  In8211 

In  1934  designations  of  quality  butter  were  combined 
into  the  "Deutsche  Markenbutter"  and  the  right  of  using 
and  conferring  it  was  granted  to  the  German  dairy  asso- 
ciations.   Discusses  the  German  milk  law  of  the  same 
year  and  its  applications. 

213.  CLAUSS,  W.  Entwicklung  der  Reichspriifung  fur 
milch  und  milcherzeugnisse  in  Deutschland.  Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wis.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  324-330.     44.9  In8211 

Shows  progress  toward  standardization. 

214.  CLEMENT,  C.  E.     Country  milk-receiving  and 
cooling  stations.     U.  S.  D.  A.  C.  432,  59  p.     June  1937, 
1  Ag84C 

Compares  use  of  country  stations  with  direct  shipment; 
describes  factors  affecting  the  choice  of  location  of  a 
station;  discusses  quantities  of  milk  handled,  seasonal 
variations,  time  consumed  in  transporting  milk  to  city 
markets,  relation  of  volume  handled  to  investment,  and 
factors  affecting  operating  costs. 


215.  CLEMENT,  F.  M.  How  the  Natural  Products  Mar- 
keting Act  operates  in  British  Columbia.  Internatl.  Conf. 
Agr.  Econ.  Proc.  (1936)  4:  342-355.     1937.     281.9  In82 

Discusses  in  part  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme  of  the 
Lower  Mainland. 

216.  CLERKIN,  P.,  and  HOUSTON,  J.     The  laboratory 
control  of  Northern  Ireland's  milk  supply.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wis.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  335-338.     44.9  In8211 

Deals  in  part  with  the  Milk  and  Milk  Products  Act  of 
1934  and  includes  information  on  grades  and  grading. 

217.  COFFEE  cream  in  sealed  bottles;  restaurant  chain 
finds  system  cuts  spilling  loss,  aids  control.     Milk  Dealer 
27(2):  41.     Nov.  1937.     44.8  M595 

Also  in  Milk  Plant  Monthly  28:  27.     Nov.  1937. 
44.8  C864 

Individual  sealed  containers  capped  with  an  aluminum 
hood  which  entirely  covers  the  pouring  edge  and  thus  pro- 
tects it  against  dirt,  dust  and  handling  contamination. 

218.  COMMISSIONER  Ten  Eyck's  suggestions.  Amer. 
Creamery  83(20):  733.     Mar.  17,  1937.     286.85  N482 

Twenty-three  specific  recommendations  made  by  the 
Commissioner  of  Agriculture,  New  York  State,  to  the 
Joint  Legislative  Committee  for  the  Study  of  Milk  Control. 
Emphasis  is  placed  upon  greater  cooperation  between  pro- 
ducers as  a  class  and  dealers  as  a  class  in  the  marketing 
of  milk,  and  upon  some  means  of  placing  the  regulation  of 
interstate  shipments  of  milk  upon  the  same  basis  as  a 
regulation  of  intrastate  shipments  into  the  New  York-New 
Jersey  marketing  area. 

219.  CONNECTICUT  MILK  MARKETING  PROGRAM 
COMMITTEE.     Plans  for  marketing  fluid  milk;  recom- 
mendations.    Hoard's  Dairyman  82:  3,  23.     Jan.  10,  1937. 

44.8  H65 

Recommendations  include  establishing  quotas  for  each 
producer,  informing  parties  affected  of  the  quotas  so  al- 
lotted, and  having  distributors  inform  their  customers  that 
the  milk  they  distribute  is  purchased  from  Connecticut 
producers. 

220.  CONNECTICUT  MILK  MARKETING  PROGRAM 
COMMITTEE.     Principles  in  milk  marketing.  Report. 
Hoard's  Dairyman  82:  35,  59.     Jan.  25,  1937.     44.8  H65 

Concludes  that  a  more  equitable  distribution  of  the  bur- 
den of  the  surplus  must  be  made;  that  production  of  milk 
sold  in  Classes  3  and  4  is  now  carried  on  at  prices  far 
below  the  cost  of  production  and  must  be  discouraged; 
that  the  price  of  fluid  milk  must  be  adjusted  from  time  to 
time;  and  that  the  price  per  point  for  butter-fat  content 
must  be  raised  to  fair  production  costs. 

221.  CORBETT,  R.  B.     Milk  inspection  in  New  England. 
Boston,  New  England  Res.  Council  on  Mktg,  and  Food 
Supply,  1937.     26  p.      280,344  C814 

Covers  for  1935  the  relationships  between  the  milk  in- 
spection work  of  State  departments  and  that  of  towns  and 
cities  with  1,000  or  more  persons,  according  to  the  1930 
census,  and  describes  the  work  of  each  as  separate 
groups. 

222.  CORBETT,  R,  3.     Milk  insepction  in  the  health  dis- 
tricts of  Massachusetts.     Boston,  New  England  Res. 
Council  on  Mktg.  and  Food  Supply,  1937.      15  p. 

280.344  C814M 

Considers  the  organization  and  administration  of  the 
program  and  finds  that  it  has  improved  milk  standards  in 
the  area. 

223.  CRAIG,  G.  H.,  I  ROSKIE,  J.,  and  WOOD,  V.  A.  The 
production  of  fluid  milk  in  the  Edmonton  and  Calgary  milk 
sheds.     Sci.  Agr.  17:  401-419.     Mar.  1937.     7  Sci2 

Reviews  the  physical  features  and  population  of  the  two 
regions,  examines  the  economic  factors  of  production  in 
their  farm  management  relationships.    Points  out  various 
cost,  price  and  profit  considerations. 

224.  CRAZANNES,  C.  DE.  Les  differentes  organisa- 
tions laitieres;  entreprises  privees— societes  coopera-. 
tives-  leurs  avantages— leurs  inconvenients.  Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  102-110. 

44.9  In8211 

Includes  data  on  the  utilization  of  milk  and  milk  products, 
and  discusses  existing  forms  of  dairy  enterprise  in 
France. 


15 


225.  CRIPPS,  J.     The  cost  of  milk  rounds  in  relation  to 
their  density  and  the  type  of  area  served*     Farm  Econ. 
2(6):  103-107.     Apr.  1937.     281.8  F223 

A  survey  of  an  English  midland  town  (population 
75,000-100,000)  indicates  that  considerable  reductions  in 
the  cost  of  milk  rounds  would  be  possible  with  the  elimi- 
nation of  overlapping  and  the  unification  of  the  distribut- 
ing agencies. 

226.  CULVER,  D.  C.     An  analysis  of  state  milk  control 
laws.     Calif.  U.  Bur.  Pub.  Admin.  Leg.  Prob.  1,  25  p. 
Jan.  4,  1937.     280  C1222 

A  study  of  the  composition  of  administering  boards,  the 
powers  of  boards,  prices,  license  fees,  records,  funds, 
appeals  and  penalties,  and  the  protection  of  producers. 

Emergency  measures  authorizing  the  establishment  of 
control  boards  for  the  milk  industry  were  enacted  by  21 
states  between  1933  and  1936.    Most  of  these  laws  were 
designed  to  insure  a  stable  supply  of  milk  at  prices  fair  to 
consumer  and  producer.    The  U.  S.  Supreme  Court  and  the 
highest  courts  of  several  States  have  upheld  the  constitu- 
tionality of  milk  control  laws. 

227.  CUMBER,  W.  J.     T.  T.  milk  handicap.     Farmer  & 
Stock-Breeder  51:  2688.     Nov.  9,  1937.     10  F228 

To  increase  the  production  of  tuberculin-tested  milk, 
an  order  has  been  issued  by  the  British  Ministry  of  Agri- 
culture which  provides  for  a  payment  of  4  d.  per  gallon 
for  this  milk  above  the  price  for  other  milk. 

228.  CUNNINGHAM,  L.  C.     Milk  marketing.     N.  Y.  Agr. 
Col.  A.  E.  151,  16  p.     Jan.  1937.     281.9  C81 

Lists  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the  classified 
price  plan,  and  gives  strong  and  weak  points  of  state  milk 
control. 

229.  DAHLE,  C.  D.,  and  JOSEPHSON,  D.  V.     Improving 
the  keeping  quality  of  butter  with  treated  parchment. 
Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28(14):  6-7.     Ref.     July  25, 
1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

Results  of  experiments  on  butter  wrapped  in  untreated 
and  oat-flour  (Avenex)  treated  parchment  and  stored  at 
different  temperatures.    From  the  study  it  is  apparent 
that  Avenex-treated  parchment  has  a  beneficial  effect  in 
retarding  flavor  defects. 

230.  DALLA  TORRE,  G.     Amelioration  de  la  qualite  du 
lait  et  des  produits  laitiers.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss. 
Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  452-456.     44.9  In8211 

Includes  reference  to  Government  regulations  and  organi- 
zational efforts  for  milk  control  in  Italy. 

231.  DIETRICH,  F.  J.  M.     Die  schmelzkaserei  und  ihre 
bedeutung  in  der  modernen  milchindustrie.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  4-7.     44.9  In8211 

Finds  that  the  surplus  milk  problem  could  be  alleviated 
with  the  production  of  more  processed  cheese. 

232.  DISCUSS  standardizing  acidity  of  ice  cream  mixes. 
Ice  Cream  Rev.  20(3):  123.     Mar.  1937.     389.8  Ic22 

Brief  report  of  the  Dairy  Manufacturing  Short  Course 
held  at  Oklahoma  A.  and  M.  College,  February  15,  1937. 
Comments  of  W.  V.  Maddox  on  standardizing  acidity  of 
ice  cream  mixes  and  of  Dr.  R.  C.  Ross  on  ice  cream- 
ordinances  for  cities,  are  included. 

233.  DLXEY,  R.  N.  Tuberculin-tested  milk;  a  study  of 
re-organization  for  its  production.  Oxford,  Agr.  Econ. 
Res.  Inst.,  1937.     Ill  p.     44  D64 

Includes  components  of  the  total  costs  of  a  clean  herd. 

234.  DOWNS,  P.  A.  Judging  quality  in  dairy  products. 
Nebr.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  C.  54,  44  p.     Feb.  1937.     100  N27 

Procedures,  involving  the  use  of  score  cards,  for  judging 
milk,  cream,  butter,  cheese  and  ice  cream. 

235.  DRINKER,  G.     Virginia  dairying  progresses. 
Commonwealth  4(11):  7-9.     Nov.  1937.     280.8  C732 

Shows  expansion  of  the  industry  in  the  state,  with  im- 
provements in  production,  processing  and  distribution. 


236.  DRUMMOND,  W.  M.     The  marketing  of  whole  milk. 
Canad.  J.  Econ.  and  Polit.  Sci.  3:  394-405.     Aug.  1937. 
230.8  C162 

Presented  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Canadian  Political 
Science  Association,  May  1937. 

Although  Canadian  dairy  producers  are  aware  of  the  need 
for  keeping  the  prices  of  all  dairy  products  in  line  with 
one  another,  they  feel  that  the  general  dairy  price  struc- 
ture must  be  one  in  which  equilibrium  is  established  by 
bringing  "other"  dairy  prices  in  line  with  the  present 
whole  milk  prices  rather  than  reducing  the  whole  milk 
prices  to  the  existing  competitive  level  of  the  "other" 
product  prices.    The  general  nature  of  the  price  making 
arrangements,  the  sharing  of  the  producer's  market,  and 
the  possibilities  of  narrowing  the  spread  between  farm 
and  retail  prices  is  discussed. 

237.  DUGAN,  MRS.  F.  C.     Kentucky's  milk  supply. 
Milk  Dealer  27(1):  108,  110.     Cct.  1937.     44.8  M595 

The  results  of  the  adoption  in  1925  by  the  State  Board  of 
Health  of  the  U.  S.  Public  Health  Service  specifications 
for  milk  sanitary  control. 

238.  DURYEE,  W.  H.     How  can  public  good  will  be  safe- 
guarded for  the  dairy  industry?     Milk  Plant  Monthly  26: 
30-32,  34,  36.     Feb.  1937.     44.8  C864 

Methods  for  maintaining  consumer  confidence  as  affects 
the  dairy  industry  include  improved  producer  relations, 
public  regulation,  coordination  of  the  efforts  of  milk  pro- 
motion agencies,  and  market  stabilization. 

239.  EASTLACK,  J.  O..  and  SHERWOOD,  E.  J.     Some  ob- 
servations on  grade  "A  '  milk.'    N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm 
Econ.  99:  2419-2426.     Feb.  1937.     280.8  C812 

On  January  4,  1912,  an  amendment  to  the  Health  Code 
made  by  the  New  York  City  Board  of  Health  provided  offi- 
cial recognition  of  three  grades  of  pasteurized  milk.   As  a 
result  of  numerous  conferences  held  with  producers,  a 
schedule  of  premium  payments  was  devised,  effective 
January  1,  1931,  which  substituted  for  flat  payments  a 
sliding  scale  premium  based  on  butterfat  content. 
Throughout  the  period  reviewed,  practically  two-thirds  of 
all  grade  A  milk  delivered  at  grade  A  plants  contained 
10,000  or  fewer  colonies  of  bacteria  per  cc,  thereby 
qualifying  for  first  premium.    In  every  year  almost  90 
percent  of  all  milk  contained  less  than  25,000  colonies  of 
bacteria  per  cc. 

240.  EDEL,  H.     New  method  in  figuring  standardization 
of  cream  and  milk.     Milk  Dealer  26(8):  40-41.     May  1937. 

44.8  M595 

Places  emphasis  on  standardization  of  the  fat  content  in 
milk  and  cream.    "Standardization  chart  for  a  product  of 
a  definite  fat  test  regardless  of  the  final  total  gaUonage" 
and  "Standardization  chart  for  a  definite  gallonage  of  a 
product  with  a  definite  fat  test"  are  given. 

241.  EFKES,  U.     Die  forderung  der  qualitat  bei  kase- 
erzeugnissen.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(2):  340-346.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  in  part  the  system  of  compulsory  cheese  tests, 
grading  and  standardization,  and  price  scales  in  Germany. 

242.  EHRLICH,  C.     Die  durchfuhrung  der  tierarztlic'hen 
milchuberwachung  in  trinkmilchbestanden.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  346-354. 

44.9  In8211 

Describes  raw  milk  control  practices  in  some  parts  of 
Germany. 

243.  EHRSTROM,  W.,  and  OSTERHOLM,  B.     Die  hygie- 
nische  iiberwachung  der  konsummilch  in  Helsingfors. 
Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  354-364. 
44.9  In8211 

Describes  the  farm  inspection  system. 

244.  ELEVATING  brick  cheese  by  attractive  packaging. 
Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28(19):  6-7.     Oct.  25,  1937. 
286.85  B98Bu 

The  package  is  described  and  illustrated.   It  was  devel- 
oped by  the  Winnebago  Cheese  Company,  Fond  du  Lac, 
Wis. 


16 


245.  ERTEL,  H.     1st  die  hebung  des  verbrauches  an 
milch  wegen  ihrer  bedeutung  fiir  die  volksernahrung  er- 
forderlich?     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11 
(3):  204-208.     44.9  In8211 

Effective  publicity  methods  should  be  utilized  to  promote 
increased  milk  consumption  in  view  of  its  nutritive  value. 

246.  ESCHE,  E.     Festsetzung  und  kontrolle  von  milch- 
handelsspannen.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(3):  28-32.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  the  possibilities  of  ascertaining  within  the 
scope  of  the  marketing  regulations  the  profits  obtained 
and  of  checking  the  equitableness  of  the  price  limits.  Con- 
siders that  the  fixed  trade  margins  for  milk  must  vary 
from  one  market  to  another  because  the  general  condi- 
tions of  the  milk  trade  are  not  identical. 

247.  ETLING,  J.     L'incidence  des  tarifs  de  transport 
sur  le  prix  de  vente  des  produits  agricoles  en  France. 
Paris,  Librairie  Technique  et  Economique,  1937.     106  p. 
Ref.     284.3  Et4 

Includes  data  for  milk,  batter,  and  cheese. 
Bibliography,  p.  97-104. 

248.  FABIAN,  F.  W.  Ice  cream;  regulations  and  stand- 
ards, manufacturing  methods.  Amer.  Pub.  Health  Assoc. 
Ybk.  (1936/37)  7:  53-59.      1937.     449.9  Am3Y 

Report  of  the  Committee  on  Milk  and  Dairy  Products. 
Discusses  regulations  and  standards  with  reference  to  the 
use  of  raw  products  in  ice  cream  mixes;  pasteurizing  the 
ice  cream  mix;  and  grading  ice  cream. 

Discussion  by  W.  B.  Palmer,  Chairman  of  the  Commit- 
tee, p.  59-62. 

249.  FAIRER,  J.  A.     The  administration  of  the  accredit- 
ed milk  scheme  in  Leicestershire.     Roy.  Sanit.  Inst.  J. 
57:  547-555.     Feb.  1937.     449.9  R812 

Steps  required  in  issuing  a  license  to  an  applicant  for 
accreditation  and  check-ups  practiced  are  described. 
Several  large  distributors  who  would  not  contract  for  any 
milk  unless  it  came  from  an  accredited  producer  have 
materially  aided  the  program.    A  large  increase  in  the 
number  of  such  producers  is  reported. 

Discussion,  p.  555-560. 

250.  FERRARI,  A.     L'utilisation  des  excedents  de  lait 
pour  la  fabrication  des  produits  fromagers  tels  que  le 
lait  condense,  la  poudre  de  lait,  etc.  [le  lait  sterilise  et  le 
lait  evaporel.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)   • 
11(2):  238-241.     44.9  In8211 

Includes  reference  to  the  use  of  these  products  them- 
selves. 

251.  FERRARI,  A.     Utilisation  du  lait  ecreme  et  du 
babeurre.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2): 
266-269.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  the  utilization  of  skim  milk  in  bread  and 
cheese,  and  as  a  source  of  milk  powder  and  casein;  the 
various  uses  of  the  latter  and  of  buttermilk,  whey,  and 
lactose. 

252.  FFNNERAN,  E.  J.  From  cow  to  kitchen.  Nation's 
Business  25:  24-26,  169-172.     June  1937.     286.8  N212 

The  milk  business  from  the  producer  to  the  consumer  is 
discussed  and  the  handling  of  milk  by  a  division  of  the 
National  Dairy  Products  Corporation  is  briefly  described. 
Establishment  and  work  of  the  Sealtest  System  Labora- 
tories, Inc.,  are  mentioned. 

253.  FISHER,  R.  C.     Changing  times-a  challenge  to  the 
milk  industry.     Milk  Dealer  26:  50-52.     Mar.  1937. 
44.8  M595 

Also  in  Milk  Plant  Monthly  26:  40-42.     Apr.  1937. 
44.8  C864  and  Hoard's  Dairyman  82:  210-211.     Apr.  10, 
1937.     44.8  H65 

To  keep  up  with  the  progress  in  other  industrial  fields, 
the  industry  must  reach  out  in  several  directions.    It  must 
acquaint  the  public  with  the  true  facts  about  the  fluid  milk 
industry;  work  toward  continued  better  relationships  be- 
tween itself  and  producers;  through  more  active  merchan- 
dising create  and  stimulate  a  public  appreciation  and  de- 
mand for  milk  and  milk  products;  and  develop  industry 
consciousness  and  cooperation,  intelligently  to  meet 
changing  times. 


254    FLETCHER,  C.  W.     Municipal  milk  control. 
Hoard's  Dairyman  82:  594.     Nov.  10,  1937.     44.8  H65 

Comments  on  a  proposal,  known  as  an  enabling  act, 
which  was  presented  to  the  Wisconsin  legislature  in  1935 
and  1937.    The  act,  which  failed  to  pass,  would  allow  any 
municipality  of  the  State,  upon  approval  of  the  common 
council  or  governing  body,  to  take  over  the  distribution  of 
all  fluid  milk  within  its  corporate  limits,  manufacture 
dairy  products,  and  regulate  the  price  to  the  consumers  of 
the  fluid  product. 

255.  FOSTER,  A.  H.     $40,337  saved  in  sales  cost.     Food 
Indus.  9:  18-19,  43.     Jan.  1937.     389.8  F737 

Explains  how  milk  distribution  economies  may  be  ef- 
fected by  rearranging  deliveries  and  consolidating  routes. 
The  use  of  these  methods  by  two  milk  companies  is  cited. 

253.  FOUR  hundred  million  quarts  of  vitamin  D  milk  are 
now  sold.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  26(1):  34.     Jan.  1937. 
44.8  C864 

In  1936  about  3  percent  of  the  fluid  milk  sold  in  the 
United  States  was  vitamin  D  milk.    Excerpts  from  state- 
ments of  doctors  and  other  authorities  approving  and  dis- 
approving the  use  of  this  milk  are  quoted. 

257.  FREDERICK,  J.  H.  Agricultural  markets.  New 
York,  Prentice-Hall,  1937.      289  p.     280.3  F87A 

Ch.  14,  The  milk  market,  discusses  surplus  milk,  prices, 
agencies  concerned  in  marketing  fluid  milk,  marketing 
plans,  and  alternative  markets  for  fluid  milk. 

258.  FR1BLEY,  MRS.  W.  E.  How  distributor  and  con- 
sumer can  get  together  for  great  mutual  benefit.  Milk 
Plant  Monthly  26:  32,  34,  36.     Mar.  1937.     44.8  C864 

Nine  types  of  service  are  named  which  are  requested  of 
the  distributor  by  buying  housewives.    Some  of  the  opin- 
ions of  consumers  regarding  the  dairy  industry  and  its 
products  are  discussed. 

259.  FRIETEMA,  H.  J.     Productie  en  prijsvorming  op  de 
engelsche  markt  van  Nederland.sche,  Deensche  en  kolo- 
niale  boter.  (Production  and  price  forming  on  the  English 
market  of  Dutch,  Danish  and  colonial  butter.)     Nederland. 
Econ.  Inst.  P.  22,  230  p.     Ref.     1937.     280.9  N28 

Examines  the  economic  circumstances  under  which  but- 
ter is  produced  in  the  Netherlands,  Denmark,.  New  Zea- 
land, and  Australia.    Discusses  the  demand  for  butter  and 
butter  prices  in  general,  and  the  demand  for  and  prices  of 
the  three  kinds  of  butter  in  Great  Britain. 

Bibliography,  p.  228-230.  _  . 

260.  GARRAD,  G.  H.     The  accredited  milk  scheme  in 
Kent.     Roy.  Sanit.  Inst.  J.  57:  602-612.     Mar.  1937. 
449.9  R812 

Steps  taken  to  promote  sanitary  milk  production  in  Kent 
County,  England,  and  those  leading  up  to  the  adoption  of 
the  Accredited  Milk  Scheme  are  described.    Discusses  the 
operation  of  the  scheme  in  the  county,  where  18  months 
after  its  inception  there  are  402  licensed  producers  of 
tuberculin-tested  (45)  or  accredited  (357)  milk,  represent- 
ing more  than  a  fifth  of  the  total. 

261.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.     Price  maintenance  of  manu- 
factured dairy  products  by  Government  purchases. 
Washington,  U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust.  Admin.,  1937.     6  p. 
1.94  D14Ac 

The  difference  between  a  price  maintenance  program 
and  a  program  for  the  removal  of  temporary  surpluses  is 
discussed.    Methods  used  by  the  Government  in  the  latter 
program  and  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  a  price 
maintenance  program  are  pointed  out. 

262.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.,  and  REED,  O.  M.     Some  prob- 
lems involved  in  establishing  milk  prices.     U.  S.  Agr. 
Adjust.  Admin.  Div.  of  Mktg.  and  Mktg.  Agreements. 
Mktg.  Inform.  Ser.  DM-2,  227  p.     Sept.  1937.     1.4  Ad47D 

Deals  with  trends  in  production,  farm  utilization,  pro- 
duction of  manufactured  dairy  products,  and  farm  prices 
of  dairy  products;  aspects  of  fluid  milk  markets,  includ- 
ing descriptive  material  relative  to  the  demand  for  and 
supply  of  milk;  the  development  of  the  general  theory  of 
milk  prices  (simple  markets  and  more  complex  phases  of 
milk  markets);  problems  in  pricing  milk,  and  those  en- 
countered in  prorating  among  producers  the  proceeds  of 
sales  to  distributors;  and  public  policy  and  the  milk  trade. 


17 


263.  GAUNTT,  E.  A.     The  New  Jersey  market  milk 
problem.     N.  J.  Agr.  19(3):  3.     May-June  1937. 
275.28  N46 

The  threat  of  cheaper  milk  from  outside  the  State,  over 
which  the  State  Milk  Control  Board  has  no  jurisdiction,  is 
discussed. 

264.  GAWLKOWSKI,  I.  T.     Propaganda  des  milchver- 
brauchs  unter  mitwirkung  aller  volksschichten.     Inter- 
natl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  212-217. 
44.9  In8211 

Suggests  public  relations  policy  to  increase  milk  con- 
sumption. 

265.  GENIN,  G.     La  production  mondiale  de  caseine. 
Lait  17:  605-608.     June  1937.     44.8  L143 

Uses  of  casein  for  plastics,  adhesives,  paper,  textiles, 
and  in  foods,  medicines,  and  insecticides  are  indicated, 
with  the  extent  of  casein  production  and  trade. 

266.  GERMANY.  REICHSMINISTERIUM  FUR  ERNAH- 
RUNG  UND  LANDWIRTSCHAFT.     The  present  state  of 
the  German  dairy  industry...  Compiled  by  G.  Reichart... 
Hans  Merkel...O.  Vopelius.     Kempten  i.  Allgau,  Deutsche 
Molkerei-Zeitung,  1931?     281.344  G31 

Issued  also  in  German  with  title:  Die  Deutsche  milch- 
wirtschaft  in  der  gegenwart.     281.344  G31D 
Abstract  in  Lait  18:  260-262.     Mar.  1938.     44.8  L143 
Prepared  for  the  use  of  dairy  experts  who  took  part  in 
the  11th  World's  Dairy  Congress.    Presents  a  compre- 
hensive survey  of  conditions  in  the  German  dairy  industry. 
Chapters  and  sections  discuss  production,  treatment,  dis- 
tribution of  milk  and  dairy  products,  organization  and 
duties  of  marketing  associations,  and  the  economic  im- 
portance of  the  dairy  industry. 

267.  GERMANY'S  milk  control.     Farmer  and  Stock- 
Breeder  51:  2276.     Sept.  21,  1937.     10  F228 

Milk  marketing  in  Germany  is  under  complete  state  con- 
trol.   Under  the  scheme  the  whole  country  is  divided  into 
18  regions  and  producers  are  required  to  send  their  milk 
to  the  nearest  creamery.    Prices  to  producers  are  fixed 
and  workers  on  dairy  farms  are  paid  according  to  the 
output  per  animal  per  day.    Transportation  problems  are 
few  and  costs  are  low  because  of  state  ownership  of  the 
railways. 

268.  GHEZZI,  E.  L 'organisation  du  service  de  distri- 
bution du  lait.  Internath  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(3):  384-388.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  the  Italian  law  of  1929  regulating  the  distri- 
bution of  milk,  distribution  procedures  and  costs,  and 
milk  containers.    Norms  were  established  by  governmen- 
tal decree  in  1933  for  the  packing  and  selling  of  butter. 

269.  GIBSON,  L.  A.     Century  of  dairying  in  Canada. 
Amer.  Creamery  83(21):  768-769.     Mar.  24,  1937. 
286.85  N482 

An  account  by  the  Dairy  Commissioner,  Department  of 
Agriculture,  Winnipeg,  Manitoba,  of  the  grading  of  cheese, 
butter  and  cream. 

270.  GILLETT,  R.  L.,  and  FOSTER,  D.  H.     Range  of 
milk  prices  in  northern  and  southeastern  New  York,  1935. 
N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  102:  2502-2503.     June  1937. 
280.8  C812 

Table  I  gives  quantity  of  milk  received  from  producers, 
arranged  by  average  price  at  plant,  northern  and  south- 
eastern counties  and  the  State,  June  and  November  1935. 
"In  June,  nearly  all  the  milk  in  the  southeastern  group 
brought  a  price  to  producers  higher  than  any  but  the  top 
prices  for  very  small  quantities  in  the  northern  group. 
In  November,  somewhat  similar  relationships  prevailed, 
though  the  contrasts  are  less  marked." 

271.  GIROUX,  I.  Amelioration  de  la  qualite  du  lait  et 
des  produits  lactes.  Internath  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(2):  364-371.     44.9  In8211 

Includes  information  on  French  milk  control  regulations. 

272.  GOCKEL,  A.     Die  verpackung  der  deutschen  milch- 
wirtschaftlichen  erzeugnisse.     Internath  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  388-404.     44.9  In8211 

Shows  packing  methods  and  quantities  for  milk,  concen- 
trated milk,  cream,  dried  milk,  casein,  butter,  and  cheese. 


273.  GOLDING,  N.  S.     Latest  developments  in  the  pack- 
aging of  cheese.     Wash.  State  Col.  Inst.  Dairying  Proc. 
10:  1-5.     Mar.  1937.     44.9  W27 

Classifies  types  of  cheeses,  outlines  some  cheese  de- 
fects, and  discusses  the  use  of  a  valve  when  packing 
cheese  in  cans. 

274.  GOLTE,  W.  Die  versorgung  des  rheinisch-west- 
falischen  industriegebietes  mit  trinkmilch  unter  beson- 
derer  berucksichtigung  des  rohmilchproblems.  Inter- 
nath Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  36-40. 

44.9  In8211 

Deals  with  the  milk  supply  of  this  area  and  marketing 
control.  Considers  milk  production  costs  in  relation  to 
prices. 

275.  GOOD  management  doubles  volume  of  Elmwood 
creamery  in  three  years.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28 
(17):  12-13.     Sept.  10,  1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

Rapid  growth  of  the  business  is  attributed  to  the  devel- 
opment of  a  good  and  dependable  market  for  92  and  93 
score  print  butter.    The  creamery  formerly  manufactured 
only  tub  butter.  « 

276.  GOSNEY,  G.  F.  Marketing  of  milk  products  in 
England,  Wales  and  Scotland.  Internath  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  40-42.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  marketing  facilities  in  the  first  three  decades 
o£  the  century  and  the  various  schemes  under  the  Agri- 
cultural Marketing  Acts  of  1931  and  1933.    Shows  the  need 
for  building  up  a  manufacturing  industry  in  dairy  pro- 
ducts in  Great  Britain. 

277.  GRADING  of  ice  cream  becomes  reality  in  Memphis 
where  Health  Department  expects  to  attain  goal  of  grading 
in  5  years.  Ice  Cream  Rev.  21(3):  58,  97,  98.  Oct.  1937. 
389.8  Ic22 

Provisions  and  operation  of  the  Frozen  Dessert  Ordi- 
nance whose  sanitary  regulations  went  into  effect  Julv  1, 
1937. 

278.  GT.  BRIT.  FOOD  COUNCIL.     Report...  to  the 
President  of  the  Board  of  Trade  on  costs  and  profits  of 
retail  milk  distribution  in  Great  Britain.     London,  H.  M. 
Stationery  Off.,  36  p.     1937.     280.344  G795 

This  study,  made  because  of  the  tendency  of  retail  milk 
prices  to  rise  since  inception  of  the  Milk  Marketing 
Schemes,  shows  that,  in  general,  distributors  profits  are 
not  large.    Freeing  retail  prices  from  any  controls  is 
suggested  as  a  possible  method  of  effecting  some  reduc- 
tion in  distributive  margins. 

279.  GT.  BRIT.  MILK  MARKETING  BOARD.  Milk 
Marketing  Scheme,  1933,  as  amended  1936  and  1937. 
London,  1937.     35  p.     280.344  G794M 

Scheme  under  the  Agricultural  Marketing  Act,  1931,  reg- 
ulating the  marketing  of  milk. 
Milk  price  control,  England  and  Wales. 

280.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Milk  acts,  1934  and  1936.  Arrangements 
for  increasing  the  demand  for  milk  within  the  area  of  the 
Milk  Marketing  Board  for  England  and  Wales  by  publicity 
and  propaganda  (Third  scheme).     London,  H.  M.  Station- 
ery Off.,  1937.     4  p.     280.344  G792Ar 

The  campaign  is  estimated  to  cost  L60,000  and  is  to  be 
carried  out  by  newspaper  advertising,  special  publicity, 
and  the  use  of  posters. 

281.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Milk  policy.  Presented  by  command  of  his 
Majesty,  July,  1937.     London,  H.  M.  Stationery  Off.,  1937. 
8  p.     (Parliament.  Papers  by  command  Cmd.  5533) 
281.344  G79 

Notes  the  beneficial  effects  of  control  exercised  by  the 
Milk  Marketing  Boards.    Because  of  the  improved  price 
situation,  greater  stress  is  placed  on  measures  designed 
to  promote  the  increased  consumption  of  liquid  milk  and 
the  provision  of  a  purer  milk  supply.    These  are  outlined, 
with  an  indication  of  the  facilities  required  for  their  oper- 
ation. 


18 


282.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Milk;  report  of  Reorganisation  Commission 
for  Great  Britain.     Gt.  Brit.  Min.  Agr.  Econ.  Ser.  44, 
362  p.     1936.     280.9  G792 

Also  in  Gt.  Brit.  Min.  Agr.  J.  43:  840-845.     Dec.  1936. 
10  G79J;  Soc.  Serv.  Rev.  18:  10-12.     Jan.  1937. 
280.8  Sol 

As  a  means  to  the  development  and  control  of  a  national 
milk  policy  based  upon  the  expansion  of  the  liquid  milk 
market,  the  establishment  of  a  permanent  Milk  Commis- 
sion is  recommended.   Modifications  in  the  operation  of 
the  Milk  Marketing  Schemes  are  proposed,  with  contin- 
uance of  the  producers'  Boards. 

Suggestions  are  made  regarding  the  fixing  of  milk  prices, 
financial  assistance  by  the  British  Government,  and 
transport  and  distribution  practices.    Improvements  in 
milk  production,  uniformity  in  grades  and  grading,  effi- 
ciency of  manufacture,  and  stimulation  of  consumption  are 
further  objectives  considered. 

283.  GT.  BRIT.  SCOTTISH  OFFICE.     Arrangements  for 
increasing  the  demand  for  milk  by  the  supply  of  milk  at 
reduced  rates  in  schools  within  the  area  of  the  Scottish 
Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  H933.     Edinburgh,  H.  M. 
Stationery  Off.,  1937.     3  p.     280.344  Sco32 

This  modification  of  the  scheme  applies  only  to  milk 
actually  consumed  in  schools. 

284.  GRIMES,  M.     Legislation  and  proposed  bacterial 
standards  for  milk  and  ice  cream.     Internatl.  Dairy 
Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  372-374.     44.9  In8211 

Such  standards  should  be  based  on  methods  that  will 
give  the  maximum  bacterial  count  in  relation  to  the  total 
bacterial  count  obtained.    Shows  the  necessity  for  control 
legislation  in  the  Irish  Free  State. 

285.  HAMMERBERG,  D.  O.,  and  SULLIVAN,  W.  G.     An 
economic  analysis  of  the  charges  for  transporting  milk  to 
Connecticut  markets.  A  preliminary  report  on  the  project: 
"Supply  and  transportation  of  milk  in  Connecticut." 
Storrs,  Conn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.,  1937.     26  p.     280.344  C763 

This  report  is  based  upon  records  on  237  routes  supply- 
ing milk  dealers  in  the  important  milk-consuming  areas 
In  Connecticut.    Results  show  that  rates  charged  by  dis- 
tributors were  higher  than  those  of  independent  truckers 
and  that  a  revision  of  routes  is  needed. 

Establishment  of  prices  for  milk  at  farms  rather  than  at 
markets  would  not  solve  the  rate  problem.    Control  of 
transportation  and  transportation  rates  by  associations  of 
milk  producers  is  suggested  as  a  solution  to  the  problems 
involved. 

286.  HANSON,  F.  E.  Texas,  once  famed  for  longhorn 
steers,  now  making  longhorn  cheese.  Natl.  Butter  and 
Cheese  J.  28(19):  10-11.     Oct.  10,  1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

TeUs  briefly  of  the  development  of  the  cheese  industry 
in  Texas  and  discusses  production  problems.    A  table 
showing  cheese  production,  1928-1935,  is  included. 

287.  HARVEY,  W.  C,  and  HILL,  H.     Milk  products. 
London,  Lewis,  1937.     388  p.     44  H26M 

Separate  chapters  describe  the  processes  of  manufac-  . 
ture,  with  desirable  methods  of  control,  for  ice  cream, 
cream,  butter  and  margarine,  cheese,  condensed  milk, 
evaporated  milk,  and  dried  milk.    These  subjects  are 
considered  primarily  according  to  their  public  health 
significance,  so  that  hygienic  factors  are  given  some 
prominence  in  the  general  treatment.    Subsidiary  milk 
products,  such  as  fermented  milks,  lactalbumin,  lactose, 
whey  foods  and  casein,  are  discussed  in  the  final  chapter, 
together  with  some  new  uses  for  milk. 

288.  HAUCK,  E.  L'importance  economique  et  l'organ- 
isation  de  l'industrie  laitiere  allemande.  Lait  17:  789- 
793.     July /Aug.  1937.     44.8  L143 

Describes  efforts  made  to  stabilize  the  dairy  industry 
in  Germany,  especially  as  regards  milk  and  butter  prices, 
and  developments  in  the  use  of  milk  and  skim  milk  for 
manufacturing  byproducts. 


289.  HEEBINK,  G.,  and  HENDERSON,  H.  O.     Feeding 
for  profit  in  milk  production.     W.  Va.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  C. 
74,  28  p.     Sept.  1937.     100  W52 

Feed  cost  is  shown  to  be  the  most  important  single  item 
in  the  cost  of  producing  milk  on  West  Virginia  dairy 
farms. 

290.  HENDERSON,  R.,  and  HAYES,  G.  G.     Milk  produc- 
tion costs  and  profitability  on  twenty  Devon  and  Cornwall 
farms.    Newton  Abbot,  Devonshire,  Eng.,  Seale-Hayne 
Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Econ.,  1937.     40  p.     281.344  Sel 

The  period  covered  by  this  survey  is  from  1934-35  to 
1936-37.    In  the  first  part  are  shown  constitutional  aspects 
of  the  farms,  investments,  production  and  disposal  of 
milk,  distribution  of  calvings,  and  average  costs  per  cow 
and  per  gallon  of  milk.    In  the  second  part  profits  of  19 
of  the  farms  are  tabulated  and  discussed. 

291.  HENRY,  A.     La  politique  du  beurre  et  des  oeufs  en 
Belgique.     Brussels,  Comite  Central  Industriel  de  Bel- 
gique,  1937.     69  p.     281.172  H39P 

An  account  of  the  marketing  of  butter  and  eggs  and  the 
Government's  policy  with  respect  to  them.    Concludes 
that  there  is  not  an  overproduction  of  butter  and  that  con- 
sumption could  be  increased  by  a  reduction  in  price. 
Claims  that  margarine  does  not  enter  into  competition 
with  butter  and  that  the  quality  of  butter  could  be  improved 
by  production  in  factories  rather  than  on  the  farm. 

292.  HERRMANN,  L.  F.     Milk  distribution  costs  in 
West  Virginia:  HI.  A  study  of  the  costs  incurred  by  67 
producer-distributors  in  the  Charleston,  Huntington  and 
Parkersburg  markets  for  a  twelve-month  period  during 
1935-1936.     W.  Va.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  282,  26  p.     June 
1937.     100  W52 

Results  of  the  study  show  the  average  cost  to  be  $1.94 
per  cwt.    Labor  and  truck  expense  were  the  most  impor- 
tant items  of  cost,  amounting     to  93  c.  and  45  c.  respec- 
tively.   The  tendency  toward  higher  costs  among  plants 
than  among  producer-distributors  was  due  to  higher 
wages,  additional  costs  of  pasteurization,  greater  adminis- 
trative costs,  and  a  larger  investment  in  real  estate  and 
equipment. 

293.  HERRMANN,  L.  F.,  and  BOWLING,  G.  A.     Milk 
production  costs  in  West  Virginia:  H.  A  study  of  the  costs 
incurred  by  36  farms  in  the  Huntington  and  Charleston 
markets  in  1935-1936.     West  Va.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  281, 
27  p.     Morgantown,  1937.     100  W52 

In  the  Huntington  herds  total  costs  were  $2.20  per  cwt. 
and  in  the  Charleston  herds,  $2.26.    High  costs  were  due 
to  less  than  average  production  per  cow,  too  heavy  feed- 
ing of  grain  that  was  too  high  in  protein  in  relation  to 
roughage  fed,  and  high  costs  for  use  of  buildings  and 
other  items  besides  feed  and  labor.    "Producing  ability  of 
the  cows  kept,  together  with  their  management  for  high 
production,  had  so  strong  an  influence  on  costs  of  produce 
tion  as  to  obscure  the  effect  of  size  of  herd." 

294.  HERZ,  H.     KUnstliche  eingriffe  in  dem  milchmarkt 
und  die  preisgestaltung.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss. 
Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  42-47.     44.9  In8211 

Considers  objectives  and  effects  of  milk  marketing  con- 
trol. 

295.  HIBBEN,  R.  C.     Decade  of  progress  in  the  American 
ice  cream  industry.     Refrig.  Engin.  34(1):  18-20,  28,  39, 
54,  56,  58,  64.     July  1937.     295.9  Am32J 

Considers  the  utilization  of  milk  for  ice  cream  and 
sanitary  requirements  in  the  manufacture  of  ice  cream. 

296.  KTNDE,  W.     Improvement  program  for  quality 
milk.     Hoard's  Dairyman  82:  53.     Jan.  25,  1937. 
44.8  H65 

A  program  for  the  "Quad-City"  market,  which  includes 
Moline,  niinois.    It  provides  for  the  grading  of  milk  and 
penalizes  the  farmer  whose  score  is  less  than  170  points 
(300  possible). 

297.  HOCHLEITNER,  A.     Planwirtschaftliche  massnah- 
men  auf  dem  gebiete  der  Osterreichischen  milchwirt- 
schaft.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3): 
47-50.     44.9  In8211 

Outlines  postwar  conditions  in  Austria  leading  to  milk 
marketing  control. 


19 


298.  HOMEN,  A.,  and  HOLMSTEN,  E.     Ein  rtickblick 
auf  die  resultate  der  exportbutterpriifung  in  Filmland 
1913-1935.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(2):  374-379.     44.9  In8211 

Export  butter  has  been  tested  for  keeping  quality  since 
1896,  and  since  1913  a  standardized  control  system  has 
been  in  effect. 

299.  HORAK,  K.     Die  befbrderung  von  rohmilch  in  tanks. 
Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  334-335. 
44.9  In8211 

Greater  volumes  can  be  handled  in  tanks  which  are 
easily  cleaned.    The  quality  of  tank-hauled  milk  is  supe- 
rior as  evidenced  by  bacterial  counts.    Savings  in  freight 
charges  and  the  low  cost  of  truck  maintenance  are  addi- 
tional advantages. 

300.  HOWELL,  J.  P.,  EVANS,  H.  E.,  and  GRIFFITHS, 

J.  D.     Recent  costs  of  milk  production  in  Wales.     Welsh 
J.  Agr.  13:  41-68.     Jan.  1937.     10  W46 

For  23  months  ending  September  1936,  shows  feed, 
labor,  depreciation,  and  miscellaneous  costs  of  milk  pro- 
duction. 

301.  INDIANA.  Laws,  statutes,  etc.    Milk  control  law. 
Milk  production  and  marketing  declaration  of  policy.  An 
act  concerning  the  production  and  distribution  of  milk, 
creating  a  Milk  Control  Board  and  defining  its  powers  and 
duties.     Indianapolis,  1937.     34  p.     280.344  In2 

Duties  of  the  Board  include  supervision  and  regulation  of 
the  industry  in  the  State,  establishment  of  reasonable 
trade  practices,  and  the  setting  up  of  schedules  of  prices 
to  be  paid  to  producers. 

302.  TNNIS,  H.  A.,  ED.     The  dairy  industry  in  Canada. 
Toronto,  Ryerson  Press,  1937.     299  p.     Ref. 
281.344  R83 

Partial  contents:  Pt.  2,  The  development  of  the  dairy  in- 
dustry in  Canada,  by  J.  A.  Ruddick;  Pt.  3,  Problems  of 
the  Canadian  dairy  industry,  by  W.  M.  Drummond;  It.  4, 
Problems  of  a  specialized  area  -  the  Fraser  Valley,  by 
R.  E.  English;  Pt.  5,  American  tariff  policy  and  the 
Canadian  dairy  industry,  by  J.  E.  Lattimer  and  H.  A. 
Innis. 

Includes  developments  and  costs  of  the  milk,  butter,  and 
cheese  industries,  marketing,  market  outlets,  and 
attempts  at  artificial  price-raising. 

303.  INTERNATIONAL  ASSOCIATION  OF  MILK  SANI- 
TARIANS. COMMITTEE  ON  METHODS  OF  IMPROVING 
MILK  SUPPLIES  IN  SMALL  COMMUNITIES.     Report. 
Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk  Sanit.  Ann.  Rpt.  1936:  347-381. 
1937.     44.9  In89 

L.  C.  Frank,  Chairman  of  Committee. 

A  survey  of  the  present  status  of  milk  control  of  Ameri- 
can municipalities  of  1,000  to  10,000  population  for  the 
year  1935.    Gives  information  on  organization,  adminis- 
tration, and  operation  of  the  programs. 

304.  *INTERNATIONAL  UNION  OF  LOCAL  AUTHOR- 
ITIES.    Conference  internationale,  Paris,  July  5-11,  1937. 
H.  Regulation  and  control  of  milk,  1937.     180  p. 

305.  JACKSON,  H.  C.     The  problem  of  paying  for  milk 
in  whole  milk  creameries.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28 
(8):  34-35.     Apr.  25,  1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

Payment  for  milk,  on  a  straight  fat  basis,  after  allow- 
ances on  returns,  is  discussed.    When  the  skim  milk  is 
to  be  dried,  equitable  payment  involves  three  factors:  the 
yield  of  powder  in  relation  to  the  test  of  milk  received, 
the  added  expenses  involved  in  handling  low  testing  milk, 
and  the  price  received  for  powder. 

306.  JACOB,  A.  W.     Some  economic  aspects  of  the 
price  paid  to  producers  for  butterfat  in  Oklahoma,  1926  to 
1935,  inclusive.     Okla.  Agr.  Expt.  Current  Farm  Econ. 
10(4):  68-71.     Aug.  1937.     100  Ok4 

A  study  of  the  spread  between  the  butterfat  price  re- 
ceived by  producers  in  Oklahoma  and  in  the  United  States, 
including  factors  responsible  for  the  improved  price  re- 
ceived by  Oklahoma  producers  as  compared  to  other  pro- 
ducers over  the  United  States. 


*Not  examined 


307.  JARVK,  M.     (Jber  die  fOrderung  der  qualitat  von 
milch  und  butter  in  Estland.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss. 
Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  379-383.     44.9  In8211 

Contains  information  on  milk  and  butter  control.  The 
payment  of  premiums  for  first  class  products  has  made 
for  quality  improvement. 

308.  JENSEN,  J.  Die  qualitatskontrolle  der  exportfir- 
men  mit  danischer  exportbutter.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  384-387.     44.9  In8211 

The  exporting  firms  cooperate  with  the  State  in  this  pro- 
gram. 

309.  JOHNSON,  O.  M.  Trends  in  ice  cream  costs.  Ice 
Cream  Rev.  20(6):  73.     Jan.  1937.     389.8  Ic22 

From  Internatl.  Assoc.  Ice  Cream  Mfrs.  Spec.  B.  53, 
"Trends  in  Ice  Cream  Costs." 

A  much  larger  portion  of  the  expense  dollar  of  the  ice 
cream  manufacturer  was  required  for  product  cost  in 
1935  than  in  several  previous  years.    Two  factors  which 
have  contributed  to  this  are:  (1)  increase  in  product  cost, 
and  (2)  increase  in  volume  of  production.    Charts  showing 
product  cost,  distribution  cost  and  total  cost  exclusive  of 
product  cost  are  included. 

310.  JOHNSON,  S.  M.     Elasticity  of  supply  of  milk  from 
Vermont  plants.  II.  Factors  affecting  deliveries  in  Cabot 
and  Marshfield,  Vt.,  1920-1935.     Vt.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B. 
429,  40  p.     Dec.  1937.     100  V59 

Milk  production  in  these  two  towns  in  the  Boston  milk- 
shed  was  positively  correlated  with  milk  and  feed  prices, 
expressed  as  milk -feed  price  ratios,  for  about  three  pre- 
ceding years. 

311.  JOHNSON,  T.  D.,  and  MCCORD,  J.  E.     Dairy  farm 
organization  and  management  in  southeastern  Pennsyl- 
vania.    Pa.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  350,  82  p.     May  1937. 
100  P381 

A  survey  of  Chester  County  farms  covering  the  period 
1930-31,  similar  to  studies  made  in  1912  and  1922.  Shows 
effects  of  different  types  of  organization  on  incomes  and 
relation  of  management  and  feeding  of  the  dairy  herd  to 
profits,  and  includes  data  on  costs  and  milk  marketing  and 
prices. 

312.  JUDKINS,  H.  F.     Problems  yet  to  be  solved  in  the 
dairy  industry.     Foo'd  Indus.  9:  710,  737.    Dec.  1937. 
389.8  F737 

An  overall  picture  of  the  dairying  situation,  with  specif- 
ic regard  to  milk  and  cream,  evaporated  milk,  ice  cream, 
and  cheese.    Production  and  quality  angles  are  stressed. 
Economic  aspects  of  the  industry,  such  as  milk-buying 
plans  and  bottling  costs,  are  touched  upon. 

313.  KIEFERLE,  F.,  and  SEUSS,  A.     Einfluss  der  luft- 
durchl'assigkeit  der  einwickelmaterialien  auf  die  qualitat 
der  kase.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11 
(2):  398-401.     44.9  In8211 

Wrapping  soft  cheese  with  papers  of  high  air  permeabilW 
ty  had  a  favorable  effect  on  quality. 

314.  KIEFERLE,  F.,  and  SEUSS,  A.     Der  einfluss  des 
butterfarbbles  und  der  einwickelpapiere  auf  das  autoxyda- 
tive  verderben  der  butter.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss. 
Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  129-133.     44.9  In8211 

Exposure  to  light  and  the  use  of  vegetable  butter-color- 
ing hasten  oxidative  changes  at  the  surface  of  butter. 
Parchment  paper  (treated),  cell-glass,  and  metal  foils 
gave  good  protection  against  light. 

315.  KJAERGAARD- JENSEN,  N.  Verschiedene  milch- 
hygienische  massnahmen  in  Danemark.  Internatl.  Dairy 
Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  387-393.     44.9  In8211 

Includes  milk  tests,  with  price  deductions  for  poorer 
quality  milk,  sanitary  controls,  and  the  application  of 
regulatory  laws  and  decrees. 

316.  KLANG,  J.     Der  anteil  der  energiekosten  an  den 
gesamtbetriebskosten  in  frischmilch-  und  verarbeitungs- 
betrieben,  buttereien  und  kasereien  Osterreichs.     Inter- 
natl. Dairy  Cong.  Wiss..Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  430-435. 

44.9  In8211 

Presents  data  on  power  and  fuel  costs  in  Austrian  dai- 
ries. 


20 


317.  KOESTLER,  G.     Das  verbandswesen  und  sein  ein- 
fluss  auf  die  hebung  der  gute  von  milch  und  milcherzeug- 
nissen.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2): 
401-405.     44.9  In8211 

Cites  the  Swiss  Emmental  cheese  factories  as  an  exam- 
ple of  the  benefits  deriving  from  organization  for  quality 
improvement. 

318.  KOLLMORGEN,  W.     The  milk  industry  of  Nebraska. 
Nebr.  Conserv.  B.  15,  92  p.     Dec.  1937.     279.9  N272B 

An  attempt  is  made  to  evaluate  Nebraska's  position  in 
the  national  dairy  picture  and  dairy  conditions  in  the 
state.    Price  considerations  are  included  in  a  discussion 
on  fluid  milk,  as  well  as  those  of  its  quality  and  uses. 
Milk  cow  improvement  and  care,  management  of  pastures, 
bovine  tuberculosis  eradication,  and  tariffs  as  regards 
dairy  products  are  other  topics  dealt  with. 

319.  KROG,  A.  J.,  and  DOUGHERTY,  D.  S.     Scoops  as  a 
source  of  contamination  of  ice  cream  in  retail  stores. 
Amer.  J.  Pub.  Health  27:  1007-1009.     Oct.  1937. 

449.9  Am3J 

Recommends  that  ice  cream  scoops  and  other  dispensing 
utensils  be  kept  on  a  dry  rack  protected  from  flies,  dust, 
and  other  sources  of  contamination,  instead  of  in  water, 
and  rinsed  with  either  hot  or  cold  tap  water  after  and  be- 
fore each  use. 

320.  KUGLER,  A.     Entwicklung  und  organisation  der 
milchwirtschaft  im  Burgenland.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  56-59.     44.9  In8211 

Includes  information  on  milk  production  and  marketing 
in  this  Austrian  province. 

321.  KURMANN,  O.     Erfahrungen  mit  offener  und  ge- 
schlossener  milchfbrderung  und  milchlagerung.     Inter- 
natl. Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  338-341. 
44.9  In8211 

Closed  transport  and  storage  of  milk  are  factors  for 
quality  maintenance  and  better  dairy  management. 

322.  LAMPRECHT,  F.     Die  verwendung  von  magermilch, 
insbesondere  milcheiweiss,  in  der  menschlichen  ern'ah- 
rung.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  270- 
273.     44.9  In8211 

The  use  of  milk  protein  in  bread  and  various  dough  prod- 
ucts, sausages,  crackers,  soups,  breakfast  foods,  and 
cocoa  is  discussed. 

323.  LASNET  DE  LANTY,  J.     Le  paiement  du  lait  a  la 
matiere  grasse.     Agr.  Prat.  67:  1528-1529.     Oct.  30, 
1937.     14  J82 

Methods  of  payment  according  to  three  grades  of  milk- 
rich,  medium,  and  poor— are  discussed,  with  proposed 
modifications  to  promote  better  quality  milk  production. 

324.  LAUTERBACH,  A.  H.     Milk  market  regulation. 
New  Brunswick,  1937.     6  p.     275.2  N46L 

Discusses  price  fixing  and  regulatory  policies  from  the 
standpoints  of  practicality  and  constitutionality. 

325.  LAYSON,  S.  V.     Regulation  and  control  of  milk 
supplies.     Milk  Dealer  26(5):  36-39,  102-104.     Feb.  1937. 
44.8  M595 

An  account  of  the  regulation  of  sanitation  in  the  milk  in- 
dustry in  Illinois,  past  and  present.    The  Milk  Pasteuriza- 
tion Plant  Law  of  1925  empowered  the  Department  of 
Public  Health  to  adopt  and  enforce  minimum  require- 
ments for  the  construction,  equipment  and  operation 
of  milk  pasteurization  plants.    Enforcement  of  this  Act 
was  placed  in  the  Division  of  Sanitary  Engineering. 

326.  LINTNGER,  F.  F.  A  glimpse  of  the  dairy  industry 
abroad  today.  Perm  State  Farmer  (n.  s.)  2(4):  113,  119, 
128,  130-132.     Jan.  1937.     276.8  P38 

Report  of  observations  on  a  trip  to  Europe  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1936  including  material  on  milk  price  control  un- 
der British  marketing  schemes. 

327.  LININGER,  F.  F.,  and  COWDEN,  T.  K.  Marketing 
milk.     Pa.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  352,  23  p.     Oct.  1937. 

100  P381 

Shows  the  percentages  of  pasteurized  milk  in  the  Phila- 
delphia and  Pittsburgh  milksheds  and  the  Pennsylvania 
area  of  the  New  York  City  milkshed  sold  as  fluid  milk, 
and  the  maximum  range  in  milk  prices  within  a  county. 


328.  LIZEE,  D.     L'utilisation  des  exc6dents  de  lait  pour 
la  fabrication  de  produits  laitiers  tels  que  laits  condenses, 
poudre  de  lait,  etc.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(2):  248-249.     44.9  In8211 

States  that  in  France  there  is  (as  of  December  1936)  no 
chance  for  further  utilization  of  surplus  milk  for  the  man- 
ufacture of  condensed  milk  or  rich  milk  powder. 

329.  LIZEE,  D.  Utilisation  du  babeurre,  du  lait  ecreme 
et  du  petit -lait.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(2):  273-274.     44.9  In8211 

Considers  the  utilization  of  buttermilk  and  skim  milk  in 
powder  form,  of  the  latter  as  a  source  of  casein,  and  of 
whey  products.    Points  out  their  extensive  use  as  feed  in 
France. 

330.  LOHR,  L.     Der  einfluss  der  wirtschaftseigenen 
fiitterung  auf  die  rentabilit'at  der  milcherzeugung.     Inter- 
natl. Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(1):  134-142. 

44.9  In8211 

Shows  the  relation  of  positive  net  returns  to  the  use  of 
home-produced  feeds  on  18  farms  in  lower  Austria. 

331.  LOHSE,  T.     Die  kontrolle  der  zum  export  be- 
stimmten  d'anischen  molkereierzeugnisse.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  410-413.     44.9  In82L 

Discusses  state  standards  and  regulatory  procedures 
applying  mainly  to  export  butter. 

332.  LONZA-WERKE  ELEKTROCHEMISCHE  FABRIKEN 
G.  m.  b.  H.     Lochscheibe  und  trinkhalm  als  werbefak- 
toren  fur  den  milchverbrauch.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  228-229.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  consumer  preference  in  regard  to  milk  in 
bottles  with  perforated  caps,  and  advances  in  the  manu- 
facture of  "straws"  used  with  them. 

333.  LOOMIS,  A.  M.  The  stability  of  the  dairy  industry. 
Amer.  Cream  and  Poultry  Prod.  Rev.  84:  628-631. 

Sept.  8,  1937.     286.85  N482 

Includes  consumption  data  and  reference  to  stability  as 
affected  by  price  mechanism. 

334.  LOVELAND,  E.  H.     The  interest  of  the  dairy  indus- 
try in  efficient  production.     Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col. 
Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb.  Abs.  of  Material  presented 
at  Ann.  Conf.  for  Dairy  Plant  Oper.  16:  77-90.     Nov.  4-5, 
1937.     44.9  V593A 

Milk  production  costs  can  be  lowered  by  keeping  records 
of  the  production  and  feed  cost  of  individual  cows,  using 
this  information  as  a  basis  for  culling  low-producing 
cows,  feeding  the  good  cows  more  efficiently  with  both 
roughage  and  grain,  and  breeding  for  high-producing  cows. 

335.  LUCAS,  I.  E.     L'importance  des  conditions  hygieni- 
ques  de  l'Stable  en  tenant  compte  des  limites  imposees 
par  la  rentabilite.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(1):  222-223.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  costs  of  producing  milk  in  relation  to  costs 
for  improvements.    Finds  that  a  price  differential  for  the 
milk  produced,  and  also  some  State  subsidy,  would  be 
necessary  to  meet  the  extra  expenses  entailed. 

336   MCBRIDE,  C.  G.,  and  others.     Milk  marketing 
problems.     J.  Farm  Econ.  19:  494-507.     May  1937. 
280.8  J822 

Abstracts  of  papers  read  before  a  Round  Table  Session 
at  the  27th  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Farm  Econom- 
ic Association,  Chicago,  111.,  Dec.  29,  1936,  and  prepared 
by  Leland  Spencer. 

Contents:  Possibilities  and  limitations  of  public  control 
in  milk  marketing,  by  C.  G.  McBride,  p.  494-496;  Plant 
operating  efficiency  in  the  market  milk  industry,  by  J.  M. 
Tinley  p.  496-500;  The  supply  and  utilization  of  milk  in 
Pennsylvania,  by  T.  K.  Cowden,  p.  501-505;  Competitive 
market  forces  and  their  effect  upon  fluid  milk  consump- 
tion, by  W.  P.  Mortenson,  p.  505-507. 

337.  MCDOWALL,  F.  H.     Milk  supplies  to  cheese  facto- 
ries.    New  Zeal.  J.  Sci.  and  Technol.  19:  145-164.     Ref. 
Aug.  1937.      514  N48 

Considers  the  problem  of  providing  an  equitable  distri- 
bution of  the  net  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  cheese  among  the 
individual  suppliers;  the  relationship  between  butter  and 
cheese  factories,  and  the  difference  in  the  guaranteed 
price  per  pound  of  butterfat  as  between  butter  and  cheese 
factories;  and  the  effect  of  prices  on  the  general  practices 
of  breeding  cows  to  supply  milk  to  cheese  factories. 


21 


338.  MCDOWALL,  F.  H.  Payment  for  milk  for  cheese- 
making.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2): 
413-414.     44.9  In8211 

Suggests  payment  on  the  cheese  yielding  capacity  of  the 
milk  based  on  estimation  of  fat  and  casein.   Termed  the 
"Costed"  cheese  system,  it  allows  for  variations  in  the 
cost  of  manufacturing  cheese  from  milks  of  different  com- 
position. 

339.  MACGILLIVRAY,  J.  C.     Dairy  products  situation 
in  Germany.     Canada.  Dept.  Trade  &  Com.  Com.  Intel.  J. 
57:  631-635.     Oct.  9,  1937.     286.8  C16 

An  account  is  given  of  the  organization  of  the  dairy  in- 
dustry, production  and  consumption  of  dairy  products, 
prices,  and  foreign  trade.   A  table  showing  Germany's 
relative  position  in  1936  among  the  principal  world  pro- 
ducers and  consumers  of  dairy  products,  is  included. 

340.  MCGRATH,  A.  E.     Responsibility  of  the  field  su- 
perintendent to  the  cream  quality  program.     Natl.  Butter 
and  Cheese  J.  28(5):  31-32.     Mar.  10,  1937. 

286.85  B98Bu 

"Read  before  Educational  Conference  of  the  Creamery 
Industry  of  Missouri  and  all  Midwestern  States,  Universi- 
ty Missouri,  February  1937." 

Discusses  the  subject  from  the  standpoint  of  the  field 
superintendent  who  is  in  charge  of  a  territory  largely 
made  up  of  cream-buying  stations,  and  states  that  it  is 
the  duty  of  the  superintendent  to  solve  the  quality  problem 
by  lining  up  his  stations  on  a  grading  program. 

341.  MACLEOD,  A.  The  milksheds  of  New  Hampshire; 
a  study  of  their  characteristics  and  relationships.  N.  H. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  295,  11  p.     Apr.  1937.     100  N45 

Gives  the  location  of  producers  and  their  markets;  esti- 
mates of  sales  by  type  of  distributors  for  the  markets 
operating  under  the  State  Milk  Control  Board;  and  the 
relationship  of  local  and  out-of-state  markets  to  one 
another. 

342.  MAJER,  G.    Die  verwertung  der  molke  als  pferde- 
trank.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2): 
274-275.     44.9  In8211 

Whey  may  be  used  to  advantage  as  a  drink  for  horses 
and  is  willingly  taken  by  them  after  they  have  become  ac- 
customed to  it.   Feeding  tests  on  a  large  scale  have  shown 
that,  on  an  average,  34  liters  of  whey  are  equal  to  one 
kilogram  of  oats  per  day. 

343.  MALITZ,  H.     Einrichtungen  in  milchwirtschaft- 
lichen  betrieben  zur  herstellung  von  verkauf sf ertigen 
packungen  fur  milch  und  milcherzeugnisse.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  406-409. 

44.9  In8211 

Discusses  the  paraffined  "Perga-package"  as  a  con- 
tainer for  milk,  cream,  and  cottage  cheese,  and  paper  con- 
tainers in  general. 

344.  MANRART,  V.  C.     Some  economic  aspects  of  a 
milk  quality  program.     Milk  Dealer  26(9):  70.     June  1937. 
44.8  M595 

The  Dairy  Department  of  Purdue  University  recom- 
mended a  milk  quality  control  program  for  general  use  in 
Indiana,  the  provisions  being  that  all  milk  be  graded  at 
the  plant  by  taste  and  smell;  that  milk  objectionable  in 
flavor  or  of  high  acid  content  should  be  rejected  or  paid 
for  at  a  lower  price;  and  that  milk  satisfactory  on  the 
basis  of  flavor  should  be  subjected  to  the  methylene  blue 
and  sediment  tests  at  least  twice  a  month,  with  flavor 
being  determined  daily.   Results  of  this  plan -are  given. 

345.  MANN,  A.  I.,  and  others.     Profitable  dairy  farming. 
Conn.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  B.  247,  28  p.     1937.     275.29  C76B 

A.  R.  Merrill,  J.  S.  Owens,  and  P.  L.  Putnam,  joint 
authors. 

Principal  causes  of  high  costs  in  producing  milk  are 
high  feed  costs,  disease,  labor  inefficiency,  low  producing 
cows  and  too  small  a  farm  business.   Solutions  to  these 
problems  are  discussed. 


346.  MARCHI,  A.     La  vente  du  lait  et  des  autres  pro- 
duits  laitiers  et  l'etablissement  d'un  prix  acceptable  pour 
le  producteur,  le  detaillant  et  le  consommateur.     Inter- 
natl. Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  59-62. 

44.9  In8211 

Discusses  the  effects  of  marketing  control  of  dairy 
products  in  Italy. 

347.  MARQUARDT,  J.  C.     Observations  on  European 
cheese  production.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28(3):  25- 
26,  28.     Feb.  10,  1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

Tells  briefly  of  conditions  in  Germany,  England,  and 
Ireland  and  of  the  manufacture  of  Hollander  and  Tilsiter 
cheese  in  Germany.    Quality  is  not  the  main  item  in  stim- 
ulating the  importation  of  cheeses  into  the  United  States. 
Leading  factors  governing  cheese  imports  are  low  manu- 
facturing costs  in  foreign  countries  and  lack  of  manufac- 
turing knowledge  of  certain  varieties. 

348.  MASS.  MILK  CONTROL  BOARD.     Report...  relative 
to  the  sale  of  "surplus  milk,"  so  called,  and  other  mat- 
ters relating  to  the  production  and  sale  of  milk,  Nov.  30, 
1936.     39  p.     Boston,  1937.     280.344  M383R 

The  report  recommends:  1.  The  Milk  Control  Board 
should  be  provided  with  authority  to  enforce  regulations 
with  respect  to  inspection,  labeling,  and  grading  of  milk. 
2.  The  Milk  Control  Law  should  be  amended  to  clarify  its 
language.  3.  Adequate  provision  should  be  made  for  more 
frequent  checks  on  testing  and  weighing  of  milk.  4.  An 
adequate  protective  statute,  providing  for  the  inspection 
of  cream,  should  be  enacted.  5.  An  appropriation  for 
state-wide  advertising  of  milk,  to  expand  consumption  and 
to  educate  consumers,  would  be  helpful  to  the  dairy  indus- 
try and  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  Commonwealth. 

349.  MATTHEWS,  T.  A.     Regulating  the  sale  of  milk, 
m.  Munic.  Rev.  16(3):  51-55,  58.     Mar.  1937.     Lib.  Cong. 

Deals  in  part  with  certain  enactments  of  the  Illinois 
Legislature,  and  court  decisions. 

350.  MENKE,  H.  H.     Die  restmilchfrage  in  der  deutschen 
marktregelung.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  B^r.  (1937) 
11(2):  278-282.     44.9  In8211 

Resolves  the  problem  into  one  of  effective  utilization  of 
skimmed  milk.   In  addition  to  commonly  accepted  uses  of 
this  product  and  whey,  the  Germans  are  introducing  case- 
in more  extensively  in  the  human  diet.   When  precipitated 
by  pectic  substances  the  casein  may  be  used  as  an  egg- 
albumen  substitute  in  the  baking  industry.    As  sodium  ca- 
seinate  it  is  used  in  various  foods,  especially  breakfast 
foods. 

351.  MERCHANT,  I.  A.     Needs  of  national  and  state 
unity  in  the  sanitary  control  of  dairy  products.     Amer. 
Vet.  Med.  Assoc.  J.  90:  398-402.     Mar.  1937.     41.8  Am3 

Shows  the  forces  operating  for  and  against  uniformity 
in  this  field,  particularly  in  the  application  of  regulations 
and  methods. 

352.  METZGER,  M.  J.     Buying  plans— ratio  between 
cream  fat  and  whole  milk  prices.     Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk 
Dealers  Prod.  Sect.  Proc.  30:  34-39.     1937.     44.9  In8 

Deals  principally  with  the  buying  plan  in  the  Chicago 
market. 

353.  MIDLAND  AGRICULTURAL  COLLEGE.  DEPT.  OF 
AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS.     Investigation  into  the 
economics  of  milk  production;  a  comparison  of  milk  pro- 
duction during  the  two  winters  of  1935-36  and  1936-37. 
Sutton  Bonington,  Loughborough,  England,  Aug.  1937. 

26  p.     281.344  M585 

The  winter  1936-37  was  not  so  advantageous  to  milk  pro- 
duction as  the  winter  1935-36  on  48  English  farms  for 
which  data  were  obtained.    Weather  conditions  plus  poor 
quality  hay  resulted  in  a  lower  average  yield  per  cow  and, 
in  spite  of  an  increase  in  the  average  herd  size,  a  lower 
total  output. 

The  price  of  purchased  feeding  stuffs  increased  and  the 
value  of  home-grown  feeds  was  increased  in  proportion. 
The  average  delivered  cost  per  gal.  was  12.14d.  in  the 
winter  1935-36  and  13.35d.  in  the  following  one.    The  pool 
price  per  gal.  was  0.42d.  higher  in  the  latter. 


22 


354.  MILK  distribution  proposals.  Planning,  106,  15  p. 
Sept.  21,  1937.     280.8  P693 

Deals  with  the  British  Government's  long-term  policy 
with  regard  to  insuring  a  safe  milk  supply,  lowering  dis- 
tribution costs,  and  increasing  consumption. 

355.  MILK  regulation  in  New  York.     Yale  Law  J.  46: 
1359-1370.     June  1937.     L9  Y2 

Discusses  the  New  York  Milk  Control  Law,  1933,  re- 
vised in  1934,  as  a  basis  of  depression  milk  regulation. 
Finds  that  the  inability  of  the  State  to  control  out-of-state 
milk  severely  limited  the  effectiveness  of  the  price-fixing 
provisions.    Suggests  ways  and  means  of  improving  the 
milk  market  structure  in  the  State. 

356.  THE  MILK  (Special  Designations)  Order,  1936,  with 
respect  to  accredited  milk.  Royal  Sanit.  Inst.  J.  57:  624- 
670.     Apr.  1937.     449.9  R812 

Papers  by  W.  G.  Savage,  F.  W.  Medlock,  H.  F.  Long, 
and  W.  T.  Price,  p.  625-657,  and  discussion,  p.  658-670. 

These  papers,  read  at  a  conference  held  in  London  on 
Jan.  28,  1937,  discuss  the  manner  of  administration  of  the 
Order  with  the  object  of  securing  greater  uniformity. 

357.  MILLER,  S.  L.  Farmers'  and  consumers'  cross- 
fire hurts  earning  power  of  dairy  industry.  Annalist  50: 
780,  812.     Nov.  12,  1937.     284.8  N48 

Includes  data  relating  to  farm  income  from  milk  com- 
pared with  that  for  other  commodities,  1929-34,  per 
capita  consumption  of  dairy  products,  1925-35,  production 
of  dairy  products,  1927-36,  and  consumer  incomes  and 
prices  of  dairy  products,  1927-37.    Dairy  company  reve- 
nues and  cash  farm  income  are  charted. 

358.  MOFFETT,  W.  K.     Milk  control  in  Pennsylvania. 
Intl.  Assoc.  Milk  Sanit.  Rpt.  1936:  165-170,  172-175. 
1937.     44.9  In89 

Discusses  the  application  of  the  Act  of  1935  regulating 
milk  in  the  State. 
Discussion,  p.  175-180. 

359.  MORK,  R.  Die  milchwirtschaftliche  marktordnung 
Norwegens.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  if 
(3):  62-65.     44.9  In8211 

Shows  status  of  milk,  cheese,  and  butter  marketing  con- 
trol in  Norway. 

360.  MORTENSEN,  M.,  and  others.  Standardization  of 
Iowa  butter.  Iowa  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  358:  377-405.  May 
1937.     100  Io9 

D.  F.  Breazeale,  C.  H.  Meyer,  and  M.  B.  Michaelian, 
joint  authors. 

Project  109  of  the  Iowa  Agricultural  Experiment  Station 
to  determine  the  extent  of  variation  in  the  chemical  com- 
position of  butter  manufactured  in  the  various  creameries, 
and  to  assist  the  creameries  to' manufacture  butter  of  a 
more  uniform  chemical  composition. 

361.  MURRAY,  K.  A.  H.     Milk  consumption.     Oxford, 
Agr.  Econ.  Res.  Inst.,  1937,     64  p.     281.344  M96 

The  first  section  of  this  study  summarizes  the  existing 
analyses  of  the  factors  affecting  milk  consumption.  The 
1  second  and  third  sections  deal  with  a  survey  of  the  con- 
sumption of  milk  and  milk  products  carried  out  in  Oxford 
during  the  summer  of  1936,  the  results  of  which  suggest 
that  not  income  alone,  but  indifference,  habit,  and  lack  of 
appreciation  influence  consumption. 

362.  NATIONAL  MILK  PUBLICITY  COUNCIL,  INC., 
I  LONDON.     Publicity  for  milk  in  England.     Internatl. 

Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  231-235.     44.9  In8211 
Covers  the  work  of  the  Council  and  contains  reference 
[  to  milk-in-schools  and  milk-in-industry  schemes,  general 
and  special  organization,  press  advertising  and  poster 
displays,  films,  exhibitions,  agricultural  shows  and  milk 
bars,  and  editorial  publicity. 

363.  NETHERLANDS.  Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Gov.  Meas- 
ures Affecting  Agr.  Prices  3(10):  48-58.     1937. 

281.8  In8 
Legislation  on  dairy  products. 


364.  N.  Y.  (STATE)  LEGISLATURE.  COMMITTEE  TO 
INVESTIGATE  THE  MILK  CONTROL  LAW.     Report, 
March  22,  1937.     Albany,  J.  B.  Lyon,  1937.     31  p. 
280.344  N485 

Report  based  on  testimony  given  at  twelve  public  hear- 
ings, 1937.  Prices,  loss  of  fluid  milk  market  by  New  York 
State  producers,  and  breakdown  of  enforcement  of  the  law 
in  the  metropolitan  area  are  among  subjects  discussed. 

365.  NICHITA,  G.     Mise  en  valeur  de  la  surproduction 
laitiere— la  poudre  de  lait.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss. 
Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  235-244.     44.9  In8211 

Includes  sections  on  the-utilization  of  milk  powder  for 
human  and  animal  nutrition,  and  in  the  manufacture  of 
food. 

366.  NOBLE,  K.  F.  Market  for  condensed  milk  in  Brit- 
ish Malaya.  Canada.  Dept.  Trade  &  Com.  Com.  Intel.  J. 
57:  464-466.     Sept.  11,  1937.     286.8  C16 

Shows  sweetened  and  unsweetened  condensed  milk  im- 
ports into  British  Malaya,  of  British  and  western  Euro- 
pean origin,  during  1935-May  1937;  prices,  packing, 
terms,  and  duties.    The  per  capita  consumption  for  the 
population  of  4,500,000  is  one  tin  of  14  ounces  per  month. 

367.  100  PER  CENT  paper  container  operation  featured 
by  Risdon  in  re-entering  Detroit  milk  market.     Milk 
Dealer  26(8):  42-43.     May  1937.     44.8  M595 

A  wholesale  plant  operating  100  percent  on  paper  con- 
tainers made  by  one  fully-automatic  machine  in  the  plant 
in  quart,  pint  and  half-pint  sizes  for  use,  as  required,  for 
milk,  chocolate  milk,  sour  cream,  butter,  cottage  cheese, 
and  ice  cream.    The  dairy  cites  nine  advantages  in  the 
use  of  its  containers. 

368.  OREGON.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.     New  law. 
Oreg.  Dept.  Agr.  B.  63,  3  p.     1937.     2  Or3 

Comments  briefly  on  and  notes  provisions  of  the  new 
Oregon  law  which  provides  for  the  compulsory  grading  of 
dairy  products. 

369.  OREGON  MILK  CONTROL  BOARD.     Summary  of 
present  legal  opinions  of  milk  control  legislation,  by  S.  B. 
Weinstein.     Portland,  1937.     10  p.     280.344  Or33 

As  a  result  of  the  decisions  of  the  United  States  Supreme 
Court  and  the  courts  of  last  resort  of  many  of  the  States, 
the  following  legal  principles  may  be  adduced:  1,  A  state 
may  require  licenses  or  permits  for  the  sanitary  produc- 
tion and  distribution  of  milk  and  milk  products;  2,  A  state 
may  adopt  standards  for  milk  and  milk  products  in  the 
interests  of  public  health;  and  3,  A  state  may  adopt  legis- 
lation providing  for  reasonable  regulation  of  the  produc- 
tion, manufacture,  sale  and  distribution  of  fluid  milk  and 
in  such  legislation  provide  for  the  fixing  of  minimum 
wholesale  and  retail  prices. 

370.  ORR,  T.     Milk  control;  an  abridgement  of  the  Brit- 
ish report  to  the  Conference  of  the  International  Union  of 
Local  Authorities  at  Paris  in  July,  1937.     Local  Govt. 
Admin.  3(2):  78-84.     June  1937.     U.  S.  Dept.  Labor  Libr. 

General  review  of  the  control  of  milk  production  and 
marketing  in  Great  Britain,  with  emphasis  on  health  and 
sanitary  aspects. 

371.  PABST,  W.  R.,  JR.  Butter  and  oleomargarine:  an 
analysis  of  competing  commodities.  New  York,  Colum- 
bia U.  Press,  1937.     112  p.     281.344  Pll 

Discusses  the  development  of  the  industries,  restraint 
of  competition  between  butter  and  oleomargarine,  the  re- 
lationship of  these  commodities  in  the  light  of  recent 
theoretical  work  and  through  the  application  of  modern 
statistical  technique,  and  the  question  of  further  taxation 
of  oleomargarine. 

372.  PACKARD,  A.  Selling  milk  under  Federal  license. 
Nation's  Agr.  12(11):  1-2,  11-12.     Oct.  1937.     280.82  B89 

Advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the  Federal  Milk  Mar- 
keting Agreement  and  License  in  the  Boston  market. 

373.  PARKER,  C.  V.     Butter  manufacturing  costs  in 
country  and  city  plants.     Econ.  Annal.  7(4):  52-55.     Aug. 
1937.     281.8  Ec72 

Relative  costs  of  butter  manufacture  in  Canadian  cities, 
towns  and  viUages;  includes  costs  of  gathering  cream. 


23 


3740  PHELPS,  C.  S.  Dairying  in  the  St  Lawrence  Val- 
ley.    Rur.  New  Yorker  96:  137.     Feb.  13,  1937.     6  R88 

Beginning  about  1850,  when  cheese  factories  were  being 
introduced,  until  about  the  turn  of  the  century,  factory 
cheese-making  was  the  leading  branch  of  dairying  in  this 
area.    At  present,  milk  production  for  New  York  and  Bos- 
ton markets  predominates. 

375.  PHILPOTT,  H.  G.  A  history  of  the  New  Zealand 
dairy  industry,  1840-1935.  Wellington,  Govt.  Printer, 
1937.     413  p.     Ref.     281.344  P54 

Grading  and  branding  of  dairy  products,  legislation  deal- 
ing with  the  industry,  including  the  dairy  industry  acts, 
dairy  produce  regulations  and  the  Primary  Products  Mar- 
keting Act,  and  packing  of  dairy  produce  are  dealt  with  in 
separate  chapters.   A  section  on  statistics  relating  to  the 
industry  is  included. 

376.  PITTSBURGH  Health  Department  shuts  off  pro- 
ducers of  high  count  milk.     Milk  Dealer  26(12):  82.     Sept. 
1937.     44.8  M595  P 

In  an  enforcement  of  a  city  ordinance  of  1910  which  pro- 
vides that  milk  at  receiving  stations  must  not  exceed  a 
bacteria  count  of  500,000  per  c.c,  2,000  dairy  farms  were 
recently  excluded;  1,800  of  these,  however,  have  been  re- 
instated because  of  reduced  bacteria  count  in  their  milk. 
The  10,000  dairy  farms  under  the  direct  supervision  of 
the  Pittsburgh  Department  of  Public  Health,  located  within 
a  radius  of  125  miles  of  the  city,  are  visited  twice  yearly, 
or  oftener  if  necessary,  by  a  corps  of  30  approved  in- 
spectors in  the  employ  of  the  milk  companies. 

377.  POLLARD,  J.  Milk  and  dairies  legislation.  Roy. 
Sanit.  Inst.  J.  57:  716-720.     May  1937.     449.9  R812 

Discusses  the  British  Milk  and  Dairies  Order,  1926,  the 
Milk  Act,  1934,  and  the  Milk  (Special  Designations)  Order, 
1936,  and  what  effect  they  have  had  in  improving  the  milk 
supply. 

Discussion,  p.  720-723. 

378.  POST,  J.  W.     Standardization  of  cream  has  im- 
proved quality  in  Midwestern  States.     Amer.  Creamery 
84:  502-503,  512.     Aug.  11,  1937.     286.85  N482 

Facts  and  figures  are  presented  showing  degrees  of  im- 
provement in  cream  quality  as  a  result  of  standardization 
of  "field"  grading. 

379.  POTTS,  R.  C.  A  champion  of  Gov't  butter  grading. 
Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  85(2):  52-54.     Nov.  10,  1937. 

286.85  N482 

Address,  Convention  of  Minnesota  Creamery  Operators 
and  Managers  Association,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota,  Octo- 
ber 13,  1937. 

Describes  briefly  improvements  of  the  proposed  U.  S. 
Standards  and  tells  of  the  value  of  government  butter 
grading  service  to  the  producer  and  consumer. 

380.  POTTS,  R.  C.  Government  butter  grading.   Washing- 
ton, U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.,  1937,     6  p.     1.9  Ec724G 

Excerpts  from  addresses  at  Fond  du  Lac,  Wis.,  Oct.  7, 
1936  and  at  La  Crosse,  Wis.,  Nov.  11,  1936. 

Tells  briefly  of  the  scope  of  the  government  grading 
service,  how  the  butter  grading  service  is  used  and  shows 
how  government  grading  aids  in  quality  improvement. 

381.  POTTS,  R.  C.     Objectives  of  government  butter 
grading.     U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Agr.  Situation  21(4):  16- 
17.     Apr.  1,  1937.     1  Ec7Ag 

382.  PRESCOTT,  M.  S.     Milk  control  in  New  York. 
Holstein-Freisian  World  34:  10,  13,  20.     Jan.  9,  1937. 

43.8  H742 

Statement  presented  to  recent  Four  State  Conference 
m  New  York  City. 

Producers  have  been  materially  benefited  by  milk  price 
control.   Suggests  changes  in  present  legislation,  includ- 
ing establishment  in  each  retail  market  of  three  classes 
of  milk.     More  control  over  inter -State  milk  is  needed 
and  prices  for  surplus  should  be  based  on  what  the  milk 
is  actually  worth  for  manufacturing  purposes. 

383.  PRINGLE,  C.  Milk  prices  in  England  and  Wales. 
Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  65-70. 

44.9  In8211 

Considers,  producers'  and  retail  prices  in  relation  to 
the  operation  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  and  the  ex- 
tent of  Government  assistance  under  it. 


384.  QUINTUS,  P.  E.  A  system  for  quantity  discounts 
on  milk  and  cream.  J.  Farm  Econ.  19:  636-639.  May 
1937.     280.8  T822 

A  retail  and  wholesale  price  plan,  suggested  by  Edwin 
S.  Elwell  of  the  Northland  Milk  and  Ice  Cream  Company, 
is  described.    Under  this  plan  milk  would  be  sold  at  a 
fixed  price  per  quart  regardless  of  the  number  of  units 
taken,  plus  a  service  charge  which  decreases  on  a  per 
unit  basis  as  the  size  of  the  sale  increases.    The  plan,  if 
put  into  effect,  would  lower  consumer  prices  without  re- 
ducing producer  prices  or  the  net  returns  to  dealers. 

385.  REDUCING  milk  bottle  losses.  Amer.  Creamery 
84:  294-297.     June  30,  1937.     286.85  N482 

The  use  of  premiums  on  collection  of  bottles,  community 
educational  programs,  milk  bottle  exchanges,  the  univer- 
sal bottle  and  paper  container,  are  ways  and  means  sug- 
gested to  minimize  milk  bottle  losses. 

386.  REINART,  A.     Organisationsformen  der  molkereien 
in  Estland,  deren  vor-  und  nachteile.     Internatl.  Dairy 
Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  120-124.     44.9  In8211 

Private  and  cooperative  dairies. 

387.  REPORT  of  the  milk  program  committee.  Hol- 
stein-Friesian  World  34:  1274-1275,  1284,  1286,  1297- 
1299.     Dec.  25,  1937.     43.8  H742 

Report  of  a  special  committee  of  the  Holstein-Friesian 
Association  of  America,  appointed  to  make  a  study  of  the 
difficulties  attending  the  marketing  of  Holstein  milk  and 
to  develop  a  program  designed  to  eliminate  such  difficul- 
ties with  particular  reference  to  enlisting  members  in  a 
drive  to  legalize  standardization  of  milk  by  dealers.   Rec- 
ommends use  of  a  trade-mark  for  Holstein  milk,  develop- 
ment of  uniform  State  milk  standards  that  will  fit  all 
natural  milk  from  all  dairy  breeds,  and  that  milk  sold  at 
retail  should  be  labeled  as  to  fat  content  in  three  classifi- 
cations, with  at  least  1  c.  per  qt.  spread  between  classifi- 
cations. 

388.  RIDDELL,  W.  H.     Milk  standard  and  solids-not- 
fat  problem.     Hoard's  Dairyman  82:  103,  122-123.     Feb. 
25,  1937.     44.8  H65 

There  is  a  growing  controversy  as  to  the  fairness  of 
many  State  and  municipal  standards  concerning  the  fat 
and  solids -not -fat  content  of  milk.    Present  standards,  in 
many  cases,  were  put  in  effect  when  too  little  was  known 
of  the  behavior  of  the  solids -not -fat  content  of  milk  and 
therefore  a  greater  degree  of  tolerance  is  essential  in  en- 
forcing these  standards  today. 

389.  RIEDEL,  P.     Verwertung  von  magermilch,  butter- 
milch  und  molken.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937):  11(2):  285-289.     44.9  In8211 

Skim  milk  is  used  for  human  food  in  Germany  chiefly 
in  the  form  of  cottage  cheese,  cottage  cheese  with  cream 
(20  to  40  percent  fat  solids),  and  as  sour  milk  curd  for 
manufacturing  other  cheese. 

390.  RIEDEL,  W.     Ober  verpackung  von  butter.     Inter- 
natl. Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  152-156. 

44.9  In8211 

Deals  with  the  causes  for  the  changes  in  stored  butter, 
various  wrapping  materials  and  their  standardization  in 
Germany  and  the  effect  of  light  on  butter.    Recently  pro- 
duced types  of  parchment  paper  which  are  made  imper- 
vious to  ultraviolet  rays  by  addition  of  special  substances 
proved  superior  to  other  foils. 

391.  ROBERTS,  J.  B.,  and  PRICE,  H.  B.     Milk  market- 
ing in  Lexington.     Ky.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  377:  263-301. 
Dec.  1937.     100  K41 

Gives  information  on  organization  and  development  of 
the  market,  sources  of  market  milk,  price  mechanism, 
milk  consumption  and  its  variations,  surplus  and  shortage, 
market  competition,  and  dealers'  price  spreads.  Analyzes 
the  use  of  milk  by  pasteurizing  plants,  which  sell  only 
about  one -half  of  the  bottled  milk  of  the  city  and  distribute 
a  relatively  large  proportion  of  manufactured  products, 
besides  handling  most  of  the  surplus  milk. 


24 


392.  RpBINEAU,  M.     La  vente  du  lait  et  des  produits 
derives  et  l'etablissement  d'un  prix  acceptable  pour  les 
producteurs,  les  detaillants  et  les  consommateurs.     In- 
ternatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  70-74. 
44.9  In8211 

Hauser,  Barus,  and  Baudoin,  joint  authors. 
Shows  need  for  improved  milk  marketing  regulation  in 
France. 

393.  RODGERS,  J.  B.,  and  others.     Distribution  and 
costs  of  steam,  electrical  power,  and  labor  in  representa7 
tive  Idaho  creameries.     Idaho  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Res.  B. 

12,  35  p.     Ref.     1936.     100  Idl 

D.  R.  Theophilus,  H.  Beresford  and  J.  L.  Barnhart, 
joint  authors. 

Summary  in  Amer.  Creamery  83:  864.     Apr.  14,  1937. 

This  bulletin  lists  in  detail  the  equipment  used  in  two 
creameries,  records  results  of  boiler  tests,  and  charts 
use  of  steam  generated  in  both  plants  and  what  it  was 
used  for.  Tables  show  power  consumption  of  each  piece 
of  equipment,  per  hour,  per  day,  and  per  month,  and  the 
cost  of  steam,  electricity,  and  labor  per  unit  of  product 
manufactured. 

394.  ROLLE,  M.     Die  frischmilchkontrolle  in  den  stadt- 
en  Lettlands.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(2):  421-424.     44.9  In8211 

Sets  forth  requisites  for  an  effective  milk  control  pro- 
gram in  the  country.  Licenses  for  the  sale  of  milk  are 
issued  only  upon  inspection  of  the  dairy  farms  supplying 
it. 

395.  RUDDICK,  J.  A.  The  story  of  dairying  in  Canada. 
Canad.  Geog.  J.  15:  40-55.     July  1937.     470  C162 

Outlines  the  origin  and  development  of  the  industry  and 
gives  production  and  trade  data. 

396.  SADDINGTON,  C.  W.     The  dairy  industry  in  Canada; 
butter,  cheese.     Canad.  Chartered  Accountant  29:  441- 
449;  31:  204-211.     Dec.  1936,  Sept.  1937.     Libr.  Cong. 

Shows  that  an  increased  output  for  individual  factories 
and  a  greater  yield  of  butterfat  per  cow  are  needed  to 
lower  the  costs  of  butter  production  and  make  possible 
larger  exports.    Calls  for  more  intensive  cheese  produc- 
tion to  reduce  costs,  equalization  of  exchange  rates  to 
offset  the  advantage  of  other  countries  because  of  depre- 
ciated currencies,  and  reduction  of  transportation  costs 
as  regards  long  railway  hauls. 

397.  SAITNER,  M.     Die  in  Deutschland  seit  der  macht- 
tibernahme  durch  den  nationalsozialismus  getroffenen 
organisatorischen  massnahmen  zur  qualitatsverbesserung 
der  butter.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11 
(2):  428-436.     44.9  In8211 

Discusses  butter  controls  and  standards  based  on  offi- 
cial regulations. 

398.  SAITNER,  M.     Massnahmen,  die  in  Deutschland 
seit  der  machtflbernahme  durch  den  nationalsozialismus 
zur  qualitatsverbesserung  der  kase  getroffen  wurden  und 
solehe,  die  in  vorbereitung  sind.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  436-444.     44.9  In8211 

Considers  the  effects  of  operations  of  the  milk  market- 
ing associations,  the  introduction  of  quality  controls,  and 
the  payment  for  milk  according  to  quality  on  the  program, 
and  the  utilization  of  such  means  as  consultant  and  infor- 
mation services,  tests,  and  special  training  procedures  to 
further  it. 

399.  SANDO,  G.     Propaganda -arbeit  fiir  gesteigerte  ver- 
wendung  von  molkereierzeugnissen  in  DJtnemark.     Inter- 
natl. Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  247-251. 

44.9  In8211 

Describes  the  organization  of  an  intensive  public  rela- 
tions program  in  Denmark  the  results  of  which  are  pre- 
sented on  the  basis  of  retail  milk  sales. 

400.  SAUER,  H.     Erfahrungen  Uber  die  herstellune  von 
frischem  und  getrocknetem  molkeneiweiss.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  289-291. 

44.9  In8211 

Suggests  methods  of  reducing  costs  of  manufacturing 
whey  protein,  which  have  proved  a  drawback  in  its  utiliza- 
tion. 


401.  SAVXNI,  E.     De  la  fabrication,  du  commerce  et  de 
1  uniformisation  des  procedes  d'analyse  de  la  poudre  de 
lait.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3)-  14- 
15.     44.9  In8211 

Deals  in  part  with  the  designation  of  the  product,  fat 
content,  moisture  content,  weight,  and  adulteration. 

402.  SAVINI,  E."    La  fabrication,  le  commerce  et  l'uni- 
formisation  des  methodes  d'analyse  des  fromages  fondus. 
Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  7-«. 

44.9  In8211 

Deals  in  part  with  the  designation  of  the  fat  content, 
salt  content,  and  weight. 

403.  SCHILLING,  K.     Einrlchtungen  in  milchwirtschaft- 
lichen  betrieben  zur  herstellung  verkauf  sf  ertiger  flaschen- 
milcli.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3): 
409-415.'.   44.9  In8211 

Considers  the  glass  bottle  with  aluminum  cap  the  best 
type  of  milk  container.  The  paper  container  and  card- 
board bottle  cap  have  only  limited  uses  in  Germany. 

404.  SCHNEIDER,  G.     Verwertung  von  entrahmter 
milch  zu  frischkSse.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(2):  291-295.     44.9  In8211 

Consumers  can  buy  nutritive  value  in  cottage  cheese  for 
about  one  fourth  as  much  as  the  equivalent  value  would 
cost  in  eggs.    Discusses  packaging  and  marketing  of  the 
product.   States  that  increasing  consumption  to  500  grams 
per  household  per  week  would  take  care  of  the  surplus  of 
skimmed  milk  and  bring  a  better  price  for  milk  to  the 
producer. 

405.  SCHO.     Germany's  milk  industrv.     Hamburgisches 
Weltwirtschaft  Arch.  B.  3:  278-281.     July  15,  1937. 
280.8  H17 

Amendments  to  the  Milk  Law,  enacted  on  July  20,  1933, 
have  paved  the  way  for  the  organization  of  the  German 
dairy  industry  in  its  present-day  form.     This  is  de- 
scribed, with  information  on  production,  consumption, 
marketing,  and  trade.   Improvements  and  expansion  are 
contemplated  through  the  operation  of  the  Four  Year 
Plan.   Increased  utilization  of  skimmed  milk  powder  and 
casein  is  noted. 

406.  SCHULTHEISS,  F.  Fluid  milk  market  stabilization 
in  Wisconsin.  Milk  Dealer  26(7):  44,  80-84.  Apr.  1937. 
44.8  M595 

Price  regulation  under  the  law  due  to  expire  July  1, 
1937. 

407.  SCHULTHEISS,  F.     Is  a  State  grading  system  for 
cheese  profitable?     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28(4):  41. 
Feb.  25,  1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

A  system  for  grading  cheese  exclusively  by  State  em- 
ployed graders  is  advocated.    Such  a  system  would  curb 
unfair  methods  and  practices  in  the  grading  and  market- 
ing of  cheese  and  would  do  away  with  the  production  of 
poor  quality  of  cheese. 

408.  SCOTT,  J.  M.     Dairy  industry  in  Florida.     Milk 
Dealer  27(1):  50,  108.     Oct.  1937.     44.8  M595 

Dairying  in  Florida  differs  from  that  of  many  other 
States  in  that  about  90  percent  of  the  milk  produced  is 
bottled  and  sold  as  fluid  milk.    Prior  to  1932  large  quanti- 
ties of  milk  were  shipped  into  Florida  from  other  States. 
However,  since  1932  very  little  milk  has  been  brought  in- 
to the  State.    Florida  dairymen  are  now  supplying  the  en- 
tire demand  for  fluid  milk.    This  development  is  de- 
scribed, with  statistical  data.   A  good  start  in  the  produc- 
tion of  milk  products  is  reported,  too. 

409.  SCOTTISH  MILK  MARKETING  BOARD.     Scottish 
milk  marketing  scheme,  1933.  Incorporating  amendments 
made  in  the  scheme  up  to  and  including  the  30th  August 
1937.     Edinburgh,  H.'M.  Stationery  Off.,  1937.     32  p. 
280.344  Sco34 

This  is  the  text  of  the  scheme  providing  for  the  regula- 
tion of  milk  marketing  in  Scotland. 

410.  SMITH,  B.  L.,  and  WHITBY,  H.     Milk  marketing 
before  and  after  organization:  a  study  in  central  Somer- 
set.    Oxford  U.  Agr.  Econ.  Res.  Inst.      1937.     56  p. 
280  344  Ox2 

Reports  the  results  of  two  surveys,  1931-32  and  1934-35, 
and  shows  that  the  effect  of  the  Milk  Scheme  on  producers 
has  been  favorable. 


25 


411.  SPENCER,  L.     The  milk  situation  in  New  York, 
January  1937.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  B.  365,  19  p.     Jan. 
1937.     275.29  N48E 

A  study  to  show  how  the  prices  received  by  New  York 
farmers  for  milk  compare  with  other  prices,  and  to  show 
the  trends  in  the  general  price  level  and  in  the  supply  and 
demand  for  milk. 

412.  SPENCER,  L.     Prices  of  basic  commodities  and 
milk.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  Farm  Econ.  99:  2411,  2418. 
Feb.  1937.     280.8  C812 

Because  fluid  milk  prices  and  other  prices  fixed  by 
committees  change  more  slowly  than  prices  which  are 
determined  by  competitive  trading  over  a  broad  field, 
prices  paid  farmers  for  market  milk  usually  lag  when 
competitive  prices  rise  or  fall.    In  1933,  however,  milk 
prices  rose  as  promptly  as  basic  commodity  prices  be- 
cause milk  prices  were  arbitrarily  lifted  through  price 
fixing  by  the  Milk  Control  Boards  of  New  York  and  New 
Jersey. 

413.  SPENCER,  L.     A  question  of  milk  premiums. 
Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  85:  254-255.     Dec.  29,  1937. 
286.85  N482 

Discusses  the  relation  of  surplus  to  price  premiums  for 
market  milk  over  the  manufacturing  value  of  milk  in  New 
York. 

414.  *  SPENCER,  L.  References  on  milk  marketing  and 
public  control  of  the  milk  industry.  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  A.  E. 
191,  7  p.     1937.     281.9  C81 

415.  SPENCER,  L.     Safeguarding  your  bottle  of  milk. 
Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  85:  100-104.     Nov.  24,  1937. 
286.85  N482 

Review  of  wnat  has  been  done  to  promote  fair  prices 
and  a  safe,  high  quality  product,  especially  from  a  regula- 
tory standpoint. 

416.  STEEN,  H.     The  dairyman's  market.     Successful 
Farming  35:  59-62.     Feb.  1937.     6  Sul2 

Consumption  of  dairy  products  has  kept  step  with  produc- 
tion in  this  country  because  of  the  efforts  of  the  producer 
and  distributor.    Consumer  education  and  research  are 
also  responsible  for  expansion  of  the  dairyman's  market. 

417.  STOCKER,  W.     Die  bezahlung  der  milch  nach  fett- 
gehalt  und  qualitat.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(2):  448-450.     44.9  In8211 

In  Germany,  milk  payments  are  based  upon  a  fat  content 
of  3.50  to  3.70  percent.    For,  one-tenth  percent  fat  above 
or  below  these  values  a  sum  of  0.2  Pfg.  is  added  or  de- 
ducted.   Maximum  limits  for  fat  content  have  been  fixed: 
4.20  percent  for  round  cheese  milk  and  4.50  percent  for 
milk  for  industrial  purposes,  beyond  which  the  surplus  of 
fat  is  not  paid  for.   A  standard  fat  content  of  3.40  percent 
is  considered  the  basis  for  fresh  milk;  a  similar  pro- 
cedure regarding  payment  prevails  in  case  of  higher  or 
lower  fat  content.    Milk  for  cheesemaking  is  priced  ac- 
cording to  results  of  fermentation  tests.    A  premium  is 
paid  for  milk  in  the  excellent  grade,  and  a  price  deduction 
is  made  for  poorer  milk. 

418.  STUURMAN,  S.     Die  bedeutung  der  stallhygiene 
fur  die  qualitat  der  milch  unter  beriicksichtigung  der 
rentabilitSt.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(1):  235-240.     44.9  In8211 

Payment  for  milk  should  be  based  upon  its  sanitary 
quality;  and  this  is  dependent  upon  stable  conditions,  but 
even  more  upon  methods  used  by  the  farmer. 

419.  SVADSTROM,  K.  F.     Zyklische  veranderungen  der 
milchproduktion  und  ihre  ursachen.     Internatl.  Dairy 
Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  74-79.     44.9  In8211 

Shows  the  scope  of  marketing  regulation  in  Sweden. 
Notes  cyclical  changes  in  milk  production,  consumption, 
and  profits,  and  in  the  number  of  cattle. 

420.  SWEDEN.  Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Govt.  Measures  Af- 
fecting Agr.  Prices  3(10):  61-66.     1937.     281.8  In8 

Contains  section  on  Milk    Marketing  Scheme. 

421.  SWITZERLAND.  Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Govt.  Meas- 
ures Affecting  Agr.  Prices  3(10):  66-68.     1937. 

281.8  In8 
Milk,  cheese  and  butter  prices. 
♦Not  examined. 


422.  SZANYI,  I.     Ein  weg  zur  erzielung  des  mehrver- 
brauches  von  milch  und  seine  wirkung.     Internatl.  Dairy 
Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  253-257.     44.9  In8211 

Cites  the  economic  advantages  of  increased  milk  con- 
sumption and  outlines  a  public  relations  program  to  this 
end. 

423.  TAFFOUREAU,  M.  La  technique  de  la  manipulation 
et  le  transport  du  lait.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(3):  363-368.     44.9  In8211 

Contains  information  on  the  types,  use,  and  costs  of 
milk  containers. 

424.  TEMPLETON,  H.  L.,  and  SOMMER,  H.  H.     Wrap- 
pers for  processed  cheese.     J.  Dairy  Sci.  20:  231-238. 
Ref.     May  1937.     44.8  J822 

Reports  results  of  investigations  on  the  use  of  metal 
foil  as  a  wrapper  for  Cheddar  cheese.    Metal  foils  are 
stated  to  be  superior  to  other  types  of  foils.    For  general 
use  with  all  kinds  of  cheese,  tin  foil  is  probably  more 
satisfactory  than  aluminum  foil. 

425.  TEN  CENT  package  of  butter  introduced  at  Bridge- 
port, Connecticut.  Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  28(11):  28. 
June  10,  1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

The  "Butterstick, "  a  new  sales  package  designed  to 
meet  the  demands  of  the  small  apartment  dweller,  is 
described.    The  retail  price  of  this  item  remains  con- 
stant at  10  c,  while  the  quantity  varies  with  the  market 
price  of  butter. 

426.  THOMSEN,  L.  C.  Methods  of  paying  for  milk  in 
the  whole  milk  plant  powdering  skim.  Natl.  Butter  and 
Cheese  J.  28(20):  14-16.     Oct.  25,  1937.     286.85  B98Bu 

One  problem  is  the  equalizing  of  payments  to  producers 
who  possess  high  testing  herds  and  those  having  herds 
with  low  tests.   Another  is  what  it  costs  to  produce  pow- 
dered skim  milk,  and  whether  the  cost  is  less  if  higher 
grade  milk  is  used. 

427.  *TINLFY,  J.  M.     Economic  considerations  in  fixing 
resale  prices  of  milk.     Calif.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Giannini 
Found.   Mimeog.     Rpt.  57,  9  d.     Apr.  1937. 

281.9  G34M 

428.  TINLEY,  J.  M.  Economic  considerations  in  milk- 
stabilization  plans.     Giannini  Found.  Mimeog.  Rpt.  62, 

9  p.     1937.     281.9  G34M 

Reviews  California  milk  control  legislation,  discusses 
the  dangers  of  price  fixing  and  says  some  form  of  public 
control  over  milk  marketing  appears  to  be  necessary  in 
the  interest  of  producers  and  consumers. 

429.  TOBEY,  J.  A.     Federal  and  State  control  of  milk 
prices.     Chicago,  Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk  Dealers.     1937. 
42  p.     284.344  T55 

Discusses  the  constitutional  status  of  milk  marketing 
laws  in  the  light  of  court  decisions. 

430.  TOBEY,  J.  A.  Recent  court  decisions  on  milk  con- 
trol (1934-1937).  U.  S.  Pub.  Health  Serv.  Rpts.  52:  1038- 
1044.     July  30,  1937.     151.65  P96 

These  relate  to  pasteurization,  control  of  bovine  tuber- 
culosis and  brucellosis,  limiting  the  inspection  area,  in- 
spection fees,  denial  of  a  license,  milk  containers,  price- 
fixing  of  milk,  chocolate  milk  standards,  and  filled  milk 
laws. 

431.  TOMA,  R.     Le  controle  du  lait  dans  les  zones  de 
montagne  d'ltalie.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(2):  451-452.     44.9  In8211 

Distance  between  farms,  feed  conditions,  and  availability 
of  funds  are  factors  limiting  the  application  of  the  pro- 
gram. 

432.  TRIMBLE,  C.  S.     The  problem  of  regulating  butter. 
Amer.  Creamery  and  Poultry  Prod.  Rev.  83:  382,  384- 
388.     Jan.  13,  1937.     286.85  N482 

Problems  relating  to  the  manufacture  and  uses  of  butter 
are  considered  in  the  light  of  Federal  and  State  regula- 
tion.   Control  policies  bearing  on  the  use  of  raw  materials, 
such  as  sour  cream,  are  similarly  dealt  with. 

433.  UMBRECHT,  J.     Zur  uberwachung  der  milch  auf 
fSlschungen  durch  fremdwasserzusatz.     Internatl.  Dairy 
Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  460-464.     44.9  In8211 

Suggests  organization  of  the  methods  of  control  on  uni- 
form lines  and  collaboration  between  food  chemist,  dairy 
expert,  and  veterinarian. 


26 


434.  UMBRECHT.  J.  Zusammenarbeit  zwischen  lebens- 
mittelpolizei  und  milchwirtschaft.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong. 
Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(2):  456-460.     44.9  In8211 

The  possibility  of  improved  relations  in  this  regard  is 
indicated  by  the  operation  of  milk  and  butter  quality  con- 
trols. 

435.  UNITED  Kingdom.  Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Govt. 
Measures  Affecting  Agr.  Prices  3(10):  58-61.  1937. 
281.8  In8 

Includes  section  on  Milk  Marketing  Scheme  with  opera- 
ting statistics. 

436.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
Federal  milk  control  and  its  administration,  by  O.  H.  Hoff- 
man, Jr.     Washington,  1937.      5  p.     1.94  D14Fed 

A  talk  made  before  the  National  Association  of  Milk 
Control  Boards  which  discusses  the  Agricultural  Market- 
ing Agreement  Act  of  1937  and  the  administration  of  its 
provisions  relating  to  milk. 

437.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN.     A 
survey  of  milk  marketing  in  Milwaukee.     U.  S.  Agr.  Ad- 
justment Admin.  DM-1  (Mktg.  Inform.  Ser.),  119  p.     1937. 
1.4  Ad47D 

The  major  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  determine  the 
feasibility  of  centralizing  milk  distribution  in  Milwaukee. 
Plans  for  a  unified  system  of  processing  and  delivery 
large  enough  to  serve  the  needs  of  the  community  are 
described  in  detail.    The  proposed  system  would  be  non- 
competitive and  would  be  operated  as  a  municipal  enter- 
prise. 

437-A.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Charts  &  tables.  Production  and  consumption  of  manufac- 
tured dairy  products,  changes  in  seasonal  variation  of 
butter  production,  cost  of  manufacture  and  distribution  of 
butter  and  cheese,  prepared  by  E.  E.  Vial.      Washington, 
1937.      16  p.     1.9  Ec752Pc 

438.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Charts.  Relation  of  butter  production  and  purchasing 
power  of  consumers  to  the  price  of  butter,-  prepared  by 
E.  E.  Vial.    Washington,  1937.     9  p.     1.9  Ec752Rb 

439.  U.  S.  CONGRESS.  SENATE.  COMMITTEE  ON  AGRI- 
CULTURE AND  FORESTRY.     Purchase  and  sale  of  farm 
products.  Hearings,  Cong.,  1st  sess.  on  S.  848,  March  2,  3, 
10,  and  April  6,  1937.     Washington,  1937.     141  p. 

280.3  Un37Pur 
Includes  discussion  on  dairy  products. 

440.  U.  S.  DEPT.  OF  LABOR.     Analysis  of  condition, 
quality,  and  size  requirements  of  United  States  and  State 
standards  for  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  and  legal  stand- 
ards for  dairy  products.     Washington,  1937.     18  p. 
158.241  Anl 

Prepared  by  J.  C.  Jackson,  H.  A.  Mereness,  E.  D. 
Riley  and  T.  E.  Wilson. 

State  and  federal  standards  for  milk,  skim  milk,  cream, 
butter,  sweetened  condensed  milk,  evaporated  milk, 
plain  ice  cream,  fruit  or  nut  ice  cream,  whole -milk 
cheese,  and  skim-milk  cheese,  are  presented  in  graphic 
form  in  chart  X  (facing  p.  18) 

441.  U.  S.  FEDERAL  TRADE  COMMISSION.     Report... 
on  the  sale  and  distribution  of  milk  and  milk  products, 
N.  Y.  milk  sales  area.  Letter  ...  transmitting  a  report 
...  with  respect  to  the  sale  and  distribution  of  milk  and 
milk  products  in  the  New  York  sales  area  and  the  oper- 
ations of  nationwide  processors  and  distributors  of  milk 
and  milk  products  with  headquarters  in  New  York  City. 
75th  Cong,  1st  sess.  H.  Doc.  95.     138  p.     173  F32Mi 

Reviews  milk  regulations  and  shows  duplication  of 
farm  inspection  in  the  N.Y.  milkshed. 

442 .  U.  S.  FEDERAL  TRADE  COMMISSION.     Summary 
report  on  conditions  with  respect  to  the  sale  and  dis- 
tribution of  milk  and  dairy  products,  in  response  to  H. 
Con.  Res.  32,  73d.  Congress,  2d  sess.  approved  June 

15,  1934.  75th  Cong.,  1st  Sess.,  H.  Doc.  94.         37  p. 
1937.       173F32Mi 

Deals  in  part  with  price  practices,  health  regulations 
and  inspection  rules,  milk  settlements,  gross  spreads 
or  margins  per  quart,  and  unit  delivery  costs  and  their 
allocation. 


443.  VARNEY,  H.  R.     This  milk  Droblem.     Vt.  Agr. 
Col.  Ext.  C.  95,  89  p.     1937.     275.29  V59c 

Contains  material  on  costs  ol  milk  nancuing,  on  factors 
affecting  the  price  of  milk,  and  on  flat -price  buying. 

444.  VERGE,  J.,  and  THIEULIN,  G.     L'utilisation  des 
laits  tuberculeux.     Le  Lait  17(164):  348-354.     Apr.  1937 
44.8  L143 

Also  in  Rev.  Gen.  de  M?d.  Ve't.  45:  713-721.     Dec.  15, 

1936.  41.8  R323. 

A  discussion  of  the  Decree  of  January  24,  1934  on  this 
subject. 

445.  VERMONT.  SPECIAL  MILK  INVESTIGATIONAL 
COMMITTEE.     Vermont  milk  report.      Montpelier, 

1937.  29  p.     281.344  V59 

Facts  are  reported  regarding  the  production  of  milk 
in  Vermont  over  the  previous  ten  years,  how  it  was  dis- 
posed of,  and  what  was  received  for  it.    Conditions  in  the 
markets,  competitive  conditions,  and  what  has  been  ac- 
complished by  organization  in  the  state  are  set  forth. 

446.  VIAL,  E.  E.     Changes  in  the  seasonal  variation  of 
butter  prices  and  market  receipts  of  butter.  N.  Y.  Agr. 
Col.  Ext.  Farm  Econ.  100:  2456-2463.     Mar.  1937. 
280.8  C812 

Although  butter  prices  tend  to  be  low  in  the  summer 
when  the  seasonal  peak  in  production  occurs,  and  high  in 
the  fall  and  winter  when  production  is  low,  the  seasonal 
variation  in  prices  has  declined  during  the  last  55  years. 
The  author  studies  the  factors  underlying  this  circum- 
stance, and  discusses  the  relationship  of  butterfat  prices 
to  the  prices  of  feed  grains  and  meat  animals. 

447.  VIRGINIA.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.     Protec- 
tion of  the  milk  supply  in  the  state  of  Virginia.  Va.  Dept. 
Agr.  and  Immigr.  B.  350:  23-24.      July  1937,      2  V81B 

The  principal  requirements  of  the  State  Milk  Law  are 
briefly  stated,  and  methods  pursued  in  its  enforcement 
are  discussed. 

448.  VIRTANEN,  A.  I.      Die  wirtschaftseigene  milch- 
produktion.     Internat.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937) 
11(1):  180-187.     44.9  In8211 

Deals  with  the  possibility  of  a  self-sufficient  milk 
production  based  on  home-produced  feeds,  and  cites  the 
economic  efficiency  of  this  method  and  experiences  in 
Finland  in  the  course  of  eight  years.    Discusses  the 
quality  of  the  milk  and  milk  products  in  that  country. 

449.  WAGNER,  R.     Die  vorteile  des  einheits- 
milchflaschenkastens.     Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss. 
Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  368-369.     44.9  In8211 

Standardized  as  to  size  and  construction  the  new  zinc- 
coated  milk  bottle  cases  are  convenient  and  economical 
to  use. 

450.  WEST,  G.  A.,  and  SPENCER,  L.     The  supply  and 
sales  of  milk  and  cream  in  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  1930-1936. 
N.Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  101:  2480-2484.     May  1937. 
280.8  C812 

A  study  of  this  milk  market  area  including  tables  giving 
number  of  farms  under  Rochester  inspection,  the  average  ■ 
daily  supply  of  milk  and  cream,  the  average  daily  sales 
of  milk  and  cream  by  Rochester  milk  dealers,  the  number 
of  dealers  selling  and  quantity  of  special  milk  products 
sold  all  in  November  of  each  year.    The  number  of  dealers 
selling  each  grade  of  milk  and  cream,  and  the  daily  con- 
sumption of  milk  and  cream  per  capita  in  Rochester  are 
given  also. 

451.  WHEELER,  L.  A.     British  agricultural  policy- 
some  selected  lessons.     J.  Farm  Econ.  19:  264-271. 
Feb.  1937.     280.8  J822 

Deals  in  part  with  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme. 


27 


452.  WHEELER,  L.  A.  The  dairy  industry  and  the 
trade  agreements  program.  Washington,  U.  S.  Bur. 
Agr.  Econ.,.1937.     7  p.     1.9  Ec753D 

The  dairy  industry  of  the  United  States  is  on  a  small 
import  basis  and  is  thus  ordinarily  in  a  position  to  be 
protected  against  the  influence  of  the  foreign  dairy  situ- 
ation through  moderate  import  duties.    The  best  prospect* 
of  keeping  the  industry  on  this  basis  are  to  be  found  in 
an  increase  in  consumption  resulting  from  higher  pur- 
chasing power,  particularly  in  the  urban  centers,  and, 
secondly,  in  minimizing  the  competition  from  increased 
production  of  dairy  products  in  the  sections  of  the  country 
that  have  been  producing  the  major  export  crops.   It  is 
toward  these  objectives  that  the  trade  agreements  pro- 
gram is  directed. 

453.  WIEDEMANN,  U.  Marktordnung  und  Allgauer 
milchwirtschaft.  Internatl.  Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber. 
(1937)  11(3):  79-81.     44.9  In8211 

Shows  how  the  dairy  industry  in  this  district  has  been 
benefited  by  milk  marketing  control. 

454.  WINNING,  H.  J.     Consumer  preference  of  batch 
vs.  continuous  frozen  ice  cream.     Ohio  State  U.  CoL 
Agr.  and  Domestic  Sci.  Dairv  Technol.  Conf.  Mater. 
Presented  1937:  55-56.     44.9  Oh35M 

Ice  cream  frozen  in  the  Vogt  continuous  freezer  was 
preferred  by  107  out  of  158  consumers  mainly  because 
it  was  found  smoother,  richer,  and  more  filling. 


455.  WINSAUER,  K.     Internationale  regelung  der 
herstellung  und  des  handels  von  schmelzkase.     Internatl. 
Dairy  Cong.  Wiss.  Ber.  (1937)  11(3):  8-13.     44.9  In8211 

Considers  the  characterization  of  the  product  and  its 
origin,  the  indication  of  fat  content  and  net  weight,  maxi- 
mum water  content,  additions  to  the  cheese,  and  the  prob- 
lem of  brands. 

456.  WRIGHT,  K.  T.,  and  TAYLOR,  H.  B.     1936  dairy 
costs.     Mich.  State  Col.  Agr.  Ext.  F.  M.  205,  17  p.     Aug. 
1937.     275.29  M581 

A  project  whose  purpose  was  to  determine  the  physical 
and  financial  requirements  of  producing  milk  and  butter - 
fat,  and  to  study  the  relation  of  practices  to  costs  and  re- 
turns.   Cost  records  were  kept  on  123  Michigan  herds 
averaging  12.9  cows. 

457.  WYNNE,  S.  W.     Analysis  of  milk  control  in  New 
York  State.     Milk  Dealer  26(6):  62.     Mar.  1937. 

44.8  M595 

An  account  of  milk  price  fixing  under  the  Milk  Control 
Law,  and  operations  of  the  Milk  Control  Board. 

458.  YARNELL,  R.     Country  delivery  routes.     Ice 
Cream  Rev.  20(6):  54.     Feb.  1937.     389.8  Ic22 

Reports  costs  of  delivering  ice  cream  over  country 
routes  of  the  Yarnell  Ice  Cream  Co.,  Searcy,  Ark. 

Includes  a  table  showing  truck  costs  per  mile  for  the 
period  1929-1936. 

459.  YOUNG,  J.  L.     The  New  Jersey  official  grades  for 
milk.     N.  J.  Dept.  Agr.  C.  284,  8  p.     1937.     2  N46C 

Outlines  the  provisions  of  the  regulations  covering  the 
production  and  distribution  of  milk  under  the  New  Jersey 
official  grades. 


1938 


460.  ALLRED,  C.  E.,  and  SANT,  P.  E.  Regional  differ- 
ences in  the  farm  price  of  milk  cows  [and]  dairy  products, 
Tennessee  and  United  States.  Tenn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Rur. 
Res.  Ser.  Monog.  68,  41  p.     Jan.  20,  1938.     173.2  W89Co 

Data  used  in  this  study  are  district  prices  in  Tennessee 
computed  as  arithmetic  averages  from  statistics  in  the 
U.  S.  D.  A.  Division  of  Crop  and  Livestock  Estimates  in 
Tennessee,  and  prices  for  individual  states  computed 
similarly  from  U.  S.  D.  A.    Yearbooks  and  mimeographed 
supplements.    Factors  influencing  price  variations  are 
discussed. 

461.  AMERICAN  Dairy  Science  Association  approves 
standardization;  report  of  committee  on  a  standardization 
of  market  milk.     Holstein-Friesian  World  35:  779-780, 
902.     Aug.  6,  20,  1938.     43.8  H742 

The  Association  approves  and  recommends  in  principle:- 
1,  Legalization  of  the  alteration  of  the  fat  content  of  mar- 
ket milk  by  mechanical  standardization,  provided  that  fat 
content  be  stated  on  the  label  directly  or  by  grade  desig- 
nations based  on  fat  content;  2,  Legalization  of  the  mini- 
mum for  the  solids-not-fat  of  milk  at  8.15  percent.  R 
considers  legalization  of  the  mechanical  standardization 
of  the  solids-not-fat  content  of  market  milk  by  the  addition 
of  dried  or  condensed  milk  inadvisable  at  this  time. 

462.  ANDERSEN,  L.  F.     Dairy  industry  in  Britain  and 
Denmark.     Queensland  Agr.  J.  49:  346-362.     Apr.  1938. 
23Q33 

Notes  the  influence  of  special  British  schemes  on  the 
cleanliness  and  quality  of  the  milk;  the  standardization  of 
butter  and  efforts  to  eradicate  bovine  tuberculosis  in  Den- 
mark. 

463.  ARNOLD,  L.     A  glass  milk  bottle  with  narrow 
pouring  lip  and  minimum  drip.     J.  Milk  Technol.  1(6):  5- 
14.     Sept.  1938.     44.8  J824 

Describes  a  standard  pouring  machine  for  milk  bottles, 
and  a  standard  technique  for  determining  the  behavior  of 
milk  poured  from  glass  bottles.    Measures  the  degrees  of 
bacterial  contamination  obtained  from  bottles  of  different 
finishes.   Reports  experiments  with  a  new  type  of  finish 
involving  recessed  angles  to  interrupt  the  adhesive  force 
of  the  glass  surface.    The  pouring  lip  was  reduced  to  7/16 
inch  from  the  top  of  the  bottle  so  that  there  was  a  mini- 
mum of  milk  drip  during  the  pouring. 


464.  BACKMAN,  J.     Enforcement  of  government  price 
fixing.     Harvard  Business  Rev.  16:  154-167.     1938. 
280.8  H262 

Refers  to  the  Paterson  Butter  control  in  Australia 
(1926-34)  as  an  illustration  of  voluntary  cooperation  and 
includes  a  summary  of  butter  control  measures  in  the 
Netherlands. 

465.  BACKMAN,  J.     Government  price-fixing.     New 
York,  Pitman,  1938.     304  p.     Ref.     284.3  B12G 

Refers  briefly  to  butter  and  milk  price-fixing  experi- 
ments in  several  foreign  countries  and  in  the  United 
States  by  the  U.  S.  Agricultural  Adjustment  Administra- 
tion. 

466.  BAKER,  O.  E.  Population  prospects  and  agricul- 
tural implications.  Amer.  Butter  Inst.  Proc.  30(1):  1-8. 
Ref.     1938.     44.9  Am33P 

Includes  discussion  of  the  per  capita  consumption  of 
dairy  products. 

467.  BAKKEN,  H.  H.     The  cost  of  manufacturing  and 
marketing  evaporated  milk.     Rio,  Wis.,  Rio  J.,  1938. 
23  p.     281.344  B17 

Costs  cover  maintenance,  depreciation,  taxes,  rent,  in- 
terest, insurance,  transportation,  labor,  power,  canning 
materials,  and  supplies.   A  large  volume  of  milk  de- 
livered from  as  many  as  400  to  800  farms  in  Wisconsin 
must  be  brought  into  one  plant  to  keep  down  overhead 
costs  and  maintain  maximum  efficiency.    The  value  added 
by  manufacture  as  measured  by  the  difference  between  the 
unit  cost  of  raw  material  and  the  price  of  the  finished  pro- 
duct is  greater  than  it  is  for  either  butter  or  cheese. 
Where  plants  are  located  in  seasonal  milk  production 
areas,  considerable  operating  capital  is  required  to 
carry  accumulated  inventory  stocks. 


28 


468.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     High  market  milk  prices  re- 
duce milk  consumption.     111.  Farm  Econ.  34/35:  161-163. 
Mar./Apr.  1938.     275.28  IL5 

Studies  of  changes  in  retail  milk  prices  (corrected  for 
changes  in  consumers'  income)  in  51  cities  and  changes 
in  the  estimated  per  capita  consumption  of  milk  in  the 
United  States  from  1930  to  1936  indicate  that  an  increase 
in  the  price  of  milk  is  followed  in  about  a  year  by  a  de- 
crease in  consumption,  and  after  a  year's  interval  milk 
consumption  increases  as  milk  prices  decline.    Studies  of 
the  effect  of  high  market  milk  prices  on  canned  milk  con- 
sumption are  also  reported. 

469.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Increasing  the  efficiency  of 
milk  distribution.     Hoard's  Dairyman  83:  6S,  90. 
Feb.  10,  1938.     44.8  H65 

Also  in  Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  85:  380-382.  Jan.  26,  1938. 
286.85  N482 

From  this  study  it  is  concluded  that  there  is  a  marked 
upward  trend  in  milk  distribution  costs'  and  an  increased 
spread  between  the  retail  prices  of  market  and  evaporated 
milk;  also  that  an  increasing  proportion  of  milk  is  sold 
in  stores  and  that  there  is  an  increasing  use  of  paper  con- 
tainers.   Increasing  sales  through  stores  is  expected  be- 
cause of  distribution  costs  lower  than  those  for  retail  de- 
liveries. 

Distribution  costs  are  lowered  through  use  of  paper  con- 
tainers. 

Letter  to  the  editor  from  W.  A.  Wentworth,  calling  atten- 
tion to  several  errors  in  this  article,  appears  in  Hoard's 
Dairyman  83:  243.     Apr.  25,  1938. 

470.  BAXTER,  T.  Milk  board  policy  disclosed;  guaran- 
teed price  to  the  producer.  Farmer  &  Stock-Breeder  52: 
2690-2691.     Nov.  15,  1938.     10  F228 

The  author,  who  is  chairman  of  the  Milk  Marketing 
Board  of  Great  Britain,  discusses  operation  of  the  Milk 
Scheme  and  suggests  changes  in  policy.    Principal  pro- 
posal suggested  is  the  payment  of  a  guaranteed  price  to 
producers.    If  the  proposal  is  adopted  the  Milk  Board 
would  then  purchase  all  milk  offered  for  sale  and  would  be 
responsible  for  marketing  it. 

471.  BENDIXEN,  H.  A.  Economic  organization  of  the 
dairy  industry  in  Germany.  Milk  Dealer  27(9):  42,  44, 
46,  48.     Sept.  1938.     44.8  M595 

The  complete  reorganization  of  the  dairy  industry  in 
Germany  is  described,  necessitated  by  the  serious  state 
of  its  economy  prior  to  1933.     From  the  production  end 
to  the  distribution  end,  every  phase  of  the  industry  has 
undergone  revision  by  the  Reichsnahrstand,  the  agency 
administering  the  program.    Changes  include  the  adoption 
of  regulatory  devices  of  great  scope. 

472.  BENDDCEN,  H.  A.  Opportunities  in  the  cheese  in- 
dustry. Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  29:  34-39.  Sept.  10, 
1938.     286.85  B98Bu 

By  developing  more  varieties  of  fancy  cheeses  which 
would  be  regarded  as  delicacies  by  American  consumers, 
returns  in  this  industry  might  be  materially  increased. 
Some  of  these  cheeses  are  described  and  their  possibili- 
ties discussed.    The  same  factor,  and  the  small-sized 
package  protecting  the  cheese  against  excessive  spoilage, 
waste  and  drying,  are  said  to  have  popularized  process 
cheese,  with  the  aid  of  large-scale  advertising  and  dis- 
tribution opportunities. 

473.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.  An  economic  study  of  the  costs 
of  selling  and  delivering  milk  in  the  New  York  market:" 

N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  686,  60  p.     Ithaca,  1938. 
100  N48C 

The  expense  of  selling  and  delivering  milk  in  New  York 
City  amounts  to  more  than  half  the  total  cost  of  distribu- 
tion.   Several  possible  ways  for  decreasing  the  cost  per 
unit  for  retail  deliveries  are  suggested,  including  discon- 
tinuance of  doorstep  delivery  in  certain  sections  of  the 
city  where  most  milk  is  distributed  through  stores,  use 
of  helpers  on  routes  in  large  sales  areas,  and  restriction 
of  the  number  of  dealers  delivering  milk  in  each  section  of 
the  city. 


474.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.  The  milk  supply  for  the  New 
York  market.  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  B.  396,  23  p.  Oct. 
1938.     275.29  N48E 

The  supply  and  utilization  of  milk  at  dairy  plants  tribu- 
tary to  the  New  York  metropolitan  market  are  described, 
with  some  indication  of  the  total  amount  of  milk  produced 
for  this  market  and  the  seasonal  variation  and  differences 
in  its  production  and  utilization.    An  inventory  of  the 
facilities  for  handling  milk  in  the  New  York  milkshed  is 
presented. 

475.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.     Route  returns  at  eleven  retail 
milk  distribution  branches  in  the  New  York  market, 
October  1933.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  105:  2563- 
2565.     Feb.  1938.     280.8  C812 

Route  returns  were  greater  for  products  whose  sales 
were  most  variable.    They  were  much  higher  at  some  of 
the  distribution  branches  than  at  others.    Sales  branches 
in  the  suburban  residential  sections  of  the  market  had 
higher  route  returns  than  the  branches  located  nearer  the 
center  of  the  city. 

476.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.     Sales  of  milk  by  retail  stores 
in  the  New  York  market,  June  1938.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col. 
Dept.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Farm  Mangt.  A.  E.  237,  18  p.     Dec. 
1938.     281.9  C81 

Based  on  data  obtained  from  4508  retail  food  stores 
June  6-18,  1938.    Includes  material  on  proportion  of 
stores  selling  each  grade  of  milk  in  relation  to  family  in- 
come; quantities  of  milk  sold  per  store  by  grade;  factors 
affecting  quantities  sold;  and  prices  of  milk,  with  refer- 
ence to  variation  in  prices,  relation  of  prices  to  quanti- 
ties sold;  and  effect  of  price  differentials  upon  relative- 
sales  of  fluid  milk  in  glass  bottles  and  paper  containers 
and  of  evaporated  milk. 

477.  BRANDT,  K.     The  German  fat  plan  and  its  economic 
setting.     Stanford  Univ.  Food  Res.  Inst.  Fats  and  Oils 
Studies  6,  344  p.     Sept.  1938.     307.9  L53 

Deals  in  part  with  German  dairy  markets  before  govern- 
ment regulation,  stabilization  of  the  butter  market,  and 
compulsory  organization  of  the  dairy  industry  and  its 
markets. 

478.  BRESSLER,  R.  G. ,  JR.     Laws  and  regulations 
governing  the  production  of  grade  B  milk  in  New  England. 
Boston,  The  New  England  Research  Council  on  Marketing 
and  Food  Supply,  June  1938.     145  p.     281.344  B75 

These  laws  and  regulations  pertain  to  the  registration 
and  inspection  of  producers,  health  and  cleanliness  of 
cattle,  construction  and  condition  of  stables  and  milk 
rooms,  methods  used  in  handling  milk,  health  of  employ- 
ees, and  quality  of  milk.    Comparisons  between  the  ordi- 
nances may  provide  some  explanation  of  intermarket 
movements  of  milk  and  price  differentials. 

479.  BROWN,  A.  J.     Some  economic  problems  in  mar- 
keting Hlinois  cream.     Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  85(15):  438, 
440-443.     Feb.  9,  1938.     286.85  N482  _ 

Address,  Dairy  Manufacturers  Conference,  Department 
of  Dairy  Husbandry,  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  HI. 

The  problems:  1,  A  study  of  the  relationship  that  has 
existed  between  butter  prices  and  quality  of  butter;  and  2, 
Economics  of  maintaining  quality  of  cream,  particularly 
while  in  transit  from  farms  to  creameries.    Discusses  the 
premium-payment  systems  for  lugh  quality  butter  in 
Minnesota,  Oregon,  and  California,  as  well  as  the  price 
situation  in  the  Chicago  and  San  Francisco  markets  with 
reference  to  butter  score. 

Problem  1  appeared  as  "Relationship  between  prices 
and  butter  quality"  in  Creamery  J.  49(2):  5,  28-29.     Feb. 
1938.     44.8  C86 

480.  BROWN,  J.  H.     A  critical  discussion  of  some 
methods  and  standards  for  certified  milk.     Amer.  J.  Pub. 
Health  28:  1053-1058.     Sept.  1938.     449.9  Am3J 

Discusses  medical  milk  commission  control,  bacterio- 
logical methods  and  standards  for,  and  pasteurization  of 
certified  milk. 


29 


481.  BROWN,  L.  O.     Consumer  movement  and  how  to 
meet  it.     Ice  Cream  Rev.  22(4):  34.     Nov.  1938. 
389.8  lc22 

Reports  on  a  study  made  at  Northwestern  University 
which  involved  questioning  1000  housewives  for  their 
opinions  on  commercial  ice  cream.    Results  show  that 
consumers  know  very  little  about  the  product.    Presenting 
facts  about  ice  cream  in  advertising  is  suggested  to  give 
the  public  a  better  knowledge  of  the  product. 

482.  BUECHEL,  F.  A.,  and  JOHNSON,  E.  H.     Manufac- 
ture of  dairy  products  in  Texas;  preliminary  report. 
Austin,  Tex.  U.  Bur.  Business  Res.,  1938.     95  p. 
281.344  B86M 

Economic  factors  pertaining  to  the  dairy  industry  in 
Texas  are  emphasized  in  the  first  part  of  this  report.    The 
distribution  of  dairy  plants  in  the  state  is  shown.    The 
second  part  consists  of  statistics  covering  the  following 
topics:  (1)  trend  in  production  of  dairy  products,  (2)  dif- 
ferences in  the  trend  of  production  of  butter,  cheese, 
evaporated  milk,  and  ice  cream,  (3)  seasonal  variation  in 
production,  (4)  percentage  produced  in  the  national  total, 
(5)  consumption  of  dairy  products  in  the  state,  and  (6) 
farm  cash  income  from  dairy  products. 

483.  BULMER,  J.,  and  VINTER,  P.     Milk  from  cow  to 
consumer.     New  Fabian  Res.  Bur.  Pam.  41.  48  p. 
1938.     280.344  B87 

Only  about  half  the  milk  required  by  the  minimum 
standards  of  the  Ministry  of  Health  Advisory  Committee 
on  Nutrition  is  consumed  in  liquid  form  in  Great  Britain. 
The  policy  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Board  has  guaranteed  a 
reasonable  return  to  producers  by  the  pooling  system  but 
has  raised  the  retail  price  of  milk  by  allowing  the  expan- 
sion of  the  unprofitable  manufacturing  market.    The  con- 
sumption of  liquid  milk  can  only  be  increased  by  a  policy 
of  reducing  retail  prices  and  subsidizing  it  at  cheap  rates 
to  special  classes.    Suggestions  for  the  organization  of  a 
program  to  meet  these  desiderata  are  offered. 
Milk  production,  distribution  and  subsidization  as  elements 
of  this  program  are  emphasized. 

484.  BULMER,  L.  C.     The  problem  of  recontamination 
of  pasteurized  milk  and  its  products.     Milk  Dealer  27(6): 
76,  78-82.     Mar.  1938.     44.8  M595 

Also  in  South.  Dairy  Prod.  J.  24(1):  9-11.     July  1938. 
44.8  So83 

Based  on  a  study  of  conditions  in  41  major  cities  of  the 
United  States,  with  particular  reference  to  Birmingham, 
Ala.  Considers  the  rehandling  of  pasteurized  milk  and 
cream  in  bulk  form  after  processing  and  of  ice  cream 
mix  in  soda  fountains.    Recommends  the  use  of  a  hooded 
cap  in  bottling  milk  as  protection  against  recontamination. 

485.  BURGESS,  L.  A.     Butter  standardization.     Queens- 
land Agr.  J.  50:  10-12.     July  1938.     23  Q33 

In  this  short  article  the  author  cites  advantages  of 
standardization,  states  that  the  standardization  of  butter 
should  be  performed  in  the  butter  factory  and  discusses 
moisture  tests,  salting,  unsalted  butter  and  laboratory 
control. 

486.  BURGESS,  L.  A.     The  determination  of  water  in 
butter.     Queensland  Agr.  J.  50:  13-29.     July  1,  1938. 
23  Q33 

The  method,  commonly  known  as  the  moisture  test,  is 
summarized  as  follows:  "A  known  weight  of  butter  in  a 
weighed  metal  dish  is  heated  until  all  water  is  expelled 
as  steam.    The  dish  and  its  contents  are  then  cooled  to 
atmospheric  temperature  and  again  weighed.    The  loss  in 
weight  is  the  water  in  the  particular  weight  of  butter 
taken  and  the  percentage  may  be  calculated  by  simple 
proportion." 


487.  CADWALLADER,  R.  C.     Government  and  its  re- 
lationship to  price  standards  in  the  milk  industry.     Minn. 
Law  Rev.  22:  789-835.     May,  1938.     Libr.  Cong. 

Reprint.  281.344  Cll 

With  the  coming  of  the  depression,  the  milk  industry 
found  itself  burdened  with  heavy  surpluses,  and  unfair 
trade  practices  which  brought  about  a  breakdown  in  the 
incomes  of  those  dependent  on  milk.    The  resultant 
strikes  and  public  seethings  brought  prompt  legislative 
action  by  Federal  and  State  governments  to  place  the  in- 
dustry under  economic  regulation.    Evaluates  the  effects 
of  this  regulation,  and  discusses  in  general  the  legal  and 
economic  problems  involved. 

488.  CALIFORNIA.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.     Report 
to  Senate  interim  committee...  relative  to  administration 
of  fluid  milk  marketing  legislation.     Cal.  Dept.  Agr.  B. 
27:  375-383.     July-Sept.  1938.     2  C12M 

Outlines  the  actions  taken  in  carrying  out  the  provisions 
of  the  two  fluid  milk  marketing  laws  set  up  in  Ch.  10, 
Div.  4  of  the  Agricultural  Code,  and  the  principal  facts 
serving  as  the  basis  for  these  actions.    Pt.  1  relates  to 
producer  stabilization  and  marketing  plans  authorized  by 
that  portion  of  the  Code  commonly  designated  as  the 
Young  Act.    Pt.  2  relates  to  resale  price  fixing  required 
by  the  Desmond  Act  in  the  Code. 

489.  CASSELS,  J.  M.  The  future  of  milk  control.  J. 
Farm.  Econ.  20:  188-195.     Feb.  1938.     280.8  J822 

A  discussion  of  the  general  trend  toward  more  conscious 
social  control  over  all  economic  activities;  the  special 
case  that  can  be  made  for  control  over  the  milk  industry; 
the  long-run  objectives  of  milk  control;  and  the  practical 
problems  of  actual  administration  in  this  field. 

490.  CLAUSS,  W.     Mesures  d'organisation  pour  l'uni- 
fication  et  l'amelioration  des  produits  laitiers.     Lait  18: 
982-999.     Nov.  1938.     44.8  L143 

The  status  of  quality  control  and  standardization  of  milk, 
butter  and  cheese  in  various  countries  is  considered,  to- 
gether with  factors  influencing  such  control. 

491.  CLEMENT,  C.  E.     Milk-bottle  losses  and  ways  to 
reduce  them.     U.  S.  D.  A.  C.  469,  38  p.     Mar.  1938. 

1  Ag84C 

Summary  and  conclusions  in  Milk  Plant  Monthly  27:  35- 
37.     July  1938.,     44.8  C864 

Gives  information  on  the  life  of  bottles;  the  various 
plans  or  systems  used  by  dealers  to  get  bottles  returned 
from  the  routes;  the  organization,  management,  equip- 
ment, and  operation  of  milk-bottle  exchanges  for  collect- 
ing, cleaning,  and  returning  lost  bottles;  and  methods  for 
preventing  the  misuse  of  milk  bottles,  cans,  and  crates. 

492.  COHEN,  R.     The  variation  in  retail  milk  prices 
between  different  areas.     Scot.  J.  Agr.  20:  273-282. 
July  1937.     10  Sco82So 

Reprinted  in  Oxford  U.  Agr.  Econ.  Res.  Inst,  Misc. 
Papers  in  Agr.  Econ.  v.  8,  1935-1938.     1938. 
281.9  Ox2 

Under  the  provisions  of  the  Agricultural  Marketing  Acts, 
organized  agricultural  producers  are  enabled  to  control 
prices  in  so  far  as  control  of  the  home  supply  makes  this 
possible. 

Under  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme  in  England  and  Wales, 
and  in  the  main  area  of  Scotland,  the  Boards  have  estab- 
lished the  wholesale  prices  of  liquid  milk  at  a  uniform 
level  throughout  their  respective  areas.    Retail  prices 
have  likewise  been  prescribed. 

The  author  appraises  the  effect  of  the  Milk  Marketing 
Schemes  in  England,  Wales  and  Scotland  by  comparing 
prices  in  1935-36  with  those  in  1928-29. 

493.  CONFORTI,  E.     How  to  encourage  use  of  cheese  in 
hotels  and  restaurants.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  29: 
16-17.     Dec.  25,  1938.     286.85  B98Bu 

Poor  sales  of  cheese  in  hotels  and  restaurants  are  attri- 
buted to  lack  of  knowledge  on  the  proper  use  and  sale  of 
cheese,  poor  distribution,  lack  of  knowledge  on  how  to 
keep  cheese,  and  lack  of  proper  advertising.    Each  of 
these  factors  is  discussed. 


30 


494.  CONKLIN,  C.  T.     One-crop  farming  in  the  North- 
east.    Country  Gent.  108:  14-15,  77.     Dec.  1938. 
6C833 

So  completely  does  the  production  of  fluid  milk  dominate 
the  farming  practices  in  New  England  and  certain  sections 
of  other  North  Atlantic  States  that  these  farms  have  grad- 
ually drifted  into  the  one-crop  class.   Although  this  situa- 
tion has  developed  because  of  the  definite  and  steady  re- 
turns received  for  the  milk,  the  system  is  not  conducive 
to  diversified  farming,  or  even  to  a  balanced  program  of 
dairy  farming.    A  solution  of  the  problem  faced  by  the 
farmers,  which  are  discussed,  is  the  possibility  of  pas- 
tures bearing  a  larger  percentage  of  the  cost  of  herd 
maintenance  and  of  permitting  farms  to  economically 
carry  more  stock,  plus  the  movement  to  ensile  grasses 
and  legumes  for  better  and  more  economical  winter  feed- 
ing. 

495.  COOLS,  L.  J.  Reactions  reciproques  des  marches 
du  beurre,  de  la  margarine  et  du  saindoux  en  Belgique  de 
1920  a  1937.  Inst,  de  Rech.  Econ.  B.  9:  321-348.  Aug. 
1938.     280.9  L92 

Butter  consumption  has  not  increased  in  the  same  pro- 
portion as  that  of  margarine,  and  has  even  decreased 
toward  the  end  of  the  period.    Shows  the  relationship  be- 
tween prices  and  consumption  of  these  products. 

496.  THE  COST  of  milk  production  in  the  South  of  Scot- 
land, 1934-37.     Scot.  J.  Agr.  21:  233-239.     July  1938. 
10  Sco82So 

A  definite  increase  in  cost  of  production  occurred  be- 
tween the  beginning  and  end  of  this  period.   Because  of 
climatic  differences,  the  East  of  Scotland  Is  a  higher  cost 
area  than  the  West.    The  influence  of  weather  on  produc- 
tion costs  is  emphasized  by  the  figures  for  1934-35  and 
1935-36.    The  absolute  difference  between  summer  and 
winter  costs  in  the  East  varied  between  4d.  and  5d.  per 
gallon  and  in  the  West  between  5d.  and  6d.    At  the  rela- 
tive price  levels  during  1934-37,  the  cost  of  all  feed 
stuffs  amounted  to  about  60  percent  of  the  total  cost  of 
production. 

497.  COST  of  milk  production  on  certain  farms  in  Scot- 
land in  1934-5  and  1935-6.     Scot.  J.  Agr.  21:  27-32.     Jan. 
1938.     10  Sco82So 

Three-fifths  of  the  cost  was  for  feed,  and  another  fifth 
for  labor;  herd  maintenance  and  other  costs  made  up  the 
remainder. 

498.  CRIPPS,  J.     The  distribution  of  milk;  a  study  of 
town  delivery  costs.     Oxford,  Oxford  U.  Agr.  Econ.  Res. 
Inst.,  1938.     96  p.     280.344  Ox2D 

The*  author  concludes  that  "there  is  no  means  of  measur- 
ing accurately  the  possible  reductions  in  costs  to  be 
achieved  by  the  reorganization  of  milk  distribution.   It  is 
clear  from  these  investigations,  however,  that  large  dis- 
tributors are  able  to  operate  at  costs  well  below  the  mini- 
mum margins  allowed  by  the  Milk  Marketing  Board.    If  no 
more  than  one  delivery  were  made  in  all  districts  and  onl" 
one  distributor  were  permitted  to  operate  in  each,  retail 
prices  might  be  reduced  by  about  4  d.  per  gallon,  or  1  d. 
per  quart,  over  the  year. 

499.  CRIPPS/  J.     Fixing  of  retail  milk  prices.     Farm 
Econ.  2:  177-179.     Jan,  1938.     281.8  F223 

Costs  of  milk  rounds  in  a  town  with  a  population  of  about 
70,000  in  the  south  of  England  are  considered  in  relation 
to  physical  differences  of  the  districts  covered  and  the 
number  of  deliveries.    The  practice  of  fixing  minimum  re- 
tail milk  prices  partly  on  this  basis  is  discussed. 

500.  CRIPPS,  J.     The  problem  of  milk  distribution.     Ox- 
ford U.  Agr.  Econ.  Res.  Inst.  Misc.  Papers  Agr.  Econ.  8: 
2-12.     1938.     281.9  0x2 

Reprinted  from  Med.  Press  and  C.  195(5143).  Dec.  1, 
1937. 

Discusses  present  methods  of  distribution  in  England  and 
the  results  of  uncontrolled  competition.    States  that  in  the 
interests  of  a  pure  supply  and  cheap  distribution,  existing 
methods  should  be  abandoned  and  distribution  should  be 
treated  as  a  public  service. 


501.  CRIPPS,  J.  The  retail  distribution  of  milk  in  eight 
towns  in  England  and  Wales.  Farm  Econ.  2(11):  211-215. 
July  1938.     281.8  F223 

Survey  undertaken  during  May  and  June,  1938,  showed 
great  variations  in  the  amount  of  bottling  and  the  number 
of  daily  deliveries.    The  number  of  dairymen  was  unneces- 
sarily large  in  each  town. 

502.  CUNNINGHAM,  L.  C.     Costs  in  dairy  farming  in 
New  York.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  A.  E.  229,  40  p.     Sept.  1938. 
281.9  C81 

Abridgment  under  title  "Costs  in  dairy  farming"  in  N.  Y 
Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  109:  2651-2656.     Oct.  1938. 
280.8  C812 

A  study  of  fluctuations  in  the  price  of  milk,  and  of  costs 
of  dairy  rations,  farm  wages,  machinery,  gasoline,  oil  and 
supplies,  taxes,  building  materials,  fire  insurance,  ferti- 
lizer, and  seeds. 

503.  CURRIE,  J.  R.     Extra  costs  of  producing  T.  T. 
milk.     Farmer  &  Stock-Breeder  52:  265.     Feb.  1,  1938. 
10  F228 

Excerpts  from  a  paper  entitled,  "The  production  of  the 
higher  grades  of  milk,"  read  before  the  Farmers'  Club. 

Adequately  subsidizing  tuberculin-tested  milk  prices  is 
suggested  as  the  best  method  of  providing  farmers  an  in- 
centive to  undertake  the  risk,  trouble  and  cost  of  cleaning 
up  their  herds.    A  table  showing  the  extra  costs  of  pro- 
ducing grade  A  tuberculin-tested  milk  over  ordinary  milk 
is  given. 

504.  DEAN,  A.  S.,  and  HAENSZEL,  W.  M.     Milk  con- 
sumption in  Buffalo.     In  Brown,  E.  F.,  comp.     Milk 
Papers  3(43),  11  p.     1938.     281.344  B81 

Reprint  from  Buffalo  U.  Bur.  Business  &  Social  Res. 
Statis.  Survey  Sup.  13(7A),  11  p.     Mar.  1938. 

Covers  26,845  families  representing  102,641  individuals. 
The  daily  milk  consumption  rate  per  person  was  .40  quart 
(.33  quart  for  fluid  milk  and  .07  quart  for  canned  milk). 
Milk  consumption  varied  directly  with  total  family  income 
and  inversely  with  size  of  family.    Families  using  fluid 
milk  only  used  the  same  amount  as  those  which  used  a 
combination  of  fluid  milk  and  canned  milk.    This  was  true 
at  all  income  levels. 

505.  DINSDALE,  D.  H.,  and  WINTER,  T.     Winter  costs 
of  milk  production  in^the  northern  counties  1935/36, 
1936/37,  1937/38.     Newcastle-on-Tyne,  King's  Col,Dept. 
of  Agr.,  n.  d.     18  p.     281.3449  K61 

Shows  feed,  labor,  and  miscellaneous  costs  for  the  farms 
studied. 

506.  DISTRIBUTION  economy  and  brand  acceptance  ad- 
vanced by  new  method  of  curing  and  packaging  cheese. 
Food  Indus.  10:  279-280,  310.     May  1938.     389.8  F737 

Discusses  the  use  of  the  valve-vented  can  which  per- 
mits aging  in  larger  sizes  than  8-12  oz.,  eliminates  evap- 
oration losses  and  the  formation  of  rind,  cuts  the  cost  of 
packaging,  and  makes  possible  marketing  of  the  product  in 
4,  8  and  12-oz.  prints,  wrapped  and  trade  branded. 

507.  DUCK,  R.  W.     High  and  low  test.     Rural  New 
Yorker  97:  198.     Mar.  12,  1938.     6  R88 

This  study  of  the  costs  and  returns  from  the  production 
of  milk  of  both  high  and  low  fat  content,  shows  that  produc- 
tion of  high-test  milk  is  more  profitable. 

508.  ELLENBERGER,  H.  B.,  and  STEARNS,  J.  T.  Con- 
sumption of  dairy  products  in  Burlington.  Vt.  Agr.  Expt. 
Sta.  B.  433,  39  p.     May  1938.     100  V59 

Consumer  preferences  in  the  use  of  fresh  milk,  includ- 
ing the  various  grades  thereof,  canned  milk,  cream,  but- 
ter, and  cheese.    Based  on  a  house-to-house  survey  in 
1935-36. 

509.  ELLENBERGER,  H.  B.     Some  producer-dealer  re- 
lationships.    Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Anim.  and 
Dairy  Husb.  Papern  Presented  at  Short  Course  Conf.  for 
Dairy  Plant  Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  17:  49-56.     1938. 
44.9  V593  „.   .  .. 

Suggests  the  use  of  approved  modern  and  efficient  metn- 
ods  on  dairy  farms  and  a  smaller  increment  of  costs  in 
the  distribution  of  milk. 


31 


510.  ELLENBERGER,  H.  B„,  and  STEARNS,  J.  T.     What 
is  the  influence  of  taste,  income,  nationality,  and  size  of 
family  on  consumption  of  milk  of  average  city?      Milk 
Plant  Monthly  27(10):  86,  88-89,  92-94.     Oct.  1938. 

44.8  C864 

Report  of  a  survey  in  Burlington,  Vt.,  covering  3,616 
families  and  15,258  persons,  or  about  three-fifths  of  the 
city's  population.    Shows  per  family  and  per  capita  con- 
sumption of  fluid  milk  and  of  other  dairy  products,  and  the 
variations  in  rates  of  consumption  by  different  families 
according  to  constitutional  and  other  factors.   It  discloses 
the  more  important  reasons  for  restricted  usage  as  well 
as  consumer  reaction  to  such  factors  as  quality  and  price. 

511.  EVANS,  D.  M.     The  renting  of  dairies  in  Dorset. 
Gt.  Brit.  Min.  Agr.  and  Fisheries.  J.  45:  764-766.     Nov. 
1938.     10  G79J 

Under  this  practice,  a  farmer  lets  a  herd  of  cows  to  a 
dairyman  at  a  fixed  rate  per  cow  per  annum  and  according 
to  various  conditions  of  the  contract.   Discusses  other 
livestock  kept  on  farms,  labor,  rentals,  feed,  and  farm 
management.    The  system  is  much  reduced  since  many  of 
the  dairy  farms  are  operated  on  a  milk- selling  basis. 

512.  FABIAN,  F.  W.     Milk  and  dairy  products.     Amer. 
Pub.  Health  Assoc.  Ybk.  (1937/38)  8:  66-74.     1938. 
449.9  Am3Y 

Report  of  the  Committee  on  Milk  and  Dairy  Products. 

Considers  the  public  health  aspects  of  milk,  butter, 
cheese,  ice  cream  and  frozen  desserts,  and  suggests 
regulatory  program  to  insure  sanitation  of  these  products. 

513.  FARR,  R.     An  economic  description  and  analysis  of 
the  distribution  of  milk  by  producers  in  Connecticut  mar- 
kets.    Conn.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  Econ.  Digest  Conn.  Agr.  73: 
601-608.     Dec.  1938.     275.28  Ec7 

Digest  by  I.  F.  Fellows  of  the  author's  thesis  under  title 
as  given.   Includes  description  and  analysis  of  sample  of 
186  producers  distributing  milk  and  milk  products  in  five 
Connecticut  markets,  1937,  and  material  on  costs  of  dis- 
tribution. 

514.  FEDERAL-STATE  program  for  the  New  York  milk 
market.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust.  Admin.  DM8,  16  p.     Oct. 
1938.     1.4  Ad47D 

Explains  the  background  and  provisions  of  the  Federal 
and  State  orders  regulating  the  milk  policy  in  the  New 
York  metropolitan  marketing  area.    Designed  to  assure  to 
all  producers  a  uniform  rate  of  payment,  the  plan  estab- 
lishes minimum  prices  for  milk  according  to  the  use  made 
of  it.   At  the  same  time,  the  producer  must  bear  his 
equitable  share  of  the  market's  surplus  milk  burden.   An 
adequate  supply  of  wholesome  milk  which  can  be  sold  at 
reasonable  prices  is  assured  to  the  consumer. 

515.  FLEMING,  W.  C.     Dairy  industry  of  San  Joaquin 
County  grosses  three  million  dollars  a  year.     Pacific 
Rural  Press  135:  622.     May  28,  1938.     6  PI  12 

A  dairy  management  study  for  the  five-year  period, 
1932-1937,  completed  by  the  San  Joaquin  County  dairymen 
in  cooperation  with  the  California  Agricultural  Extension 
Service,  is  given.    Cost  of  producing  market  milk  accord- 
ing to  the  study,  which  was  based  on  records  of  37  dairy- 
men, was  52.8  cents  per  pound  butterfat  f.o.b.  the  ranch. 

516.  FRIBLEY,  MRS.  W.  E.     What  can  be  done  to  in- 
crease consumer  acceptance  of  commercial  ice  cream. 
Ice  Cream  Rev.  21(12):  60,  62-67.     July  1938. 

389.8  Ic22 

Presented  at  the  Ice  Cream  Short  Course,  University  of 
Illinois,  Mar.  1-4,  1938. 

A  survey  of  consumers  in  the  income  groups  $0-1500, 
$1500-5000,  and  $5000-up,  showed  that  the  first  group 
used  about  all  the  ice  cream  they  could  afford,  the  second  . 
used  it  as  a  treat,  and  the  last  used  only  home-made  ice 
cream.    Consumers  in  Illinois  are  buying  33,830,000 
gallons  a  year.   Factors  affecting  the  purchase  of  ice 
cream  are  mentioned. 


517.  FRIEDMAN,  I.  K.     Suggests  change  to  imperial 
quart  for  milk  containers.     Milk  Dealer  27(12):  61.     Sept. 
1938.     44.8  M595 

To  promote  milk  consumption,  recommends  use  of  the 
following  2  sizes  of  containers  only:  a  38-ounce  Imperial 
Quart  to  replace  the  regular  32-ounce  quart,  and  a  12- 
ounce  bottle  in  place  of  the  present  8-ounce  half-pint. 

518.  FRISBIE,  D.  M.     Promoting  fluid  milk  consumption. 
New  England  Inst.  Coop.  Ann.  Conf.  11:  68-70.     June  21- 
23,  1938.     280.29  N44 

Explains  how  milk  consumption  gains  were  secured  in 
New  York  State  by  means  of  an  advertising  campaign  out 
of  State  funds. 

Discussion,  p.  70-71. 

519.  GENIN,  G.  Les  problemes  qui  restent  a  resoudre 
dans  1  Industrie  laitiere.  Lait  18:  610-614.  June  1938. 
44.8  L143 

Reviews  questions  regarding  the  production  of  better 
quality  milk  and  cream,  dairy  equipment,  milk  transporta- 
tion and  consumption,  and  the  assurance  of  an  equitable 
price.    Condensed  milk,  ice  cream,  and  cheese  are  con- 
sidered individually.    Engineering  problems,  including  the 
treatment  of  plant  wastes,  are  also  discussed. 

520.  GEYER,  K.  E.     Milk  inspection  for  sanitation  or 
economic  protection?    New  England  Inst.  Coop.  Ann. 
Conf.  11:  130-131.     June  21-23,  1938.     280.29  N44 

Relates  to  trade  barriers  in  the  dairy  industry,  with 
particular  reference  to  the  situation  in  Connecticut. 
Discussion,  p.  132-133. 

521.  GIFFORD,  C.  G.     Dairy  farm  methods.     Pa.  Assoc. 
Dairy  Sanit.  Ann.  Rpt.  14:  87-92.     1938.     44.9  P38 

Includes  information  on  milk  quality  and  sanitary  con- 
trol practices. 

522.  THE  GOVERNMENT'S  milk  policy.  Scot.  J.  Agr. 
21:  382-384.     Oct.  1938.     10  Sco82So 

Discusses  developments  in  the  operation  of  the  British 
Milk  Marketing  Scheme  affecting  the  payment  of  quality 
milk  premiums. 

523.  GRADING  of  cream;  causes  and  remedial  measures. 
Victoria  Dept.  Agr.  J.  36:  389-3%.     Aug.  1938.     23  V66J 

States  that  quality  butter  can  be  manufactured  only  from 
quality  cream  and  notes  the  causes  of  taints  or  faults  in 
cream.    The  meaning  of  grades  shown  on  factory  receipts, 
their  probable  cause  and  remedial  measures  are  presen- 
ted in  tabular  form. 

524.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.  Milk  acts,  1934  to  1937.     Arrangements  for 
increasing  the  demand  for  milk  within  the  area  of  the 
Milk  Marketing  Board  for  England  and  Wales  by  publicity 
Propaganda  (Fourth  scheme).     London,  H.  M.  Stationery 
Off.,  19_38.     4  p. 

The  scheme,  estimated  to  cost  160,000,  will  be  carried 
out  by  special  publicity,  a  poster  campaign,  and  news- 
paper advertising. 

525.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     The  Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  1933,  as 
amended  to  3rd  August  1937.     London,  H.  M.  Stationery 
Off.,  1938.     44  p. 

Gives  provisions  of  the  scheme  for  the  regulation  of 
milk  marketing  in  England  and  Wales. 

526.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Report  on  agricultural  marketing  schemes 
for  the  year  1936.    Presented  to  Parliament  by  the  Min- 
ister of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries  and  the  Secretary  of 
State  for  Scotland  by  Command  of  His  Majesty,  May  1938. 
London,  H.  M.  Stationery  Off.,  1938.     122  p. 

Includes  reports  on  the  operation  of  the  Scottish  Milk 
Marketing  Scheme,  1933;  Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  1933; 
Aberdeen  and  District  Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  1933;  and 
North  of  Scotland  Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  1934. 


32 


527.  GT.  BRIT.  SCOTTISH  OFFICE.     Arrangements 
for  increasing  the  demand  for  milk  within  the  area  of 
the  Scottish  Milk  Marketing  Scheme  1933  by  publicity  and 
propaganda  (Fourth  scheme).     Edinburgh,  H.  M.  Station- 
ery Off.,  1938.     3  p.     280.344  Sco32Ar 

Outlines  a  program  of  publicity  and  propaganda  to  be 
carried  out  during  the  year  ending  September  30,  1938, 
to  stimulate  the  consumption  of  milk. 

528.  GRIFFITHS,  M.  J.     Milk  grading  tests.     Queens- 
land Agr.  J.  50:  173-179,  328-329.     Aug. -Sept.  1938. 
23Q33 

The  methylene  blue,  fermentation,  and  sediment  tests 
are  described,  and  the  applications  and  advantages  of 
each  indicated. 

529.  GUIN,  M.     An  economic  study  of  dairy  farming  in 
Oktibbeha  and  Lowndes  Counties,  Mississippi,  1936-1937. 
Miss.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  324,  27  p.,  Oct.  1938.      100  M69 

Presents  data  on  farm  management  practices;  expenses 
and  profits  of  dairy  farms  of  different  sizes  operating 
under  varying  conditions;  practices,  services  and  cost 
of  services  used  in  marketing  dairy  products;  and  the 
quality  and  quantity  of  products  sold. 

530.  HARE,  H.  R.     Dairy  farm  management  and  milk 
costs  in  Ontario.     Farmer's  Advocate  73:  635-637. 
Oct.  13,  1938.     7  F22 

Results  of  a  study  of  records  of  about  1430  producers 
for  the  year  1936  are  given.    Tables  show  cost  of  pro- 
ducing milk  and  yearly  average  price  received  per  hun- 
dredweight for  14  areas  in  Ontario. 

531.  HILFER,  I.     Differential  effect  in  the  butter  market. 
Econometrica  6:  270-284.     July,  1938.     280.8  Ec78 

The  sales  of  three  different  types  of  English  import 
butter  were  more  closely  related  to  the  wholesale  price 
of  Danish  butter  two  months  previously  than  to  the  cur- 
rent wholesale  price;  but  the  opposite  was  true  for  the 
price  of  New  Zealand  butter.    Discusses  statistical  meth- 
ods used  in  arriving  at  these  conclusions. 

532.  HITCHCOCK,  J.  W.,  and  PAQUETTE,  L.  N. 
Studies  in  Vermont  dairy  farming;  labor  as  a  cost  of  milk 
production.     Vt.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  442,  16  p.     Nov.  1938. 
100  V59 

On  the  average,  137  hrs.  of  labor  were  used  per  head 
during  the  year  in  milking,  feeding,  and  caring  for  cows 
on  452  Vermont  dairy  farms  surveyed  in  1933.    With  an 
average  production  of  5,300  lbs.  per  cow,  this  was  equiv- 
alent to  2.6  hrs.  for  each  100  lbs.  of  milk.    Milking  used 
52,  barn  chores' 39,  washing  and  caring  for  utensils  6,  and 
miscellaneous  items  3  percent  of  the  total  time  spent  on 
cows. 

More  labor  was  used  per  cow  in  the  care  of  high -pro - 
duging  herds,  than  of  low-producing  herds,  but  the  differ- 
ences in  labor  input  were  less  than  proportional  to  those 
in  production,  and  the  amount  and  cost  of  labor  declined 

steadily  with  herd  to  herd  increases  in  average  milk 
yields.    Labor  was  used  more  efficiently  on  large  than  on 
small  farms,  and  a  part  of  the  lower  labor  input  per  cow 
on  the  large  farms  was  the  result  of  more  common  usage 
of  milking  machines. 

533.  HOBSON,  A.,  and  SCHAARS,  M.  A.     Consumers  buy 
more  cheese  during  and  after  sales  campaigns.     Wis. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  442:  8-12.     Nov.  1938.     100  W75 

Bulletin  442  is  Pt.  I  of  the  annual  report  of  the  Station. 

Results  given  for  29  stores  in  Louisville,  Ky.,  cover 
sales  of  natural  mild  American  cheese,  domestic  Swiss 
cheese,  and  processed  American  loaf. 

534.  HOLMAN,  C.  W.     How  trade  agreements  affect  the 
welfare  of  dairy  farmers.     Natl.  Coop.  Milk  Prod.  Fed. 
Sd.  Ser.  12,  40  p.     1938.     281.3449  N21 

Criticizes  the  national  tariff  policy  on  the  score  of 
possible  economic  repercussions,  through  lowering  of 
9rices. 


535.  HOMOGENIZED  milk-what  dealers  who  distribute 
it  think  of  it.  Milk  Dealer  27(8):  38-39,  69.  May-June 
1938.     44.8  M595 

A  symposium  of  consumer  preference  based  on  informa- 
tion from  15  homogenized  milk  distributors  in  the  United 
States  and  Canada.    The  general  conclusion  is  reached 
that  once  the  product  is  introduced,  it  gains  steadily  in 
popularity. 

536.  HOPPER,  W.  C,  and  BOUCHER,  G.  P.     An  eco- 
nomic study  of  the  consumption  of  milk  and  cream  in  cer- 
tain urban  and  rural  districts  of  Canada.     Canada.  Dept. 
Agr.  Tech.  Bui.  14,  42  p.  "  Mar.  1938.     7  C16T 

Cities,  villages  and  farm  areas  were  surveyed  in  the 
three  provinces  of  Ontario,  Quebec  and  Alberta.    Included 
in  the  study  is  the  consumption  of  evaporated  and  con- 
densed milk  and  buttermilk.    The  relation  of  locality,  in- 
come, size  of  family,  and  nationality  to  consumption  is 
shown. 

537.  HOW  TED  FLINT  of  Joliet,  111.,  is  increasing  sales 
of  bulk  ice  cream  by  offering  consumer  more  flavors  with 
a  new  type  of  container.     Ice  Cream  Rev.  22(5):  22-24. 
Dec.  1938.     389.8  Ic22 

Increasing  the  capacity  of  cabinets,  better  utilization  of 
hardening  room  space,  and  increasing  the  load  per  truck 
are  cited  as  advantages  in  the  use  of  a  new  square  2 -gal. 
container  for  bulk  ice  cream. 

538.  IMPERIAL  ECONOMIC  COMMITTEE  INTELLI- 
GENCE BR.     Dairy  produce:  a  summary  of  figures  of 
production  and  trade  relating  to  butter,  preserved  milk, 
eggs,  cheese,  casein,  egg  products.     London,  H.  M.  Sta- 
tionery Off.,  1936-38.     3  v.     280.39  G794c 

Designed  to  present  in  convenient  form  summaries  of 
the  production  and  international  trade  in  dairy  products 
wtth  special  reference  to  the  part  played  by  the  countries 
of  the  British  Commonwealth  of  Nations.    Tables  show 
production,  imports  and  exports,  by  country,  for  1929-37. 
Import  duties  and  regulations  in  the  United  Kingdom  and 
import  duties  and  quantitative  restrictions  in  foreign 
countries  are  also  shown. 

539.  IMPERIAL  ECONOMIC  COMMITTEE  INTELLI- 
GENCE BR.     Dairy  produce  supplies,  1937.     London, 
H.  M.  Stationery  Off.     1938.     123  p.     286.85  G79 

Supplement  to  Weekly  Dairy  Produce  Notes. 

Publication  gives  statistics  dealing  with  exports,  im- 
ports, and  foreign  trade  in  dairy  products,  1932-1937,  for 
leading  countries  with  emphasis  on  the  United  Kingdom. 
Legislative  measures  and  trade  agreements  affecting 
dairy  products  in  the  United  Kingdom  and  other  countries 
are  given  in  the  appendix,  p.  103-123. 

540.  INDIANA  MILK  CONTROL  BOARD.     Report  of  the 
activities  of  the  Milk  Control  Board  of  Indiana.     16  p. 
1933.     280.3449  In2 

Events  leading  to  the  enactment  of  the  milk  law,  en- 
forcement policies,  results  achieved,  number  of  orders 
issued,  marketing  areas  established,  number  of  dealers 
and  producers  under  regulation,  and  prices  to  producers. 

541.  INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURE, 
International  chronicle  of  agriculture:  Estonia.      Inter- 
natl.  Inst.  Agr.  Monthly  B.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Sociol.  29: 
543E-547E.     Nov.  1938.     280.29  In83 

Includes  information  on  milk  production,  quality  of  Es- 
tonian butter,  dairy  exports,  and  "  guaranteed"  prices 
for  first  quality  butter  and  cheese. 

542.  INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURE. 
International  chronicle  of  agriculture.     Ireland.  Internatl. 
Inst.  Agr.  Monthly  B.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Sociol.  29:  441E- 
448E.     Sept.  1938.     280.29  In83 

Regulations,  effective  January  1,  1939,  made  under  the 
Milk  and  Dairies  Act,  1935,  have  the  object  of  improving 
the  quality  of  milk  by  means  of  a  system  of  grading,  and 
provide  an  incentive  for  the  elimination  of  tuberculosis 
from  dairy  herds.    Discusses  the  Milk  (Regulation  of  Sup- 
ply and  Price)  Act,  1936,  and  changes  made  under  the 
Dairy  Produce  (Price  Stabilisation)  Act,  1935. 


33 


543.  INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURE. 
International  chronicle  of  agriculture:  Switzerland;  the 
milk  market.     Internatl.  Inst.  Monthly  B.  Agr.  Econ.  and 
Sociol.  29(2):  102E-103E.     Feb.  1938.     280.29  In83 

Measures  affecting  prices  in  the  milk  market  of  Swit- 
zerland. 

544.  IS  THE  milk  business  affected  with  a  public  inter- 
est?    Milk  Plant  Monthly  27(9):  63-64.     Sept.  1938. 
44.8  C864 

"From  a  report  in  the  California  Milk  News  of  August 
19." 

Extracts  from  an  opinion  of  Judge  C.  D.  Ballard  of  Los 
Angeles,  Calif.,  in  a  case  in  which  dairymen  and  opera- 
tors of  gallon  milk  stores  sought  an  injunction  against 
the  administrator  of  the  State  marketing  law.   The  Judge 
stated  that  the  milk  industry  is  of  such  public  interest 
that  it  is  subject  to  the  police  powers  of  the  State 
and  that  the  authority  given  to  the  administrator  "to  in- 
vestigate the  business  of  the  industry,  inspect  books, 
records,  etc.,  is  not  a  violation  of  the  State  constitution. 

545.  JACKSON,  H.  C,  RUPEL,  I.  W.,  and  VERGERONT, 
G  W  Dairying;  problems  in  production,  marketing,  and 
management.     Chicago,  Lippincott,  1938.     168  p.     44  J13 

Discusses  the  selecting  and  adapting  farms  for  dairying, 
feeding  dairy  cows  for  efficient  and  economical  milk  pro- 
duction, producing  good  milk,  and  marketing  dairy  prod- 
ucts. 

546.  JOHANSSON,  I.     Ekonomisk  mjblkproduktion. 
Stockholm,  1938.     199  p.     281.344  J59 

Breeding  and  feeding  of  cattle  with  some  reference  to 
milk  costs  and  prices. 

547.  JOHNSON,  O.  M.  Distribution  costs  in  the  ice 
cream  industry.  Natl.  Assoc.  Cost  Accountants  Ybk. 
1937.     203-222.     1938.     280.9  N214 

Factors  influencing  distribution  methods  and  costs  in 
the  ice  cream  industry  are  considered.   Delivery  methods 
are  also  described,  and  the  role  of  the  deliveryman  as 
salesman  is  shown. 

548.  JOHNSON,  O.  M.     Preliminary  report  on  ice  cream 
can  survey.    Internatl.  Assoc.  Ice  Cream  Mfrs.  Rpt.  of 
Proc.  3:  12-21.     1938.     389.9  In83 

This  survey,  covers  470  plants  and  shows  the  number  of 
manufacturers  using  steel  cans  and  paper  cans.   Includes 
charts  which  show  cans  in  use  by  size  and  by  classes  of 
manufacturers,  and  sizes  of  paper  cans  used. 

54H.  KOLLMORGEN,  W.     The  butter  industry  of 
Nebraska.     Nebr.  Conserv.  B.  16,  77  p.     Mar.  1938. 
279.9  N272B 

History  of  the  butter  industry  in  Nebraska  beginning 
with  the  first  creameries  built  in  the  eighties.   Includes 
information  on  production  of  butter  and  butterfat,  number 
and  character  of  milk  plants,  interstate  shipment  of  but- 
ter, and  value  of  by-products.   There  is  some  discussion 
of  margarine  as  a  competitive  product. 

550.  KOLLMORGEN,  W.     Cheese  production  in  Nebras- 
ka.    Nebr.  Conserv.  B.  17,  35  p.     July  1938. 
279.9  N272B 

Practices  employed  in  the  production  of  cheese,  par- 
i  ticularly  cheddar  cheese,  in  Nebraska  are  discussed,  and 
dairying  activities  in  this  state  are  compared  with  those 
of  Wisconsin.    Almost  half  of  the  milk  producers  for 
cheese  plants  in  Nebraska  live  within  one  mile  of  such 
plants  and  more  than  three-fourths  within  two  miles  of  the 
plants.   The  milk  producer  pays  from  20  to  30  c.  per  cwt. 
of  milk  hauled  to  the  cheese  plants.   In  Wisconsin  the  pro- 
ducer hauls  his  milk  to  the  cheese  plant,  thereby  reducing 
the  transportation  cost  which  the  Nebraska  producer  has 
to  meet. 

551.  KOLLMORGEN,  Wt     Ice  cream  production  in  Ne- 
braska.    Nebr.  Conserv.  B.  18,  26  p.     July  1938. 

279.9  N272B 
Gives  information  on  the  composition,  manufacture  and 

packing  of  ice  cream;  State  statutory  requirements  of 

butter -fat  content  in  ice  cream;  and  the  extent  of  the 

industry  in  the  State. 


552.  KRUEGER,  P.  F.     Necessary  changes  in  average 
milk  plant  to  comply  with  United  States  Public  Health 
Service  Standard  Ordinance  and  Code.     Milk  Plant  Month- 
ly 27:  52,  54,  56-58.     May,  1938.     44.8  C864 

Changes  in  milk  plant  construction,  equipment  and 
operation,  made  necessary  when  the  Ordinance  and  Code 
was  embodied  in  a  new  ordinance  in  Chicago,  are  de- 
scribed in  detail.  « 

553.  LAYSON,  S.  V.     Dairy  sanitation  legislation.     Milk 
Plant  Monthly  27(12):  32-35.     Dec.  1938.     44.8  C864 

Shows  how  such  regulation  contributes  to  the  production 
of  safe,  better  quality  milk,  and  how  it  has  been  a  force 
in  the  increased  consumption  of  milk  and  the  improvement 
of  public  health. 

554.  LAYSON,  S.  V.     Diminish  milk  bottle  problems. 
Milk  Plant  Monthly  27(7):  32-35.     July  1938.     44.8  C864 

Milk  bottle  costs  and  losses  are  discussed  and  a  means 
of  minimizing  them  is  outlined. 

555.  LEVOWITZ,  D.     What  about  standardization? 
Holstein  Friesian  World  35:  433.     Apr.  30,  1938. 
43.8  H742 

Notes  that  the  interest  of  dairymen  in  the  mechanics  of 
standardization  has  been  stimulated  through  purchases 
of  milk  on  a  butterfat  content  basis,  and  explains  brief- 
ly the  use  of  several  mechanical  devices  for  the  standardi- 
zation of  milk  at  the  farm. 

556.  LINTNGER,  F.  F.,  and  PIERCE,  C.  W.     Seasonal 
changes  in  market  milk  production  in  Pennsylvania.   The 
relation  of  month -to -month  fluctuations  in  milk  sales  to 
prices  received  by  farmers.     Pa.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  358, 
32  p.     Ref.  Agr.     1938.     100  P381 

Changes  in  the  Pittsburgh,  New  York  and  Philadelphia 
milksheds  are  studied.   It  is  concluded  that  the  present 
price  system  favors  uneven  production  and  two  plans  for 
correcting  this  situation  are  suggested. 

557.  LUCIA,  F.  B.     What  uniformity  means  in  marketing 
milk  powder.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  29(17):  18-20. 
Sept.  10,  1938.     286.85  B98Bu 

Address,  Dairy  Manufacturers'  Short  Course,  Universi- 
ty of  Wisconsin,  March  1938. 

Tells  of  the  expansion  of  the  industry  and  describes  the 
process  of  manufacture  and  uses  for  the  product.   Poor 
quality  and  lack  of  uniformity  has  caused  feed  mills  to  use 
substitutes  in  place  of  dried  milk  for  chick  feeds  and 
mash. 

558.  MCCLELLAND,  M.     Relative  efficiency  of  paper 
and  steel  containers  for  ice  cream.     111.  U.  Dept.  Dairy 
Husb.  Mater.  Presented  at  the  Short  Course  in  Ice  Cream 
Manufacture.     1938:  60-62.     389.9  IL62 

Finds  that  paper  containers  are  cheaper,  provide  a  bet- 
ter means  of  preserving  the  quality  of  the  product,  and 
are  more  convenient  to  use. 

559.  MACLEOD,  A.,  and  GERAGHTY,  M.  L.     The 
transportation  of  New  Hampshire  milk.     1.  Analysts  of 
trucking  charges.     N.  H.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  307,    32-p. 
June  1938.     100  N45 

The  $300,000  a  year  being  paid  by  New  Hampshire  farm- 
ers for  the  transportation  of  milk  to  country  stations  and 
city  plants  may  be  reduced  by  a  reduction  of  charges  on 
routes  where  they  are  above  competitive  levels,  or  by  a 
reorganization  of  truck  routes  and  milksheds.  The  first 
of  these  possibilities  is  considered. 

560.  MALOTT,  D.  W.     Problems  in  agricultural  mar- 
keting.    New  York,  McGraw-HiU,  1938.     410  p.     Ref. 
280.3  M29 

Partial  contents:  H.  P.  Hood  &  Sons,  Inc.:  Buying  prob- 
lems of  a  fluid  milk  distributor  and  processor  p.  346-353; 
the  milk  industry  and  Federal  control  -  fluid  milk  mar- 
keting agreements,  licenses,  and  orders,  p.  385-391. 

561.  MASS.  SPECIAL  COMMISSION  ON  LAWS  RELATING 
TO  MILK  AND  MILK  PRODUCTS:     Mass.  General  Court, 
1937.  Senate  Doc.  410,  81  p.     281.344  M38 

Based  largely  on  observations  of  conditions  in  nearby 
and  western  states,  and  on  public  hearings.   Deals  with 
dairy  inspection,  dealer  bonding,  marketing  control,  and 
frozen  desserts. 


34 


5(52.  MASSACHUSETTS  STATE  COLLEGE.  EXTENSION 
SEFVICE.     Report  of  the  sub -committee  on  marketing 
milk  in  Massachusetts,  prepared  at  the  request  of  the 
Committee  on  Problems  Affecting  the  Dairy  Industry  of 
Massachusetts.     Amherst,  1938.     55  p.     275.2  M38Rm 

Arranged  by  Ellsworth  W.  Bell.  Shaun  Kelly,  Chairman 
of  the  committee. 

A  study  of  the  regulations  or  organizations  necessary  to 
help  the  producer  obtain  a  fair  price  for  his  milk,  and  the 
distributor  a  fair  return  on  his  capital,  with  emphasis  on 
the  following  factors:  Class  II  price  for  milk;  the  Federal 
license  in  the  New  Bedford  and  Fall  River  Markets;  the 
Federal  license  with  equalization  in  the  Boston  Market. 

Appendices:—  1,  Facts  on  milk  marketing  in  Massachu- 
setts; 2.  Market  situations  which  affect  Massachusetts 
dairymen;  3.  Three  years  under  Federal  milk  control; 
4.  Brief  history  of  Federal  milk  control  in  Boston  with 
special  reference  to  its  application  to  nearby  Massachu- 
setts producers;  5.  Description  of  actual  operation  of 
equalization  pool;  6.  The  relationship  of  Class  I  and  Class 
II  prices  in  a  fluid  milk  market,  by  D.  B.  MacCollom. 

Report  of  Committee  on  Milk  Production  Problems,  p. 
36-55. 

503.  MEHRENS,  B.     Die  marktordnung  des  Reichs- 
.nahrstandes.  Berlin,  F.  Vahlen,  1E38.     332  p.      284.3  N47 
(Schriften  der  Internationalen  Konferenz  fur  Agrarwis- 
senschaft.  (Internatl.  Conf.  Agr.  Econ.)) 

Contains  section,  '.'Milch  und  milcherzeugnisse," 
p.  230-295,  which  discusses  marketing  control  of  these 
products  in  Germany. 

564.  MIDLAND  AGRICULTURAL  COLLEGE.  DEPT.  OF 
AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS.     Investigation  into  the 
economics  of  milk  production,  second  interim  report;  a 
comparison  of  milk  production  during  the  two  summers 
of  1936  and  1937.     Sutton  Bonington,  Loughborough, 
England,  Apr.  1938.     20  p.     281.344  M585 

Deals  with  the  costs  and  returns  from  milk  production 
on  45  farms  in  the  East  Midland  Province.    The  price  of 
purchased  concentrates  increased,  and  the  average  de- 
cline in  yield  was  12  gal.  per  cow,  in  summer  1937.    The 
average  delivered  cost  per  gallon  of  wholesale  milk  was 
9.32  d.  in  both  summers.    The  average  pool  price  realized 
was  0.60  d.  per  gal.  higher  in  summer  1937. 

565.  MILK  marketing.  Jn  British  agriculture:  the  prin- 
ciples of  future  policy,  p.  270-302.  London,  Longmans, 
Green,  1938.     281.171  B77 

History  of  milk  marketing  over  the  last  fifty  years,  dis- 
cusses the  milk  marketing  boards  and  their  effects  on 
prices,  consumption  and  the  industry  in  general.    Trans- 
formation of  the  boards  from  bodies  representative  of 
farmers  into  public  corporations  is  a  much  needed  re- 
form. 

566.  MILK  RESEARCH  COUNCIL,  and  NEWARK  UNI- 
VERSITY. RESEARCH  CENTRE.     Dislike  of  milk  among 
young  people.     In  Brown,  E.  F.,  Milk  Papers  4(69),  63  p. 
1935-1938.     28L"344  B81 

A  survey  of  1,837  high  school  boys  and  girls  shows  that 
milk  consumption  among  them  is  influenced  by  external 
situations  such  as  slight  deteriorations  of  the  milk  itself 
or  unfortunate  circumstances  under  which  it  is  offered, 
and  that  many  dislikes  revert  to  experiences  of  early 
childhood. 

567.  MILK  RESEARCH  COUNCIL  and  NEWARK  UNI- 
VERSITY. RESEARCH  CENTRE.    Milk  drinking  habits 
among  young  people,  a  psychological  study.     New  York, 
1938.      101  p.     389.1  M592 

Pearl  Greenberg  was  in  charge  of  the  study. 

Aim  of  the  investigation  was  to  survey  the  drinking 
habits  of  high  school  children  with  reference  to  milk  and 
other  beverages;  to  study  especially  those  who  disliked 
milk  or  did  not  drink  milk;  and  to  describe  and  explain 
the  reasons  for  their  dislike.    Data  were  obtained  from 
questionnaires  and  by  interviews  with  New  York  City 
children  and  their  mothers.    Sample  questionnaires  are 
appended. 


568.  MISNER,  E.  G.     Economic  studies  of  dairy  farm- 
ing in  New  York;  factors  affecting  premiums  received  in 
grade-A-milk  production.     N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt. 
Sta.  B.  698,  28  p.     1938.     100  N48C 

Factors  found  to  be  most  significantly  correlated  with 
the  premium  ratings  received  on  100  farms  producing 
grade  A  milk  in  the  Tully-Homer  area  were  the  size  of 
the  business  and  labor  efficiency. 

569.  MISNER,  E.  G.     Economic  studies  of  dairy  farming 
in  New  York;  100  grade  A  farms  in  the  Tully-Homer  area, 
crop  year  1936.     N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  696, 
59  p.     May  1938.     100  N48C 

Costs  and  returns  of  milk  production  are  shown  for  the 
year  ending  Feb.  28,  1937.    Factors  affecting  labor  income 
and  the  cost  of  milk  production,  including  size  of  business, 
diversity  of  business,  rates  of  production,  and  labor  ef- 
ficiency, are  examined. 

570.  MONTGOMERY,  D.  E.     The  reaction  of  consumers 
to  changes  in  retail  price  of  milk.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust. 
Admin.  1938.     11  p.     1.94  Ad422Ad 

There  is  little  factual  support  for  the  generalization  that 
demand  for  milk  is  inelastic.    Opportunity  for  increasing 
consumption  will  be  greatly  enhanced  when  it  is  recog- 
nized that  there  is  a  large  group  of  the  population  who  do 
not  consume  milk  because  they  cannot  pay  either  for  the 
milk  or  services.    Possible  means  of  supplying  the  low- 
income  market  are  considered. 

571.  NAIR,  J.  H.,  and  BENTHAM,  L.  C.     Judging  sweet 
cream.     J.  Dairy  Sci.  21:  791-799.     Ref.     Dec.  1938. 
44.8  J822 

Present-day  quality  in  sweet  cream,  as  distributed  in  ur- 
ban centers,  merits  careful  consideration  of  a  number  of 
characteristics  not  recognized  in  the  score  card  now  used 
interchangeably  for  milk  and  cream.    At  the  same  time, 
it  appears  desirable  that  a  different  weighting  of  individ- 
ual qualities  be  made.    A  separate  score  card  for  cream 
is  suggested,  with  proposed  methods  for  judging  the  re- 
spective characteristics.    Details  of  application  are  given. 

572.  NANNESON,  L.  R'akenskapsresultat  fran  svenska 
jordbruk.  XXm.  Bokforingsaret  1936-1937.  Sweden.  K. 
Lantbr.  Styr.  Meddel.  315,  117  p.     1938.     HSw3 

An  annual  statistical  summary  of  Swedish  agriculture 
for  the  fiscal  year  1936-1937,  including  figures  on  dairy 
products,  marketing  and  prices.    Gives  comparative  sta- 
tistics for  a  25-year  period. 

573.  NEW  JERSEY.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.     Fac- 
tors influencing  the  production  of  New  Jersey  official 
grade  A  milk.     N.  J.  Dept.  Agr.  C.  289,  46  p.     Mar.  1938. 
2  N46C 

Sections  of  this  report  discuss  efforts  to  control  bovine 
brucellosis,  milk  flavors  and  odors,  the  care  of  milk- 
handling  equipment,  composite  samples  for  butterfat  tests, 
official  inspection  of  grade  A  milk,  and  the  safety  and 
wholesomeness  of  this  grade  from  the  standpoint  of  the 
consumer. 

574.  NEW  YORK  (STATE)  ATTORNEY  GENERAL'S 
OFFICE.     A  report  to  Hon.  Herbert  H.  Lehman,  Governor, 
and  the  Honorable,  the  legislature  of  the  State  of  New  York 
by  John  J.  Bennett,  Jr.,  Attorney  General,  on  the  milk  in- 
dustry of  the  State  of  New  York  with  particular  reference 
to  the  New  York  metropolitan  area.     March  8th,  1938. 
New  York,  Case  Press,  1938?     129  p.     280.344  N483 

Presents  data  on  the  operations  of  the  milk  companies 
dominating  this  market.    Analyzes  the  cost  of  handling, 
pasteurizing,  and  distributing  milk  in  the  area,  involving 
country  plant  operations,  freight  and  truck  hauling,  bot- 
tling and  city  plant  costs,  selling  and  delivery,  adminis- 
tration expenses,  and  container  costs.    Discusses  milk 
prices,  and  profits  from  fluid  milk  and  from  manufactured 
dairy  products. 

Discusses  milk  prices,  and  profits  from  fluid  milk  and 
from  manufactured  dairy  products. 


35 


575.  NEW  YORK  (STATE)  COMMISSIONER  OF  AGRICUL- 
TURE AND  MARKETS.     Report...  regarding  the  audit  of 
milk  dealers  and  cooperative  associations.     Legislative 
Doc.  1938,  100,  632  p.     1938.     281.344  N4822 

Presents  combined  financial  statements  and  statistics 
of  14  dealers  of  milk  and  milk  products  in  the  New  York 
City  metropolitan  area  from  Jan.  1,  1936  to  Sept.  30,  1937. 
A  report  covering  operations  of  the  Dairymen's  League 
Cooperative  Association,  Inc.,  for  the  period  Apr.  1,  1936 
to  Sept.  30,  1937,  is  included. 

576.  NEWMAN,  W.  A.     The  effectiveness  of  the  butter 
tariff.     Minn.  Agr.  Ext.,  Farm  Business  Notes  191:  3. 
Nov.  1938.     275.29  M663 

A  high  tariff  on  butter  is  effective  only  in  raising  prices 
for  temporary  periods  when  the  supply  is  short  and  some 
importations  of  butter  are  made. 

577.  NICHOLAS,  J.  E.  The  warming  of  milk  in  transit. 
Agr.  Engin.  19:  61-62.     Feb.  1938.     58.8  Ag83 

Also  in  Dairy  World  16(10):  38,  40,  44-45.  Mar.  1938. 
44.8  D1423. 

Reports  studies  made  on  cold  fresh  milk  transported  by 
truck  under  conditions  similar  to  those  on  average  Penn- 
sylvania routes.  Tables  show  rises  in  temperature  of 
cans  exposed  to  the  outside  air  in  the  sun  and  differences 
in  temperature  between  the  top  and  bottom  of  the  cans. 
The  effect  on  bacterial  growth  because  of  stratification  in 
the  cans  should  be  studied. 

578.  NIGHTINGALE,  E.     We  can  sell  25  per  cent  more 
liquid  milk.     Farmer  &  Stock-Breeder  52:  2273.     Sept.  27 
1938.     10  F228 

Points  out  how  a  new  market  for  milk  can  be  reached 
through  the  medium  of  paper  containers. 

579.  NIXON,  A.  J.,  and  REED,  O.  M.     Municipal  milk 
distribution  in  Tarboro,  North  Carolina.     U.  S.  Agr. 
Adjust.  Admin.  DM-5  (Mktg.  Inform.  Ser.),  30  p.     Dec. 
1938.     1.4  Ad47D 

A  description  and  evaluation  of  the  operation  of  a  unified 
milk  plant  and  distribution  system,  municipally  owned  and 
operated.    The  study  develops  (1)  the  historical  basis  of 
the  Tarboro  milk  enterprise,  (2)  data  and  information  on 
receipts  and  sales  in  that  market,  and  (3)  an  analysis  of 
the  operations  of  the  system. 

580.  OLSON,  T.  M.  Elements  of  dairying.  New  York, 
Macmillan,  1938.     570  p.     44  0182 

Ch.  13,  Composition  and  Properties  of  Milk,  discusses 
the  utilization  of  casein,  lactalbumin,  and  lactose;  Ch.  27, 
Developing  a  Dairy  Herd,  gives  data  showing  profitability 
of  high -producing  cows;  and  Ch.  32,  The  Dairy  Cow,  in 
part  considers  milk  production  costs. 

581.  OVERMAN,  O.  R.,  GARRETT,  O.  F.,  and  RUEHE, 
H.  A.     Studies  on  the  keeping  quality  of  butter  in  cold 
storage.     HI.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  446:  45-90.     Sept.  1938. 
100  H6S 

Grading  of  36  butters  taken  directly  from  the  churn  and 
packed  in  3-pound  paraffined,  parchment-lined,  Sealright 
cartons. 

582.  PARKER,  C.  V.     Economic  analysis  of  creamery 
operations  in  Manitoba,  Saskatchewan  and  Alberta. 
Canada.  Dept.  Agr.  Tech.  B.  13,  36  p.     Mar.  1938. 

7  C16T 

Objectives  of  study  include  a  determination  of  cream 
gathering  costs,  of  butter  manufacturing  costs,  and  of  the 
effect  of  volume  of  output  on  the  cost  of  manufacturing 
butter.    Records  of  78  creameries  covering  the  fiscal 
year  1933/34  were  used. 

583.  PARNELL,  G.  S.     Digest  of  milk  control  law  in 
Pennsylvania  thoroughly  indexed  and  annotated  with  deci- 
sions of  other  states;  with  orders  and  forms;  also  New 
Jersey  statutes  on  this  subject.     Newark,  N.  J.,  Soney  & 
Sage,  1938.     319  p.     Libr.  Cong. 

Includes  chapters  on  the  history  of  milk  control  laws, 
procedure  before  the  Pennsylvania  Milk  Control  Commis- 
sion, constitutional  law,  milk  marketing  areas  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  a  table  of  cases  cited. 


584.  PARSONS,  M.  S.     Effect  of  changes  in  milk  and 
feed  prices  and  in  other  factors  upon  milk  production  in 
New  York.     N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  688,  67  p. 
1938.     100  N48C 

Based  on  two  series  of  production  data  covering  the 
periods  1910-36  and  1921-36.    Shifts  in  the  seasonality  of 
milk  production  were  largely  the  result  of  long-time 
changes  in  the  milk-grain  price  ratio.    The  shif  !-  " 
seasonality  of  milk  prices  probably  was  due  to  the  classi- 
fied-price plan  and  a  shift  in  the  seasonality  of  butter 
prices. 

585.  PENNSYLVANIA  MILK  CONTROL  BOARD.     Coun- 
try receiving  station  and  transportation  allowances  in  the 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  milkshed.     10  p.     Philadel- 
phia, 1938.     280.344  P38C 

Shows  the  basis  for  determining  an  allowance  for  coun- 
try receiving  stations,  cost  of  operation  of  city  plants, 
and  cost  of  receiving  milk  purchased  through  these 
stations,  tank  care  expense,  and  transportation  allowances 
on  class  I  and  class  II  milk. 

586.  POLLARD,  A.  J.  Transportation  of  milk  and 
cream  to  Boston.  Vt.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  437,  42  p. 
June  1938.     100  V59 

Outlines  the  Boston  milkshed,  and  discusses  the  relative 
importance  of  milk  and  cream;  describes  methods  of 
transportation  and  their  importance,  and  compares  their 
rates  and  services;  discusses  the  accuracy  of  the  reports 
of  milk  and  cream  receipts  issued  by  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of 
Agricultural  Economics. 

587.  POST,  J.  W.     Economies  of  grade  buying.  Wider 
spread  in  butter  values  makes  price  differentials  for 
Cream  imperative.     Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  85:  580,  582-584. 
Mar.  9,  1938.     286.85  N482 

An  address  at  annual  convention  of  Illinois  Dairy  Pro- 
ducts Association. 

Purchase  of  cream  on  grade  is  advocated  and  would 
benefit  both  producers  and  creameryman.    Paying  the 
same  price  for  all  cream  places  a  Dremium  on  poor 
dairying  and  discourages  the  careful  producer. 

588.  PRIESTLEY,  H.     The  future  of  the  milk  industry. 
Roy.  Smitary  Inst.  J.  58:  522-530.     Feb.  1938. 

449.9  R812 

Discusses  milk  marketing,  production,  costs  of  produc- 
tion and  distribution,  consumption,  the  purity  of  the  sup- 
ply, including  milk-borne  diseases  and  pasteurization, 
and  loose  distribution  compared  with  the  distribution  of 
milk  in  bottles  and  wax  containers. 

Discussion,  p.  530-534. 

589.  PRUCHA,  M.  J.     Sanitary  aspects  of  paper  milk 
containers.     J.  Milk  Technol.  1:  4-9.     Jan.  1938. 
44.8  J824 

Paraffining  at  185*  F.  for  30  sec.  results  in  a  practically 
sterile  container,  and  one  that  is  safe  to  use. 

590.  REGAN,  J.  J.     Veterinary  supervision  of  milk 
supplies  in  the  New  York  milkshed.     Amer.  Vet.  Med. 
Assoc.  J.  92:  769-771.     June,  1938.     41.8  Am3 

The  use  of  veterinary  services  in  sanitary  milk  control 
in  New  York  is  reviewed.    At  the  beginning,  particular 
emphasis  was  placed  on  tuberculosis,  but  as  that  disease 
was  gradually  eliminated,  with  the  completion  of  Federal 
and  State  programs,  more  attention  was  given  to  bovine 
mastitis. 

591.  REICHART,  E.  L.     How  to  figure  mix  costs.     Ice 
Cream  Trade  J.  34:  22,  26.     Feb.  1938.     3*9.8  Ic2 

In  territories  where  fresh  products  are  available,  ice 
cream  mixes  are  best  and  most  cheaply,  made  with  milk, 
cream  and  condensed  skim  as  sources  of  fat  and  serum 
solids.    In  localities  removed  from  actual  production 
areas,  mixes  are  cheapest  when  made  from  butter,  skim 
milk  powder  or  other  concentrates. 


36 


592.  REID,  W.  H.  E.,  DREW,  R.  J.,  and  ARBUCKLE, 
W.  S.     The  composition  and  serving  temperature  as  a 
means  of  increasing  consumer  preference  for  ice  cream. 
Internatl.  Assoc.  Ice  Cream  Mfrs.  Rpt.  of  Proc.  4:  76-81. 
1938.     389.9  ln83 

Based  on  a  thesis  presented  by  R.  J.  Drew  in  partial 
fulfillment  for  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Missouri. 

Results  of  this  study  of  the  influence  of  the  composition 
of  the  mix  on  serving  temperature  shows  that  ice  cream 
containing  14  percent  fat  was  generally  the  most  desir- 
able.   Illustrated  by  a  table,  charts  and  microphotographs. 

593.  REID,  W.  H.  E.,  and  ARBUCKLE,  W.  S.     The  effect 
of  serving  temperature  upon  consumer  acceptance  of  ice 
creams  and  sherbets.     Mo.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Res.  B.  272, 
34  p.     Jan.  1938.     100  M693 

Also  in  Ice  Cream  Trade  J.  34(1):  10,  12,  18,  32-34,  38. 
Jan.  1938.     389.8  Ic2 

Represents  opinions  of  181  consumers.    The  most  de- 
sirable serving  temperature  for  most  ice  creams  and 
sherbets  was  10°  F.    Ice  creams  and  sherbets  low  in  sugar 
content  and  with  mild  flavors  were  preferred  at  a  higher 
serving  temperature  than  10°F.,  while  products  more  pro- 
nounced in  flavor  and  with  a  higher  sugar  content  were 
preferred  at  a  lower  temperature. 

594.  RENNER,  K.  M.  Factors  the  butter  industry  should 
consider  in  future  quality  improvement.  Natl.  Butter  and 
Cheese  J.  29:  26-28.     Mar.  10,  1938.     286.85  B98Bu 

With  introductory  paragraph  relating  to  Texas,  published 
under  title  "Factors  for  Texans  to  consider;  a  Discussion 
of  Directions  for  further  Improvement"  in  Amer.  Prod. 
Rev.  85(25):  750-751.     Apr.  13,  1938.     286.85  N482 

Factors  with  respect  to  the  cream  station  system  of 
quality  control  are  outlined.    Plant  operations,  involving 
more  rigid  quality  and  laboratory  control,  are  further 
emphasized.    Adequate  dairy  legislation  affecting  the 
butter  industry  is  considered  a  prop  in  quality  improve- 
ment.   Lastly,  some  of  the  reasons  for  poor  quality  cream 
and  butter  are  enumerated. 

595.  REYNOLDS,  A.  E.  California's  ice  cream  control 
program.  Calif.  Dept.  Agr.  B.  27:  532-535.  Nov.  1938. 
2  C12M 

Changes  in  the  ice  cream  laws  of  California  are  de- 
scribed. These  involve  the  standards  for  sherbet  and  of 
composition  and  quality  for  ice  cream  mix  and  ice  milk 
mix,  as  well  as  quality  requirements  for  unsalted  butter 
used  in  these  products.  Pasteurization  of  all  ingredients 
except  fruits,  nuts  and  flavors  is  required.  The  sanitary 
regulation  of  ice  cream  factories  is  strengthened. 

596.  RICE,  E.  B.     Observations  on  the  dairy  industry  of 
Denmark.     Queensland  Agr.  J.  50:  716-729.     Dec.  1938. 
23Q33 

Contains  information  on  butter  sampling,  grading  and 
quality  control. 

597.  RICE,  E.  B.     Observations  on  the  dairy  industry  of 
the  Irish  Free  State.     Queensland  Agr.  J.  49:  443-455. 
May  1,  1938.     23  Q33 

Describes  breeds  of  cattle,  schemes  for  improvement  of 
dairying,  creamery  butter  manufacture,  butter  grading, 
and  the  Irish  Butter  Testing  Station. 

598.  ROBERTS,  H.  E.     Consumer  preference  for  ice 
cream.     Ohio  State  U.  Col.  Agr.  and  Domestic  Sci. 
Dairy  Technol.  Conf.  Mater.  Presented  1938:  137-139. 
44.9  Oh35M 

Results  of  quantity  test  of  consumer  preferences  in  ice 
cream.    For  further  report  see  item  no.  829. 

599.  ROGERS,  F.  E.  Daylight  vs.  night  delivery.  Milk 
Plant  Monthly  27(3):  28-30.     Mar.  1938.     44.8  C864 

Finds  that  in  general  night  delivery  is  preferable,  but 
that  extension  of  daylight  service  may  be  desirable  in 
some  communities. 

600.  ROLAND,  C.  T.,  and  TREBLER,  H.  A.     A  plant 
study  of  damaged  and  defective  milk  bottles.    J.  Dairy  Sci. 
21:  275-281.     June  1938.     44.8  J822 

A  study  of  data  from  two  large  bottling  plants. 


601.  RUEHE,  H.  A.,  and  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Price 
relationship  of  fluid  milk.     Hoard's  Dairyman  83:  339, 
351.     June  25,  1938.     44.8  H65 

Shows  the  influence  of  consumer  income  on  prices,  of 
butter  prices  on  market  milk  prices,  and  of  price  on 
sales,  especially  in  low  income  groups. 

602.  SANBORN,  J.  R.     Proposed  standards  for  paper 
milk  containers.     J.  Milk  Technol.  1(2):  41-45.     Jan. 
1938.     44.8  J824 

603.  SANBORN,  J.  R.     Suitable  paper  wrappers  and  con- 
tainers for  foods.     Amer.  J.  Pub.  Health  28:  571-575. 
May  1938.     449.9  Am3J 

Discusses  the  public  health  aspects  of  paper  food  con- 
tainers with  particular  reference  to  milk  containers,  and 
states  that  the  present  satisfactory  paper  milk  container 
is  sanitarily  manufactured  from  virgin  pulp  and  contains 
less  than  500  bacteria  per  gm.  of  disintegrated  board. 
Results  of  tests  for  bacterial  content  of  fabricated  con- 
tainers are  shown  in  a  table. 

604.  SCHUBRING,  W.  Butter  trade  and  prices  in  1937. 
Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Internatl.  Rev.  Agr.  29:  515S-519S. 
June  1938.     241  In82 

Gives  average  annual  prices  of  Danish  and  New  Zealand 
butter,  and  average  of  all  butters  imported  into  the  United 
Kingdom  for  1913  and  1928-1937,  individually,  and  average 
monthly  prices  of  butter  imported  into  the  United  Kingdom 
for  the  period  1931-1937. 

605.  SCHULTHEISS,  F.     Fluid  milk  market  stabiliza- 
tion.    Milk  Plant  Monthly  27(3):  36,  38,  40-41.     Mar. 
1938.     44.8  C864 

States  that  Wisconsin  was  the  first  State  to  attempt  to 
stabilize  fluid  milk  markets,  discusses  the  Wisconsin 
plan,  and  reports  on  the  work  done  and  results  attained. 

606.  SCHURMANN,  R.     Der  handel  mit  deutscher  butter. 
Germany.  Reichs  Min.  f.  Ernahr.  u.  Landw.  Ber.  iiber 
Landw.  Sonderheft  136,  113  p.     Ref.     1938.     18G  31A 

The  German  wholesale  butter  trade  which  is  largely  in 
the  hands  of  small  dealers  in  the  consumption  area 
receives  a  great  part  of  the  dairy  farm  butter  in  Germany. 
Joint  marketing  is,  however  becoming  of  increasing  im- 
portance.   In  1934,  20  associations  marketed  15  percent 
of  the  entire  production. 

This  article  discusses  prices  and  price  regulation  de- 
signed to  stabilize  German  agriculture  in  a  failing  world 
market,  and  shows  that,  because  of  the  short  route  from 
the  producer  to  the  consumer,  the  rapid  turnover,  and 
great  competition,  the  selling  margin  for  butter  was  very 
small.   Nevertheless  profits  were  made.   Now  that  prices 
have  been  stabilized,  profit  possibilities  are  greater. 

607.  SHEPARD,  J.  B.,  SMITH,  R.  K.,  and  WILSON,  J.  L. 
Milk  production  and  utilization  in  the  United  States,  1934, 
1935  and  1936.  Washington,  U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.,  1938. 
11  p.     1.9  Ec71Mpu 

Includes  material  on  total  supply  and  utilization  of  milk 
in  the  U.  S.,  and  on  milk  utilization  for  each  purpose  on 
farms  by  States. 

608.  SHERMAN,  R.  W.     Effect  of  base  and  surplus  plans 
on  volume  of  milk  sales  by  individual  producers.     Ohio. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Bimo.  B.  194:  176-177.     Sept.-Oct.  1938. 
100  Oh3S 

A  group  of  374  milk  producers  from  four  Ohio  markets 
who  shipped  milk  continuously  from  1927  to  1936  was 
selected  for  this  study.    Sales  were  studied  from  the 
standpoint  of  what  happened  to  their  sales  volume  when 
they  changed  from  a  so-called  summer  producer  to  a 
winter  producer  and  vice  versa.    Data  are  given  on  the 
number  of  producers  who  had  a  smaller  or  larger  volume 
of  sales  accompanying  both  types  of  changes.    These 
changes  indicate  that  the  adherence  to  base  and  surplus 
plans  was  accompanied  to  some  degree  by  lower  sales. 


37 


609.  SHERRARD,  F.  R.  G.  N.     Some  costs  of  producing 
tuberculin -tested  milk.     Farm  Econ.  2:  187-189.     Apr. 
1938.     281.8  F223 

Records  for  six  tuberculin-tested  herds,  in  different 
parts  of  England,  for  the  three  years,  1934-35  to  1936-37. 
Although  most  of  the  costs  were  reduced  during  this  time, 
the  range  of  cost  among  the  farms  remained  wide.    This 
is  attributed  partly  to  differing  interpretations  of  the 
standards  required  for  the  production  of  tuberculin-tested 
milk. 

610.  SMITH,  H.  P.,  and  TRACY,  P.  H.     Consumers'  pre- 
ference for  ice  cream.     Dairy  Indus.  3(10):  397-399. 
Oct.  1938.     44.8  D1427 

Also  in  Ice  Cream  Rev.  21(5):  27-28,  38.     Dec.  1937. 
389.8  Ic22 

Summary  of  thesis  presented  by  the  senior  author  in 
partial  fulfillment  of  the  requirements  for  a  Master's 
Degree  at  the  University  of  Illinois. 

Results  of  the  survey,  in  which  the  problem  was  studied 
from  two  angles,  first  by  questionnaire  and  second  by 
actual  sampling  of  the  ice  creams  in  question. 

611.  SPENCER,  L.     The  general  economic  situation  as 
related  to  problems  of  the  milk  industry.     In  Brown,  E.  F, 
comp.     Milk  Papers  3(52),  9  p.     1938.     28T7344  B81 

Discusses  such  topics  as  milk  sales  and  business  acti- 
vity, flexible  and  inflexible  prices,  retail  prices  and 
margins,  wages  and  taxes,  and  profits  in  milk  distribution. 

612.  SPENCER,  L.     Milk  and  cream  use  in  New  York. 
Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  85(14):  396.     Jan.  26,  1938. 

286.85  N482 

Compares  the  consumption  of  fluid  milk  in  New  York 
City  with  that  in  other  cities  in  the  State  and  with  that  in 
other  countries.    Factors  influencing  consumption  are 
retail  milk  prices,  income,  birth  rate,  and  educational 
campaigns  and  other  methods  of  making  consumers  fully 
aware  of  the  food  value  of  milk. 

613.  SPENCER,  L.     Milk  prices  in  New  York  under 
federal  and  state  orders.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  A.  E.  234,  19  p. 
Oct.  1938.     281.9  C81 

A  study  of  the  price  control  program  which  became 
effective  Sept.  1,  1938,  dealing  with  the  classification  and 
prices  of  milk  for  Sept.  1938  as  announced  by  the  Market 
Administrator;  the  effect  of  the  reduction  of  freight  dif- 
ferentials on  returns  to  farmers  near  New  York  City  and 
those  in  the  most  distant  counties;  retail  prices  of  Grade 
B  milk  and  evaporated  milk  at  grocery  stores  in  New 
York  City,  1925-Oct.  1938;  and  the  probable  duration  of 
improvement  in  milk  prices  resulting  from  the  Federal- 
State  control  program. 

614.  SPENCER,  L.     The  surplus  problem  in  the  north- 
eastern milksheds.     U.  S.  Farm  Credit  Admin.  Coop. 
Div.  B.  24,  88  p.     Apr.  1938.     166.2  B89 

Published  in  cooperation  with  the  N.  Y.  State  College  of 
Agriculture. 

The  surplus  problem  in  the  northeastern  milksheds  is 
said  to  involve  two  phases,  (1)  utilization  of  milk  in  these 
states,  and  (2)  western  cream  as  a  supplementary  supply 
for  the  markets  of  this  region.    These  aspects  are  treated 
separately  in  part  I  and  part  n  of  this  bulletin.     Lines  of 
action  toward  solving  the  problem  are  suggested. 

615.  SPENCER,  L.     Western  cream  for  eastern  mar- 
kets.    J.  Farm  Econ.  20:  196-207.     Feb.  1938. 

280.8  J822 

Summary  in  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  Farm  Econ.  99:  2429- 
2430.     Feb.  1937.     280.8  C812 

The  trend  in  the  utilization  of  cream  shipped  from  dairy 
plants  in  the  midwestern  states  is  shown,  together  with 
the  extent  of  operations  of  these  plants.    Conditions  affect- 
ing the  sanitary  quality  of  "western  cream"  are  indicated. 
Data  are  given  on  the  costs  of  making  and  shipping  cream 
from  this  source,  and  also  on  net  returns. 

Discussion,  p.  208-213. 


616.  STECK,  L.  J.     The  regulation  of  milk  marketing  in 
England  and  Wales.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust.  Admin.  DM -4 
(Mktg.  Inform.  Ser.),  75  p.     1938.     1.4  Ad47D 

Discusses  the  provisions  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme 
and  its  operation,  and  compares  Federal  regulation  of 
milk  marketing  in  the  United  States  with  that  in  England 
and  Wales.     Includes  a  brief  account  of  the  dairy  industry 
and  a  description  of  marketing  conditions  in  England  and 
Wales  prior  to  the  introduction  of  the  Scheme. 

617.  STEERE,  L.  V.  Recent  developments  in  Swedish 
agricultural  policy.  Econ.  Foreign  Agr.  2(5):  213-234. 
May  1938.     1.9  Ec7For 

The  functioning  of  the  Swedish  Milk  Scheme  with  partic- 
ular reference  to  milk  and  butter  price  equalization. 

618.  STEVENS,  G.  P.     A  quality  improvement  plan  for 
Utah.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  29:  33.     May  10,  1938. 
286.85  B98Bu 

Gives  details  of  a  three-months'  quality  improvement 
program  for  Utah's  milk,  cream,  butter  and  cheese  indus- 
try. 

619.  STITTS,  T.  G.,  and  others.     Relative  prices  to  pro- 
ducers under  selected  types  of  milk  pools.     U.  S.  Farm 
Credit  Admin.  Coop.  Div.  B.  253,  127  p.     June  1938. 
166.2  B87 

W.  C.  Welden,  E.  W.  Gaumnitz,  O.  M.  Reed,  and  H.  L. 
Forest,  joint  authors. 

On  the  basis  of  a  study  made  in  1937,  the  authors  dis- 
cuss pooling  procedure  and  analyze  some  of  the  specific 
factors  involved  in  setting  up  pooling  plans  for  distributing 
the  sales  returns  among  different  producer  groups  in  the 
milk-supply  area.     The  analytical  portions  treat  entirely 
of  conditions  in  the  milkshed  and  marketing  area  of  Bos- 
ton, Mass.    Information  collected  in  the  administration  of 
Federal  programs  regulating  the  handling  of  milk  in  this 
market  forms  the  basis  of  most  of  the  statistical  analyses 
included. 

620.  SURVEY  of  cream  grading  laws  in  the  United  States. 
Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  29:  18-20,  22-25.     June  10, 
1938.     286.85  B98Bu 

Results  of  a  questionnaire  survey  show  that  half  of  the 
40  states  from  which  replies  were  received  have  cream 
grading  laws;  8  percent  have  some  type  of  voluntary  grad- 
ing system;  and  42  percent  have  no  grading  laws  whatso- 
ever.   Facts  on  differences  in  the  provisions  of  these  laws 
and  their  application  in  the  various  states  are  noted. 

621.  SVAUDSTRdM,  F.  Marknadsundersbkningar  1-3. 
Sweden.  K.  Lantbr.  Styr.  Meddel.  306,  307,  312.  79  p., 
80  p.,  148  p.     1937-1938.     HSw3 

Nos.  306(2),  307  and  312  have  English  summaries  under 
the  titles  "The  production  of  milk,"    "The  British  butter 
market"  and  "Prices  of  milk  and  dairy  products  in  the 
period  1922-1936."    No.  306  discusses  the  relationship 
between  supply  and  demand  and  prices;  no.  307,  the  effect 
of  United  Kingdom  butter  stocks  on  world  market  prices; 
no.  312,  trends  in  dairy  prices,  as  affected  by  supply  and 
demand,  by  foreign  price  levels,  and  by  government  regu- 
lation. 

622.  TANNER,  F.  W.     Microbial  flora  of  paper  contain- 
ers.    Amer.  J.  Pub.  Health  28:  587-592.     Ref.     May  1938 
449.9  Am3J 

The  average  bacterial  content  of  paper  milk  containers 
is  found  much  lower  than  that  reported  for  some  glass 
bottles,  and  of  no  sanitary  significance.    Methods  of  mak- 
ing paperboard,  while  not  always  yielding  a  sterile  prod- 
uct, cause  a  profound  reduction  in  numbers  of  viable  bac- 
teria.  Waterproofing  the  paperboard  with  hot  paraffin 
also  contributes  to  this  end.   The  containers  studied  were 
made  and  sealed  in  the  factory.   That  part  which  comes 
into  contact  with  the  milk  is  not  exposed  to  contamination, 
for  the  containers  are  not  opened  until  they  are  about  to 
be  filled.   They  are  considered  safe  and  convenient  to  use. 

623.  TAUSSIG,  ST.     The  world  butter  production.     In-, 
ternatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Internatl.  Rev.  Agr.  29:  44T-61T.     Feb. 
1938.     241  In82A 

Although  the  emphasis  herein  is  placed  almost  exclusive- 
ly upon  production,  material  is  given  on  milk  utilization, 
p.  60-61,  for  a  number  of  countries. 


38 


624.  TAYLOR,  G.  R.     Restrictions  on  the  free  movement 
of  farm  products  in  the  United  States.     New  England  Inst. 
Coop.  Ann.  Cong.  11:  108-126.     1938.     280.29  N44 

Restrictions  on  dairy  products,  p.  121-126. 

625.  TAYLOR,  G.  R.     Trade  barriers  in  the  dairy  indus- 
try.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Agr.  Situation  22(8):  9-11. 
Aug.  1938.     1  Ec7Ag 

The  operation  of  measures  acting  as  trade  barriers 
against  the  interstate  and  intrastate  movement  of  dairy 
products  is  critically  reviewed. 

626.  TENNY,  L.  S.     The  use  of  a  futures  market  in  con- 
nection with  the  dairy  industry.     Tex.  Cream  Improve- 
ment Assoc.  Addresses  2,  5  p.     1938.     44.9  T312 

Explains  how  the  Chicago  Mercantile  Exchange  can  be 
used  by  the  creameryman  to  eliminate  price  risks. 

627.  THOMSEN,  L.  C.     What  needs  to  be  done  to  in- 
crease the  consumption  of  butter.     Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  86: 
534.     Sept.  14,  1938.     286.85  N482 

Also  in  Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  29:  10-12,  14. 
Jan.  25,  1938.     286.85  B98Bu 

The  author  points  to  factors  making  for  a  decrease  in 
butter  consumption.     He  suggests  that  improved  flavor, 
texture,  and  color  would  enhance  its  appeal  to  consumers, 
and  points  out  a  need  for  consumer  education  as  to  the 
nutritional  properties  of  butter. 

628.  TIEDEMAN,  W.  D.  The  role  of  platform  tests  and 
farm  inspections  in  milk  control.  J.  Milk  Technol.  1(5): 
17-32.    July,  1938.     44.8  J824 

Evaluates  the  odor,  strainer  dipper,  methylene  blue, 
and  sediment  tests.  The  first  proved  of  considerable 
value,  particularly  at  grade  B  plants. 

629.  TILL,  I.     Milk— the  politics  of  an  industry.     In^ 
Hamilton,  W.     Price  and  price  policies,  p.  431-524. 
New  York,  McGraw-Hill,  1938.     284.3  H182 

The  milk  industry  as  a  big  business  pent  in  by  the  petty 
economy  of  the  farm  and  the  petty  economy  of  the  house- 
hold.   A  study  of  the  milk  market,  its. method  of  fixing 
prices,  and  its  regulation  by  the  State.    Prepared  for  the 
Cabinet  Committee  on  Price  Policy  set  up  in  1934. 

630.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     California  milk  control  legislation. 
J.  Mktg.  3:  175-177.     Oct.  1938.     280.38  J82 

A  discussion  of  the  Young  Act,  amended  1937,  providing 
for  the  determination  and  enforcement  of  producers' 
prices  based  upon  the  economic  relation  between  prices  of 
market  milk  and  prices  of  manufacturing  milk  in  the 
various  marketing  areas,  and  of  the  Desmond  Act,  effec- 
tive Aug.  27,  1937,  extending  the  power  of  the  Director  of 
Agriculture  to  determine  and  establish  minimum  whole- 
sale and  retail  prices  as  Soon  as  possible  in  existing  mar- 
keting areas  and  to  put  both  producer  and  resale  prices 
into  effect  in  new  areas. 

631.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     Lessons  from  public  control  in 
milk  marketing.     J.  Farm  Econ.  20:  807-822.     Nov.  1938. 
280.8  J822 

Since  1933  the  Federal  and  many  State  legislatures  have 
passed  laws  foT  the  regulation  of  some  or  all  phases  of 
milk  marketing.    These  laws  have  been  reviewed  by  vari- 
ous State  supreme  courts  and  by  the  United  States  Su- 
preme Court.    These  decisions  make  possible  certain 
tentative  conclusions,  which  are  enumerated. 

The  various  State  laws  may  be  divided  under  two  general 
headings:  those  which  provide  only  for  the  support  of  min- 
imum (not  maximum)  prices  to  producers;  and  those 
which  in  addition  provide  for  regulation  of  minimum  re- 
sale prices.   Most  of  this  paper  is  devoted  to  this  latter 
aspect  of  the  problem,  illustrated  from  the  operation  of 
the  California  milk  control  legislation. 


632.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     Public  regulation  of  milk  market- 
ing in  California.     Berkeley,  U.  of  Calif.  Press,  1938. 
213  p.     280.344  T49 

Discusses  the  subject  under  the  following  topics:  Setting 
the  stage  for  milk  wars ;  collapse  of  milk  marketing  in 
California;  public  stabilization  efforts  before  1937;  eco- 
nomic basis  for  regulating  milk  distribution;  regulation' of 
producer  prices  under  the  amended  Young  Act;  resale 
price  regulation  under  the  Desmond  Act;  survey  of  distri- 
bution costs  and  store  margins;  allocation  of  costs 
between  fluid  milk  and  other  products;  and  resale  prices 
based  on  distribution  costs.    Concludes  that  "the  present 
milk- stabilization  legislation  in  .California  appears  to  be 
founded  on  sound  economic  principles,  and  if  well  admin- 
istered and  conscientiously  supported  by  those  in  the 
market-milk  industry  should  gradually  promote  greater 
efficiency  in  fluid  milk  distribution." 

633.  TO  MAINTAIN  sanitary  standards  of  grade  A  milk. 
Milk  Plant  Monthly  27(7):  52,  54,  57.     July  1938. 

44.8  C864 

Lists  four  "most  important  features"  of  conditions 
which  have  prevailed  in  the  Eastern  States  in  the  produc- 
tion and  sale  of  Grade  A  milk  for  some  25  years,  and  21 
"general  principles"  adopted  by  the  Grade  A  Milk  Associ- 
ation of  New  York  City. 

634.  TRACY,  P.  H.     Certain  practical  aspects  of  the  use 
of  paper  milk  containers.     J.  Milk  Technol.  1:  40-42. 
Mar.  1938.     44.8  J824 

Discusses  the  type  of  container  formed  and  paraffined 
immediately  before  filling,  its  manufacture,  its  condition' 
when  filled  with  milk,  and  the  reaction  of  the  milk  in  the 
container  to  heat.    Consumer  tests  based  upon  221  com- 
pleted questionnaires  show  a  preference  in  most  respects 
for  the  paper  container. 

635.  TUFFT,  J.  E.     Arden  of  Los  Angeles  "goes  to 
town"  with  a  new  15-cent  package.     Ice  Cream  Rev.  22 
(3):  40-41.     Oct.  1938.     389.8  Ic22 

The  package,  eight-sided  and  pie-shaped,  is  a  convenient 
size  for  slipping  into  the  freezing  compartment  of  the 
domestic  mechanical  refrigerator. 

636.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
Economic  brief  with  respect  to  the  proposed  marketing 
agreement  and  proposed  order  [for  various  marketing 
areas].     Washington,  1936-38.    16  v.     (Its  Series  on 
Marketing  Agreements  and  Orders  Paper  1-18.) 

1.94  D14Pap 

No.  4-5  not  issued. 

These  briefs  discuss  the  economic  bases  for  the  pro- 
posed agreements,  supply  and  demand  conditions  and 
prices  in  the  various  markets. 

Contents:  No.  1.  Greater  Boston  marketing  area,  by  P.  L. 
Miller  and  O.  M.  Reed;  No.  2.  Fall  River,  Massachusetts 
marketing  area,  by  P.  L.  Miller,  O.  M.  Reed  and  E.  E. 
Warner;  No.  3.  San  Diego,  California  marketing  area,  by 
O.  H.  Hoffman,  Jr.,  and  E.  E.  Warner;  No.  6  Kansas  City, 
Missouri  marketing  area,  by  P.  L.  Miller  and  H.  L. 
Forest;  No.  7.  Topeka,  Kansas  marketing  area,  by  P.  L. 
Miller  and  H.  I.  Richards;  No.  8.  Dubuque,  Iowa  market- 
ing area,  by  P.  L.  Miller  and  H.  I.  Richards;  No.  9.  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia  marketing  area,  by  P.  L.  Miller,  W.  P. 
Sadler  and  H.  L.  Forest;  No.  10.  Fort  Wayne,  Indiana 
marketing  area,  by  P.  L.  Miller,  W.  F.  Caskey,  and  A.  W. 
Colebank;  No.  11.  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  marketing 
area,  by  P.  L.  Miller  and  E.  E.  Warner;  No.  12.  Proposed 
amendment  to  Order  No.  4  for  the  Greater  Boston  market- 
ing area,  by  O.  M.  Reed,  H.  L.  Forest,  J.  R.  Hanson  and 
P.  L.  Miller;  No.  13.  Louisville. Kentucky  marketing  area, 
by  H.  L.  Forest,  J.  R.  Hanson  and  W.  P.  Sadler;  No.  14. 
La  Porte  County,  Indiana  marketing  area,  by  H.  L.  Forest, 
J.  R.  Hanson,  and  W.  P.  Sadler;  No.  15.  Fall  River,  Mass- 
achusetts marketing  area,  by  A.  W.  Colebank  and  P.  L. 
Miller;  No.  16.  Cincinnati,  Ohio  marketing  area,  by  J.  R. 
Hanson  and  P.  L.  MiUer;  No.  17.  St.  Louis,  Missouri 
marketing  area,  by  P.  L.  Miller,  H.  L  Richards,  and  W.  G. 
Sullivan;  No.  18.  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  marketing 
area. 


39 


637.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
New  York  milk;  explanation  of  the  Federal-State  market- 
ing plan  contained  in  Order  No.  27.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust. 
Admin.  DM-6,  (Mktg.  Inform.  Ser.),  13  p.     1938. 

1.4  Ad47D 

Includes  material  on  purpose  of  the  program,  principal 
provisions,  proposed  joint  state  and  federal  administra- 
tion, classification  of  milk  according  to  use,  minimum 
price  for  each  class  of  milk,  uniform  price  computation, 
payments  out  of  pool,  and  uniform  pool  prices  for  pro- 
ducers. 

638.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
Stability  in  milk  markets.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust.  Admin. 
DM-3,  (Mktg.  Inform.  Ser.),  13  p.     1938.     1.4  Ad47D 

The  Agricultural  Marketing  Agreement  Act  of  1937  is 
discussed,  with  reference  to  its  application  to  the  regu- 
lation of  milk  marketing  in  interstate  or  foreign  com- 
merce.   This  often  calls  for  coordination  of  the  Federal 
and  State  programs,  which  the  Act  makes  possible. 

639.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
Tentatively  approved  marketing  agreement  regulating  the 
handling  of  milk  in  the  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  marketing  area. 
Washington,  1938.     13  p.     (Docket  No.  A-5a) 

1.94  D14Ma 

Contains  articles  relating  to  the  administration  of  the 
agreement,  and  such  items  as  reports  of  handlers,  classi- 
fication of  milk,  values  and  prices,  and  manner  and  calcu- 
lation of  payments. 

640.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Estimating  yearly  changes  in  fluid  milk  and  cream  con- 
sumption in  cities  and  villages,  by  G.  W.  Sprague  and 
G.  G.  Foelsch.     Washington,  1938.     32  p.     1.9  Ec724Ey 

A  study  of  the  bases  used  by  the  Bureau  of  Agricultural 
Economics  in  estimating  milk  and  cream  consumption. 

641.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS 
Fo^g1?  agricultural  Policies-a  review  and  appraisal. 
The  Netherlands.     Foreign  Agr.  2(2):  84-92.     Feb.  1938. 
1.9  Ec7For 

Price  regulation  of  butter,  cheese  and  milk. 

642.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Revised  tentative  United  States  standards  for  quality  of 
creamery  butter,  effective  April  1,  1938.     33  p.     Mar 
1938.     1  Ec7Rt 

Explanation  of  revised  tentative  United  States  standards 
for  quality  of  creamery  butter,  by  Roy  C.  Potts,  Edward 
Small,  and  C.  W.  Fryhofer,  p.  11-33. 

643.  U.  S.  COMMODITY  EXCHANGE  ADMIN.     Grades  of 
butter,  eggs  and  Irish  potatoes  deliverable  on  contracts 
for  future  delivery.     Washington,  1938.     81  d. 

1.9  C73Gb  P 

Gives  rules  of  trading  procedure  on  the  Chicago  Mercan- 
tile Exchange  and  the  New  York  Mercantile  Exchange. 

644.  *U.  S.  CONGRESS.  HOUSE.  COMMITTEE  ON  COIN- 
AGE, WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURES.     Standard  metal  con- 
tainer act  of  1937.     Hearings,  75th  Cong.,  3d.  sess.  on 

H.  R.  6964,  Mar.  15  and  16,  1938.     Washington,  1938. 
190  p.     280.3  Un322S 
Includes  milk  containers. 

645.  U.  S.  DEPT.  OF  STATE.     The  trade-agreements 
program  benefits  the  dairy  industry.     Washington,  1938. 
16  p.     150.1  T673 

Also  in  Brown,  E.  F.    Milk  Papers  7(160),  16  p.     Jan.- 
Feb.  1940.     281.344  B81 

By  increasing  world  trade  and  thus  improving  business 
conditions  and  increasing  employment  at  home,  the  pro- 
gram provides  better  domestic  markets  for  dairy  products 
as  well  as  other  products.   It  also  relieves  the  pressure 
of  competition  in  dairying  from  other  farm  groups  and,  to 
some  extent,  opens  and  enlarges  foreign  markets  for 
American  dairy  products. 

646.  WAITE,  W.  C,  and  COX,  R.  W.     Seasonal  varia- 
tions of  prices  and  marketings  of  Minnesota  agricultural 
products,  1921-1935.     Minn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Tech.  B.  127, 
59  p.     Mar.  1938.     100  M66 

Discusses  type  and  regularity  of  seasonal  price  move- 
ment, market  movement  and  utilization,  and  variations  in 
production,  consumption,  and  price  of  butter. 
♦Not  examined. 


647.  WALWORTH,  G.     The  Government  and  milk.     Co- 
op Rev.  12:  48-51.     Feb.  1938.     280.28  C7823 

Criticizes  several  poUcies  of  the  British  Milk  Market- 
ing Board  and  caUs  for  greater  efficiency  of  production, 
transportation,  and  distribution  with  a  view  to  effecting 
economies  in  the  interests  of  the  consumer. 

648.  WELLWOOD,  R.  M.     What  wiU  be  the  effect  on 
metropolitan  milk  dealers  of  the  New  York  Federal- State 
market  agreement?     Milk  Plant  Monthly  27(10):  72-73, 
78.     Oct.  1938.     44.8  C864 

The  effect  of  this  agreement  is  to  spread  the  burden  of 
surplus  milk  through  the  operation  of  a  market  pool.    Each 
producer  will  assume  his  proportionate  share  of  the  ex- 
cessive production.    Adoption  of  a  market  pool  by  produ- 
cers, the  author  says,  also  makes  it  possible  for  them  to 
charge  each  dealer  the  same  price  for  milk  sold  in  the 
market  area.    However,  he  estimates  that  the  probable 
cost  increase  will  amount  to  1  1/2  c.  per  qt.  of  milk. 

649.  WHEATON,  E.,  LUECK,  R.  H.,  and  TANNER,  F.  W. 
Observations  on  problems  relating  to  the  paper  milk 
bottle.   J.MilkTech.  1(3):  11-15.    Mar.  1938.     44.8  J824 

Fiber  milk  containers  were  found  to  be  in  a  nearly  ster- 
ile condition  as  determined  by  an  approved  rinse  test. 
Describes  methods  used  in  their  manufacture. 

650.  WHITE,  G.  C.     Setting  milk  on  its  food  value. .  Hol- 
stein-Friesian  World  35:  434-435,  464.     Apr.  30,  1938. 

43.8  H742 

Address,  Northeastern  Dairy  Conference,  January  25, 
1938. 

Notes  that  there  are  several  breeds  employed  in  supply- 
ing the  markets  with  fluid  milk,  and  that  the  product  of 
these  breeds  varies  from  a  little  less  than  3.5  to  over  5 
percent  in  fat  and  almost  as  widely  in  the  other  milk  in- 
gredients.   Because  of  these  variations,  advocates  sale  of 
milk  to  consumers  on  its  food  value. 

651.  WHITTIER,  E.  O.     Dairy  by-products  development. 
Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb. 
Papers  Presented  at  Short  Course  Conf.  for  Dairy  Plant 
Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  17:  66-76.     Dec.  7-8,  1938. 

44.9  V593 

Deals  with  the  utilization  of  skim  milk,  buttermilk,  and 
whey. 

652.-  WISCONSIN  UNIVERSITY.  COLLEGE  OF  AGRICUL- 
TURE EXTENSION  SERVICE.     Reciprocal  trade  agree- 
ments and  Wisconsin  dairying.     Wis.  A'gr.  Col.  Ext.  Econ. 
Inform.  Wis.  Farmers  9(12):  1-4.     Dec.  1938. 
275.29  W75Ec 

Considers  the  subject  mainly  in  relation  to  prices  of 
dairy  products. 

653.  WITNEY,  D.,  and  MAXWELL,  S.  B.     Report  on  the 
financial  results  of  12  East  of  Scotland  dairy-arable 
smallholdings  for  1936-37.     Edinburgh,  Edinburgh  and 
East  of  Scotland  Coll.  of  Agr.  Econ.  Dept.,  1938.     8  n 
281.9  Ed4  y 

Milk  represents  nearly  half  of  the  total  output  of  these 
farms;  cattle  and  eggs  together,  one-quarter.    The  crops 
grown  are  mainly  for  home  consumption.    Data  given  in- 
clude costs  of  production  and  returns  for  total  produce, 
with  a  note  on  milk  prices  received. 

654.  WOODWARD,  B.  T.     Many  changes  made  by  new 
dairy  laws  in  California.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  27(1):  72- 
76.     Jan.  1938.     44.8  C864 

-Stabilization,  marketing  and  price  control  plans  recently 
established  under  the  administration  of  the  California 
Director  of  Agriculture,  affect  the  production  and  distri- 
bution of  all  dairy  products,  including  sherbet  which  is 
introduced  for  the  first  time  as  a  standardized  product. 


40 


655.  *WUTZ,  A.  T.     Alpenlandische  milchwirtschaft... 
Berlin,  Reichsnahrstand  verlags-ges.,  1938.     133  p. 

Ref.     (Schriftenreihe  der  studiengesellschaft  flir  national - 
okonomie  e.  v.,  Institut  fiir  b'auerliche  rechts-  und  wirt- 
schaftsordnung.  Reihe  B.  Deutsche  und  fremdvblkische 
landwirtschaft,  v.  1)     281.344  W96 

Milk  production  and  consumption  in  Austria.  -  U.  S.  Bur. 
Agr.  Econ.  Agr.  Econ.  Lit.  13:  1117.     Dec.  1939. 
1.9  Ec73Ag 

656.  YATES,  J.  W.     Common  sense  needed  in  our  milk 
laws;  chaotic  conditions  of  regulations  revealed  by  com- 
parison of  rules  in  different  jurisdictions.     Milk  Plant 
Monthly  27(5):  34,  36-41.     May  1938.     44.8  C864 

Address,  Dairy  Manufacturers'  Conference,  University 
of  Wis. 

Discusses  and  compares  the  regulations  of  different 
States  and  the  milk  ordinances  of  different  cities.    The 
overlapping  and  conflict  of  laws  are  causing  much  trouble 
and  expense  and  are  hampering  expansion  of  the  industry. 
Because  of  this  situation  much  good  milk  is  being  rejected 
and  does  not  have  a  free  market  while  other  milk,  of  in- 
ferior quality,  is  permitted  to  be  sold. 
♦Not  examined. 


657.  YOUNG,  G.     How  the  Board  of  Health  and  our  in- 
dustry may  co-operate  in  the  public's  interest.     Ice 
Cream  J.  34:  14,  28,  40.     Feb.  1938.     389.8  Ic2 

Efforts  of  both  are  directed  to  producer  and  consumer 
education  regarding  the  importance  of  a  wholesome  pro- 
duct, and  the  promotion  of  standardization  of  methods  of 
milk  production  and  handling,  whether  intended  for  fluid 
milk  or  for  ice  cream  manufacture. 

658.  YOUNG,  M.  G.     Ice  cream  regulations.     Ice  Cream 
Rev.  21(6):  28-30.     Jan.  1938.     389  .8  Ic22 

Standards  for  ice  cream  require  sanitary  control  through 
its  production  background  on  the  farm  and  manufacturing 
process  to  the  consumer.    Discusses  regulation  of  the 
raw  products  going  into  ice  cream,  the  control  problems 
arising  since  the  development  of  counter  freezers,  the 
question  of  requiring  pasteurization  of  mix  and  the  manu- 
facture of  ice  cream  to  be  a  continuous  process,  the 
sanitary  conditions  at  the  retail  outlet,  and  the  advisability 
of  grading  ice  cream  the  same  as  milk. 


1939 


659.  EL  ALZA  indebida  de  precios  de  los  artfculos  de 
primera  necesidad.     Indus.  Azucarera  45:  737-745. 
Sept.  1939.     65.8  In22 

Deals  in  part  with  Decree  No.  41,545  which  fixes  initial 
maximum  prices  of  milk  and  butter  for  public  sale  in  the 
Federal  Capital  of  Argentina. 

660.  ANDERSON,  E.  F.     Milk  price  control  in  the 
United  States,  January  1,  1938.     Pa.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  J. 
Ser.  Paper  894,  7  p.     1939.     100  P381J 

Excerpt  from  thesis  entitled  "Problems  Arising  from 
Public  Regulation  of  Milk  Prices  with  Special  Reference 
to  Pennsylvania,"  presented  to  the  Pennsylvania  State 
CoUege  in  partial  fulfillment  of  the  degree  of  Master  of 
Science,  1938. 

Outlines  the  principal  features  of  the  marketing  agree- 
ments under  the  Agricultural  Adjustment  Administration 
and  lists  the  various  agreements  that  were  in  effect  on 
January  1,  1938.   Reasons  for  control,  methods,  and 
features  of  the  various  milk  orders  are  discussed. 

661.  ARNOLD,  L.     Pouring  lip  and  cap  as  sanitary  fac- 
tors in  bottled  milk.     J.  Milk  Technol.  2:  41-43.     Jan. 
1939.     44.8  J824 

Sanitary  standards  that  the  closure  of  a  glass  bottle  of 
milk  should  meet  are  given. 

662.  BALDWIN,  F.  B.     Sanitary  regulations  as  they 
affect  the  milk  dealer.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  28(5):  43-44. 
May  1939.     44.8  C864 

Address,  Joint  Conference  on  Milk  Sanitation,  Pennsyl- 
vania Milk  Industry,  Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania,  Febru* 
ary  9,  1939. 

Milk  dealers  are  responsible  for  both  farm  and  plant 
sanitation.    The  two  problems  are  related,  since  without 
proper  plant  sanitation,  good  production  methods  would  be 
wasted.   Uniformity  and  clarity,  elimination  of  economics 
and  politics,  and  common  sense  in  inspections  are  princi- 
pal requisites  of  sanitary  regulations. 

663.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.  Considerations  in  governmen- 
tal price  control  of  dairy  products.  HI.  Farm  Econ.  45: 
222-227.     Feb.  1939.     275.28  n5 

A  study  of  the  effect  of  price-fixing  in  the  United  States 
upon  milk  production  and  market  milk  consumption,  and 
upon  consumption  of  substitute  products  such  as  oleo- 
margarine and  evaporated  and  condensed  milk. 

664.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Increasing  milk  consumption 
through  use  of  flexible  prices  to  producers  and  cont- 
sumers.     Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  of  Anim.  and 
Dairy  Husb.  Papers  Presented  at  Short  Course  Conf.  for 
Dairy  Plant  Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  18:  97-108.     1939. 
44.9  V593 

Outlines  some  of  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of 
milk  price  control,  and  suggests  that  the  class  I  price  for 
milk  be  established  directly  upon  butter  or  condensery 
prices. 


665.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Price  control  of  dairy  produc- 
tion.    Hoard's  Dairyman  84:  372,  383.     June  25,  1939. 
44.8  H65 

Study  of  the  effects  of  price-fixing  upon  milk  production, 
consumption  of  market  milk,  and  the  use  of  substitute 
products.   Relatively  high  prices  for  market  milk  result 
in  decreased  consumption,  increased  consumption  of  but- 
ter substitutes,  and  a  shift  by  farmers  engaged  in  other 
enterprises  to  the  production  of  milk. 

666.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Some  problems  which  milk 
producers  and  distributors  are  now  facing.     Vt.  U.  and 
State  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb.  Papers  Pre- 
sented at  Short  Course  Conf.  for  Dairy  Plant  Oper.  and 
Milk  Distrib.  18:  44-55.     1939.     44.9  V593 

These  are:  the  adjustment  to  a  declining  population 
curve  and  to  the  leveling  off  of  the  upward  trend  in  mHk 
consumption,  the  substitution  of  canned  milk  in  place  of 
market  milk,  and  the  lowering  of  costs  of  production, 
transportation,  and  distribution. 

667.  BAUER,  P.  T.    The  fixing  of  retaU  milk  prices. 
Manchester  School  Econ.  and  Social  Studies.     Oct.  1939. 
280.8  M313 

The  action  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Board  of  Great  Britain 
in  relation  to  the  question  of  distributors'  margins  in  milk 
retailing.     Some  attempt  is  made  at  an  equitable  solution 
of  the  problem.  Through  their  effect  on  liquid  sales,  fixed 
retail  prices  are  considered  partially  responsible  for  the 
considerable  proportion  of  total  supplies  which  had  to  be 
manufactured,  and  the  consequent  adverse  effect  on  pro- 
ducers' returns  which  led  to  demands  for  higher  whole- 
sale prices. 

668.  BENDKEN,  H.  A.    For  greatest  good  to  all  concern- 
ed: friendly  producer-distributor  relations.     Milk  Plant 
Monthly  28(1):  38,  40-41.     Jan.  1939.     44.8  C864 

To  some  extent  a  fair  division  of  the  consumer's  milk 
dollar  determines  how  happy  the  relationship  between 
producer  and  dealer  will  be.    Producer  organization  to 
control  surplus  production  and  stabilize  prices,  quality 
control,  efficient  operation,  and  cooperation  between  both 
parties  are  concomitants  of  this  factor. 

669.  BENNETT,  K.  R.     Comparative  costs  of  fixed  and 
variable  dairy  rations.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  115: 
2827,  2833-2835.     Nov.  1939.     280.8  C812 

A  variable  dairy  ration  was  worked  out,  variations  In 
ingredient  prices  of  which  between  1931  and  1938  are  in- 
dicated.   Compared  with  a  fixed  dairy  ration,  it  was  al- 
ways less  expensive  and  by  about  the  same  proportionate 
amount. 


41 


670.  BISHOP,  G.  R.     Milk  sales  by  stores  in  Buffalo. 
N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  113:  2791-2793.     May  1939. 
280.8  C812 

On  March  1,  1937  there  were  2816  independent  stores 
and  391  chain  stores  that  sold  milk  in  the  Buffalo,  N.  Y., 
market.     The  number  of  retail  stores  that  sold  milk  was 
approximately  the  same  as  the  number  of  stores  that  sold 
food  at  retail.    Independent  stores  most  commonly  sold 
from  13  to  24  quarts  of  milk;  sales  within  this  range  were 
made  by  1019  of  the  2816  stores.    Chain  stores  most  com- 
monly sold  from  25  to  36  quarts,  sales  within  this  range 
were  made  by  182  of  the  391  chain  stores.    The  total  daily 
sales  of  milk  by  independent  stores  were  52,360  quarts; 
and  by  chain  stores,  10,259  quarts.    An  average  of  1.7 
stops  per  independent  store  is  recorded,  and  1.1  stops 
per  chain  store. 

671.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.  Day-of-the-week  variations  in 
the  store  sales  of  milk  and  cream  in  the  New  York  mar- 
ket. N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  112:  2755-2756.  Apr. 
1939.     280.8  C812 

The  year  covered  is  1937.    Due  to  the  fact  that  many  re- 
tail food  stores  are  closed  all  or  part  of  the  day  on  Sunday, 
milk  and  cream  sales  on  Sunday  were  low  and  were  high 
on  Saturday  and  Monday.    The  degree  of  variation  differed 
with  the  product,  the  type  of  store,  and  the  type  of  trade 
served. 

672.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.     Relation  of  family  income  to 
prices  and  sales  of  fresh  milk,  cream,  and  evaporated 
milk  by  stores  in  the  New  York  market,  June  1938.     N.  Y. 
Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  Ill:  2720-2723.     Feb.  1939. 

280.8  C812 

Store  sales  of  grade  B  milk  per  family  were  greatest  in 
the  low-income  areas  of  the  city.    The  stores  serving 
families   in  low-income  areas  sold  fresh  milk  at  lower 
prices  than  those  in  the  medium  and  high-income  areas. 
Sales  were  greatest  in  areas  where  average  selling  prices 
were  lowest,  with  variations  noted  in  prices  of  fresh  and 
evaporated  milk.   Comparatively  few  families  in  low  in- 
come areas  were  willing  to  pay  any  premium  for  milk  in 
paper  containers.    Heavy  cream  sales  were  more  than 
twice  as  great  in  the  high-income  areas  as  in  the  low  and 
showed  similar  tendencies  in  respect  to  price. 

673.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.     Sales  of  cream  by  retail  stores 
in  the  New  York  market,  June  1938.     In  Brown,  E.  F. 
Milk  Papers  5(92):  1-14.     Jan. -May  193"9.     281.344  B81 

Issued  as  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Farm 
Mangt.  A.  E.  244,  14  p.     Jan.  1939.     281.9  C81 

About  two-thirds  of  all  cream  distributed  in  New  York 
City  is  sold  for  home  consumption  and  one-third  to  soda 
fountains  and  restaurants.  Of  the  quantity  sold  for  home 
consumption,  about  seven-eighth  is  sold  through  stores. 
Retail  prices  of  cream  varied  considerably  and  were  low- 
est at  stores  serving  low  income  families.  The  effect  of 
price  differentials  upon  relative  sales  of  evaporated  milk 
is  also  discussed. 

674.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.     Sales  of  evaporated  milk  by 
retail  stores  in  the  New  York  market,  June  1938.     In 
Brown,  E.  F.  Milk  Papers  5(93):  1-10.     Jan. -May  1939. 
281.344  B81 

Issued  as  N.  Y.  Agr.  CoLDept.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Farm 
Mangt.  A.  E.  245,  10  p.     Jan.  1939.     281.9  C81 

Estimated  consumption  of  evaporated  milk  amounted  to 
the  equivalent  of  1.7  tall  cans  per  capita.    Sales  were 
greatest  in  low  income  areas  where  the  price  differential 
between  evaporated  milk  and  grade  B  milk  was  greatest. 
No  clear  evidence  was  found  that  evaporated  milk  is  sub- 
stituted for  cream  except  in  the  low  income  areas. 

675.  BOKER,  H.     World  supply  of  fats  and  oils.     Inter- 
natl.  Inst.  Agr.  Monthly  B.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Sociol.  30: 
243E-271E.     June  1939.     280.29  In83 

Includes  section  on  butter,  p.  252E-254E. 


676.  BOOKER,  H.  S.     A  survey  of  milk  distribution. 
Economica  (n.  s.)  6(21):  78-85.     Feb.  1939.     280.8  Ec73 

Discusses  milk  consumption  and  milk  distribution  in 
part  of  Battersea,  England,  which  is  primarily  a  working 
class  area.    The  most  common  consumption  is  one  pint 
per  day  in  the  Western  Section  and  half -a -pint  per  day  in 
the  poorer  Eastern  Section.    In  most  roads  about  60  per- 
cent of  the  milk  is  provided  by  two  distributors  and  90 
percent  by  four.     Throughout  the  whole  area  60  percent 
of  the  milk  is  supplied  by  two  dairies,  divided  fairly 
evenly  between  them.    The  other  dairies  do  not  serve  so 
generally  over  the  whole  area,  but  specialize  on  particu- 
lar sections.     Some  of  the  families  buy  from  more  than 
one  supplier,  making  for  higher  cost  of  milk  distribution. 
A  monopoly  by  one  dairyman  in  a  specified  district  is 
considered  advisable. 

677.  BOUCHER,  G.  P.,  and  HOPPER,  W.  C.  An  econom- 
ic study  of  cheese  consumption  in  certain  urban  and  rural 
districts  of  Canada.     Canada  Dept.  Agr.  Tech.  B.  22, 

34  p.     Dec.  1939.     7  C16T 

Housewives  were  interviewed  and  questionnaires  com- 
pleted during  the  summer  of  1935  by  enumerators  who 
called  at  their  homes.    Information  was  obtained  from 
3,213  families  and  care  was  taken  to  secure  a  representa- 
tive sample  of  the  various  localities  in  which  the  study 
was  conducted.    Significant  variations  in  respect  of  cheese 
consumption  which  appeared  to  be  related  to  differences 
in  location,  income,  nationality  and  other  factors  are  in- 
dicated. 

678.  BREED,  R.  S.  The  use  of  the  financial  stimulus  in 
high  grade  milk  production.  Farm  Res.  [N.  Y.  State  Sta.] 
5(3):  10.     July  1,  1939.     100  N48H 

History  of  premium  payments  for  grade  A  milk  in  New 
York  shows  that  farmers  respond  to  price  stimulus  by 
improving  quality  of  product.   Discusses  application  of 
premium  payments  to  grade  B  milk. 

679.  BREMER,  H.  E.     The  present  status  of  farm  and 
plant  inspection  and  quality  control.     Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr. 
Col.  Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb.  Papers  Presented  at 
Short  Course  Conf.  for  Dairy  Plant  Oper.  and  Milk  Dis- 
trib.  18:  59-63.     1939.     44.9  V593 

Contains  information  on  the  application  of  the  Vermont 
milk  control  law. 

680.  BRIDGES,  A.,  and  SHERRARD,  F.  R.  G.  N. 
Changes  in  costs  of  milk  production  between  the  years 
1934-5  and  1936-7.     Farm  Econ.  3:  28-31.     Apr.  1939. 
281.8  F223 

Records  of  the  costs  of  milk  production  on  251  farms  in 
England  and  Wales  producing  milk  for  sale  on  a  wholesale 
contract  were  kept  for  the  3  years,  October-September 
1934-35  to  1936-37.    On  these  farms  the  number  of  cows 
increased  in  1935-36  by  2.5  percent,  but  fell  in  the  next 
year  by  0.7  percent,  a  net  increase  of  1.8  percent  over 
the  3  years.    The  increase  in  number  of  cows  was  accom- 
panied by  an  increase  in  the  production  of  milk.    The  net 
cost  on  the  farm  fell  from  9.46d.  in  1934-35  to  9.06d.  in 
1935-36,  and  rose  to  9.45d.  in  1936-37.    These  changes 
were  due  mainly  to  the  influence  of  charges  for  feeds. 
Other  items  of  cost  also  changed,  notably  the  cost  of 
labor,  which  showed  a  steady  rise. 

681.  BRIDGES,  A.     The  economics  of  machine-milking. 
Gt.  Brit.  Min.  Agr.  and  Fisheries  J.  46:  63-72.     Apr. 
1939.     10  G79J 

Shows,  for  different  periods  between  1934  and  1938,  in- 
crease in  milking  machines  on  400-500  herds  in  England 
and  Wales,  relation  of  size  of  herd  to  number  of  milking 
machines,  labor  costs  and  net  farm  costs  in  milk  pro- 
duction on  herds  milked  by  machine  and  by  hand,  labor 
costs  on  24  herds  before  and  after  the  installation  of 
milking  machines  and  costs  of  running  and  upkeep  of  the 

machines,  net  saving  in  labor  by  machine  milking  on  20 

farms,  and  yields  in  gallons  of  milk  per  cow  before  and 
after  introduction  of  the  machine. 


42 


682.  BRIDGES,  A.     Food  costs  in  milk  production  1935- 
6  to  1937-8.     Farm  Econ.  3:  43-46.     July  1939. 

281.8  F223 

Feed  costs  and  quantities  consumed  per  cow  during 
the  three  years  covered  are  given  for  a  large  number 
of  farms  well  distributed  over  the  dairying  districts 
of  England  and  Wales.    The  quantity  of  milk  produced 
for  the  period  is  also  shown.    The  data  are  thought  in- 
teresting because  they  may  be  used  as  standards  by 
which  farmers  may  test  their  efficiency  as  milk  pro- 
ducers, because  of  the  considerable  rise  in  the  prices 
of  purchased  feed  during  the  three  years,  and  because 
they  illustrate  the  effect  of  seasonal  conditions  on  feed 
requirements. 

683.  BROTHER,  G.  H.     Plastic  materials  from  farm 
products.     Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.  31:  145-148.     Feb. 
1939.     381  J825 

Discusses  the  use  of  casein  for  plastics  and  in  the  manu- 
facture of  a  film  material  similar  to  cellophane  and  of 
synthetic  wool. 

684.  BROWN,  A.  A.  and  DONLEY,  J.  E.     Milk  cartage 
in  the  Southwick-Agawam  area  of  the  Springfield  milk- 
shed.     Mass.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  363,  26  p.     May  1939. 
100M38H 

Analyzes  milk  cartage  rates  in  the  area  for  1935  and 
suggests  a  reorganization  of  rate  structure  based  on 
distance  from  market  and  farm  location. 

685.  BROWN,  A.  A.,  and  DONLEY,  J.  E.     Product-costs 
of  milk  to  dealers  in  the  Springfield  area,  1935.     Mass. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  365,  28  p.     July,  1939.     100  M38S 

Conditions  in  various  Massachusetts  secondary  areas, 
not  conducive  to  market  stability,  are  uneven  distribution 
of  fluid  outlets  among  dealers,  rigidities  in  producer - 
distributor  relationships,  and  the  absence  of  reasonable 
relationships  between  the  prices  for  milk  disposed  of  as 
fluid  and  as  surplus. 

686.  BROWN,  B.     Administrative  law— price  fixing— 
Oreg.  Milk  Control  Act.     Oreg.  Law  Rev.  19:  38-50. 
Dec.  1939.     Libr.  Cong. 

Discusses  the  validity  of  the  Act  in  the  light  of  court 
decisions. 

687.  BROWN,  E.  F.     A  conspiracy  against  business? 
Milk  Dealer  28(6):  43,  66,  68,  70.     Mar.  1939. 

44.8  M595 

The  author  comments  on  the  unfair  criticism  of  big 
business  in  general  and  says,  "the  milk  industry  is  an 
excellent  example  of  a  big  business  which  has  received 
an  inordinate  amount  of  unjust  criticism  in  the  press." 
Modest  profits  made  and  records  of  achievements  of  the 
industry  are  cited  to  prove  such  criticism  unwarranted. 

688.  BROWN,  J.  H.     Revision  of  methods  and  standards 
for  certified  milk.     Amer.  J.  Pub.   Health  29:  355-358. 
Apr.  1939.     449.9  Am3J 

Improvements  in  bacteriological  control  procedures  for 
certified  milk  are  described.   Herd  supervision  is  being 
increased,  in  view  of  the  occurrence  of  bovine  mastitis. 
Special  winter  feeding  of  cows  is  urged  for  better  flavor 
and  nutritive  quality  of  winter  milk. 

689.  BUCKINGHAM,  S.  M.     Dealers'  spread  in  Connecti- 
cut.    In  Brown,  E.  F.     Milk  Papers  5(86):  1-9.     Jan.- 
May  1979.     281.344  B81 

"From  the  Report  of  Proceedings,  -57th  Annual  conven- 
tion, Connecticut  Dairymen's  Association,  January  1939." 

Based  on  a  survey  made  by  S.  W.  Tator  and  H.  P.  Snow. 

In  this  study  of  profit  and  loss  statements  from  47 
merchant  dealers,  25  dealers  showed  profits  and  22 
losses.    Includes  a  table  in  which  the  data  submitted  by 
the  dealers  are  summarized. 

690.  BUELL,  R.  L.     Death  by  tariff.  Protectionism  in 
State  and  Federal  legislation.     Pub.  Policy  Pam.  27,  40  p. 
1939.     280.12  P96 

Includes  discussion  of  efforts  to  exclude  foreign  butter 
and  to  control  the  manufacture  and  sale  of  oleomargarine , 
and  on  interstate  trade  barriers  for  milk. 


691.  BUTLER,  J.  B.  Report  on  the  cost  of  milk  pro- 
duction, 1937-1938.  Harper  Adams  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  of 
Econ.  Farmer's  Rpt.  2,  13  p.     Jan.  1939.     103  H234 

Gives  data  on  feed,  labor,  herd  depreciation,  *nd  mis- 
cellaneous costs  for  54  farms  in  the  West  Midland  Prov- 
ince. 

692.  BUTTERWORTH,  T.  H.  Trends  in  milk  control  in 
Texas  promote  voluntary  improvement  of  quality  by  milk 
dealers.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  28(3):  23-26.     Mar.  1939. 

44.8  C864 

Milk  control  in  Texas  has  been  aided  by  the  adoption  of 
the  Standard  Milk  Ordinance  and  Code  of  the  U.  S.  Public 
Health  Service  and  by  the  passage  in  1937  of  the  Texas 
Milk  Grading  and  Labeling  Law.    Where  grading  exists 
it  must  be  in  conformance  with  this  Code.    Provisions  of 
the  law  are  reviewed  and  their  application  discussed. 

693.  CANADA.  MARKETING  SERVICE.     Agricultural 
marketing  legislation,  1939.     18  p.     Ottawa?  1939. 
280.3  C1662 

Reviews  legislation  enacted  in  1939  to  aid  in  the  distri- 
bution of  surplus  butter  and  to  promote  the  production  of 
high  quality  cheese. 

694.  CHINN,  A.  Consumer  attitude  toward  ice  cream. 
Ohio  State  U.  Col.  Agr.  and  Domestic  Sci.  Ohio  State  U. 
Dairy  Technol.  Conf.  of  Mater.  Presented  1939:  107-110. 

44.9  Oh35M 

Considers  quality  of  the  product  in  relation  to  consumer 
education. 

695.  COHEN,  R.     Milk  policy  and  milk  prices.     Econ.  J. 
49:  79-90.     Mar.  1939.     280.8  Ec72 

Two  chief  objectives  of  milk  policy  in  Great  Britain  are 
stressed:  an  increased  consumption  of  liquid  milk  an^ 
the  establishment  of  a  reasonable  standard  of  life  for  milk 
producers.   One  method  of  increasing  consumption  would 
be  to  lower  generally  the  price  of  liquid  milk.    This  arti- 
cle deals  almost  wholly  with  the  policy  which  could  be 
adopted  to  achieve  this  end. 

696.  COHEN,  R.     Variations  in  liquid  milk  consumption. 
Farm  Econ.  3:  51-54.     July  1939.     281.8  F223 

The  Committee  of  Investigation  for  England  put  forward 
the  view,  which  was  accepted  by  the  Milk  Marketing  Board 
that  the  liquid  milk  consumer  should  only  pay  such  a  price 
for  his  milk  as  would  cover  the  costs  of  producing  the  a- 
mount  consumed  liquid,  plus  a  safety  margin.    This  safety 
margin  has  been  estimated  at  10  percent  at  the  season  of 
shortest  production.    Presumably  this  margin  makes  some 
allowance  for  variations  in  production  and  in  consumption 
within  the  month.    Gives  information  on  these  shorter  pe- 
riod variations  in  consumption,  and  on  their  relevance  to 
the  margin  necessary  throughout  the  year. 

697.  COLVIN,  E.  M.     Transportation  of  agricultural 
products  in  the  United  States,  1920-June  1939;  a  selected 
list  of  references  relating  to  the  various  phases  of  rail- 
way, motor,  and  water  carrier  transportation.     U.  S.  Bur. 
Agr.  Econ.  Libr.  Agr.  Econ.  Bibliog.  81,  3  v.     1939. 

1.9  Ec73A 

Contains  references  on  transportation  of  and  freight 
rates  on  milk,  butter,  cheese  and  dairy  products. 

698.  COOKE,  B.  A.     The  development  and  operation  of 
milk  control  boards.     Sci.  Agr.  20(1):  29-38.     Sept.  1939. 
7  Sci2 

Discusses  the  basis  of  price  fixing,  production  cost, 
milk  control  legislation,  and  cooperation  with  health  au- 
thorities in  Canada. 

699.  COX,  R.  W.,  and  WAITE,  W.  C.     Consumption  of 
butter  by  Minneapolis  families.     Minn.  U.  Agr.  Ext.  Farm 
Business  Notes  193:  3.     Jan.  1939.     275.29  M663 

Presents  data  on  expenditure  for  and  use  of  butter  for 
2,350  families  as  of  1938. 

700.  CUTTING  milk  delivery  costs  by  replacing  obso- 
lete trucks  with  new  equipment.     Milk  Dealer  28(11):  30- 
31,  50,  52,  54.     Aug.  1939.     44.8  M595 

Data  covering  75  delivery  trucks  and  based  upon  opera- 
ting costs  for  1937  when  old  trucks  were  run,  and  for  1938 
when  new  trucks  were  purchased,  show  a  $663  yearly  av- 
erage saving  per  truck  after  replacement. 


43 


701.  CUTTING  milk  delivery  costs  through  discount 
plans;  experiments  being  carried  on  in  Minneapolis, 
Minn.     Milk  Dealer  28(5):  54,  56.     Feb.  193S.     44.8  M595 

An  account  of  the  operation  of  the  Elwell  Plan  for  sell- 
ing dairy  products,  the  basis  being  a  platform  price 
plus  cost  of  delivery.    Under  the  plan  each  customer  is 
charged  13  cents  for  the  first  quart  of  milk  purchased, 
and  7  cents  for  each  additional  quart. 

702.  DAHLBERG,  A.  C,  HENING,  J.  C,  and  DURHAM, 
H.  L.     Reduction  of  milk  losses  in  milk  plants.     N.  Y. 
State  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk  Insp.,  Ann.  Rpt.  (1938)  12: 
187-194.     1939.     44.9  N4833 

A  study  of  conditions  in  eight  milk-receiving  plants  in- 
dicates that  losses  may  be  materially  reduced  by  proper 
selection  and  installation  of  equipment  together  with  sound 
operating  procedures.    Suggestions  as  to  how  this  waste 
may  be  reduced  are  offered. 

703.  DANKERS,  W.  H.  Surplus  problems  in  dairying. 
Minn.  U.  Agr.  Ext.  Farm  Business  Notes  199:  3.  July 
1939.     275.29  M663 

States  that  the  situation  can  be  bettered  only  through  in- 
creased industrial  activity  and  consumer  purchasing  pow- 
er, lower  retail  prices,  or  curtailment  of  production. 

704.  DEVELOPMENT  and  present  status  of  the  big  milk 
bottle.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  28(9):  24-28.     Sept.  1939. 
44.8  C864 

Market  requirements,  practices  and  opinions  of  milk 
dealers  in  regard  to  the  gallon  jug  and  the  half -gallon 
bottle  are  indicated.    The  majority  of  the  distributors  with 
whom  the  large  container  was  discussed  favored  the  two- 
quart  or  half -gallon  bottle  over  the  gallon  container. 

705.  DONLEY,  J.  E.  Towards  a  perfect  milk  market. 
Mass.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  366,  28  p.     Nov.  1939.     100  N38S 

Discusses  economic  aspects  of  marketing  fluid  milk  in 
Worcester,  Mass.,  with  specific  reference  to  supply  and 
sale  relationships-,  including  prices.   An  equilibrium  of 
supply  and  demand  has  been  attained  in  this  area.    Trans- 
portation might  be  more  efficiently  organized. 

706.  DOW,  G.  F.     An  economic  study  of  milk  distribu- 
tion in  Maine  markets.     Maine.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  395: 
523-674.     Mar.  1939.     100  M28S 

A  comprehensive  analysis  of  the  factors  affecting 
distribution  costs  based  on  detailed  records  procured  by 
the  survey  method  from  266  milk  distributors  in  10  Maine 
market  areas  for  the  years  ending  April  30,  1935  and  1936. 
These  distributors  represented  43  percent  of  all  distribu- 
tors and  they  handled  three-fourths  of  the  milk  and  cream 
sold  in  these  markets. 

707.  DOW,  G.  F.     Reducing  cost  of  distributing  milk  in 
Maine.     J.  Farm  Econ.  21:  309-314.     Feb.  1939. 
280.8  J822 

Recommends  that  special  attention  be  given  to  the  fol- 
lowing factors:  larger  volume  per  distributor;  greater 
volume  of  sales  per  mile  traveled  on  milk  routes;  stricter 
credit  policy  to  reduce  bad  debts  and  collection  costs;  re- 
duction of  bottle  losses;  consideration  of  the  use  of  horses 
instead  of  motor  trucks  on  milk  routes  up  to  15  miles  in 
length;  employment  in  general  of  only  one  man  to  a  route; 
and  curtailment  of  special  services  such  as  special  de- 
liveries. 

708.  DURAND,  Lv  Jr.     Cheese  region  of  southeastern 
Wisconsin.     Econ.  Geog.  15:  283-292.     July,  1939. 
273.8  Ec7 

The  cheese  industry  in' this  area  is  built  upon  the  prod- 
uct of  220  factories.   Not  only  do  they  compete  with,  one 
another  for  territory  and  milk,  but  with  the  condensery 
and  large  urban  cheese  factory.    The  shift  has  been  both 
to  larger  factories,  with  fewer  manufacturing  units,  and 
to  greater  variety  of  types  of  cheese. 

709.  DURYEE,  W.  B.     "Effect  of  milk  control  upon 
spreads,  utilization,  production  and  consumption  of 
milk."     In  Brown,  E.  F.  Milk  Papers  6(155):  1-19. 
June-Dec.  1939.     281.344  B81 

Opinions  vary  as  to  the  effect  of  milk  control  on 
spreads;  however  in  certain  markets  the  advent  of  control 
has  brought  a  reduction  in  spread  and  has  increased  pro- 
duction.  Whether  milk  control  has  caused  a  decrease  in 
consumption  is  a  matter  of  disagreement  and  probably 
varies  according  to  policies  of  the  various  boards. 


710.  DURYEE,  W.  B.     Stimulating  milk  consumption. 
Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb. 
Papers  Presented  at  Short  Course  Ccnf.  for  Dairy  Plant 
Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  18:  22-25.     1939.     44.9  V593 

Constant  effort  in  maintaining  quality,  reducing  costs 
of  production  and  distribution,  sound  merchandising,  and 
building  public  confidence  is  required  to  accomplish  this 
aim. 

711.  ELLENBERGER,  H.  B.     Lower  production  costs 
essential.     Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  88:  94-96.     May  24,  1939. 
286.85  N482  . 

Also  with  title  Lower  Production  Costs  a  Vital  Factor, 
in. Hoard's  Dairyman  84:  335.     June  10,  1939.     44.8  H65 

Address,  Production  Section,  31st  Annual  Convention  of 
the  International  Association  of  Milk  Dealers,  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  Oct.  17,  1938. 

Milk  can  and  will  be  produced  more  cheaply  when  ap- 
proved modern  methods  are  more  generally  practiced  on 
dairy  farms.   More  milk  would  be  used,  the  consumer 
would  be  benefited,  and  profits  to  the  producer  and  dis- 
tributor would  be  more  certain  if  milk  could  be  produce* 

3.t  lsSS  COSto 

712.  FLORIDA.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.     Twenty- 
fifth  biennial  report.. .from  July  1,  1936,  to  June  30,  1938. 
Tallahassee,  1939.     220  p.     2  F66R 

Includes  an  account  of  the  work  of  the  State  Milk  Inspec- 
tion Division,  information  on  out -of -State  importations  of 
milk  and  cream,  dairying  in  the  Miami  area,  and  herd  re- 
placements in  the  State. 

713.  FOELSCH,  G.  G.     Estimates  of  gross  and  net 
weights  of  butter  in  various  types  of  packages  at  New 
York,  Chicago,  Boston,  and  Philadelphia.     Washington, 
U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.,  1939.     13  p.     1.9  Ec724Est 

Results  of  a  survey  in  1938  of  the  four  markets,  for  the 
use  of  the  Bureau  of  Agricultural  Economics  in  compiling 
information  regarding  market  receipts.   Weights  of  the 
various  types  of  containers  are  given. 

714.  FOWLER,  H.  C.     Statistical  approach  to  the  feed- 
milk  production  problem.     New  England  Res.  Council 
Mktg.  and  Food  Supply.  Proc.  1939:  44-47. 

252.004  N443M 
Includes  data  on  grain  costs. 

715.  FRIBLEY,  Mrs.  W.  E.     The  distributor  is  the 
chief  factor  in  the  successful  and  adequate  consumption 
of  dairy  products.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  28:  52-54,  56. 
June  1939.     44.8  C864 

Discusses  the  place  of  the  distributor  in  promoting  the 
utilization  of  dairy  products.   It  is  frequently  indifference 
rather  than  price  that  keeps  women  from  buying  more 
dairy  products. 

716.  FROKER,  R.  K.,  COLEBANK,  A.  W.,  and 
HOFFMAN,  A.  C.     Large-scale  organization  in  the 
dairy  industry.     U.  S.  D.  A.  C.  527,  68  p.     July,  1939. 
1  Ag84C 

Gives  data  on  the  growth  of  large-scale  dairy  concerns, 
financial  tendencies  of  the  leading  dairy  companies, 
dairy  organization  and  plant  ownership  in  Wisconsin,  and 
mass  distribution  of  dairy  products.    Also  discusses 
sources  of  supply  and  sales  outlets  of  the  dairy  compan- 
ies and  the  importance  of  patent  control  in  the  industry. 

717.  FUCHS,  A.  W.,  and  FRANK,  L.  C.     Milk  supplies 
and  their  control  in  American  urban  communities  of  over 
1,000  population  in  1936.     U.  S.  Pub.  Health  Serv.  B.  245, 
70  p.     1939.     151.66  B87 

Based  on  a  questionnaire  survey  covering  2,654  munici- 
palities representing  41  percent  of  the  total  number 
and  63  percent  of  the  combined  population  of  all  munici- 
palities of  over  1,000  population  in  the  United  States. 
Presents  data  on  production  and  consumption  of  fluid 
market  milk,  volume  and  price  of  various  grades,  pas- 
teurization, tuberculin  and  abortion  tests,  legal  require- 
ments, state  and  local  control  organization,  inspection, 
sampling  and  bacterial  quality,  and  cost  of  local  milk 
control. 


44 


718.  FUCHS,  A.  W.     The  need  for  uniform  dairy  sanita- 
tion legislation.     Region.  Conf.  on  Dairy  Prob.  1939:  8-13. 
44.9  R26 

Shows  how  uniform  standards  make  for  consumer  confi- 
dence in  the  safety  and  quality  of  the  milk  supply  and  for 
effective  sanitary  control.    Cites  the  U.  S.  Public  Health 
Service  Milk  Ordinance. 

719.  GASSER,  E.  Present  state  of  the  dairying  industry 
in  the  various  countries.  Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Internatl. 
Rev.  Agr.  27:  91T-102T;  189T-196T;  424T-429T;  28:  51T- 
62T;  89T-97T;  133T-139T;  209T-215T;  216T-223T;  441T- 
448T;  29:  61T-73T;  242T-250T;  278T-292T;  313T-333T; 
30:  144T-151T;  183T-195T;  342T-350T.  Ref.  1936-1939. 
241 In82A 

A  series  of  articles  reporting  on  conditions  in  the  fol- 
lowing countries:  Switzerland,  Denmark,  Belgium,  Poland, 
Bulgaria,  Latvia,  Lithuania,  Estonia,  Finland,  Norway, 
Iceland,  Sweden,  Rumania,  Albania,  Yugoslavia  and 
Greece.    For  each  country,  information  is  given  on  dairy 
species  and  breeds,  production  of  milk,  cheese,  butter 
and  other  dairy  products.    Percentages  of  total  milk  pro- 
duction utilized  for  human  consumption  and  in  the  manu- 
facture of  dairy  products  are  shown.   There  is  a  bibliog- 
raphy at  the  end  of  each  article. 

720.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.     Marketing  agreement  and  order 
programs  of  the  Federal  Government.     Pa.  Dairymen's 
Assoc.  Rpt.  14:  14-16,  18-20.     1939.     44.9  P384 

Describes  the  history  of  the  Federal  regulation  of  mar- 
keting fluid  milk  and  other  dairy  products  and  discusses 
some  of  the  problems  encountered  and  some  of  the  things 
necessary  for  the  program  to  work  in  the  interests  of  the 
dairy  industry  and  the  public. 

721.  GEYER,  D.  N.     Market  milk  problems  in  New  Eng- 
land.    Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy 
Husb.  Papers  Presented  at  Short  Course  Conf.  for  Dairy 
Plant  Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  18:  41-44.     1939. 

44.9  V593 

Discusses  the  subject  from  the  standpoints  of  production, 
processing,  and  sales. 

722.  GILTNER,  W.     Milk  hygiene  in  the  United  States. 
Internatl.  Vet.  Cong.  (1938).    Rpt.  13(2):  1143-1153. 
1939.     41.9In843 

Similar  article  in  Vet.  Med.  34(6):  346-351.    June  1939. 
41.8  M69 

On  the  regulation  of  milk  sanitation,  with  a  discussion 
of  protection  of  milk  from  contamination  by  human  patho- 
gens. 

723.  GLASS  CONTAINER  ASSOCIATION  OF  AMERICA. 
Milk  container  costs;  a  study  in  comparisons.     N.  Y.? 
1939.     22  p.     280.344  G46 

A  study  of  milk  packaging  costs  in  seven  dairies  located 
in  the  East  North  Central  and  Middle  Atlantic  States. 
Of  these  seven  dairies,  four  use  both  glass  and  paper  con- 
tainers; one,  glass  only;  and  two,  paper  only. 

724.  GLASS  CONTAINER  ASSOCIATION  OF  AMERICA. 
Your  milk  container;  a  study  of  its  competitive  progress 
in  other  markets.     In  Brown,  E.  F.     Milk  Papers  6(130): 
1-23.     June-Dec.  1939.     285.344  B81 

This  study  of  conditions  in  12  markets,  as  of  August 
1939,  shows  that  consumers  prefer  the  glass  bottle  to 
paper  containers  and  that  milk  costs  approximately  1  i  a 
quart  less  to  package  and  deliver  when  glass  bottles  are 
used. 

725.  GOVERNMENT  measures  for  the  relief  of  agricul- 
ture in  Sweden  since  1930.     Svenska  Handelsbanken.  In- 
dex 1939  (sup.),  32  p.     Ref.     Mar.  1939.     280.8  In23 

Contains  section  on  milk  control,  p.  9-12,  which  discus- 
ses the  operation  of  the  Swedish  government's  plan  de- 
signed mainly  to  keep  up  the  price  of  butter. 

726.  GT.  BRIT.  FOOD  COUNCIL.     Report...  to  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  Board  of  Trade,  1936-1938.     London,  H.  M. 
Stationery  Off.,  1937-1939.     3  v.     284.39  G792 

Contains  sections  on  milk  and  milk  products  and  market- 
ing schemes  (1936),whichshow  developments  for  each 
year,  with  emphasis  on  prices. 


727.  GT.  BRIT.  MILK  MARKETING  BOARD.     Milk  mar- 
keting scheme;  five  years'  review,  1933-1938.     London, 
1939?     55  p.     280.3449  G79M 

Achievements  of  the  first  five  years  are  summarized  as 
follows:    Prices  have  been  stabilized,  and  the  market  has 
been  widened;  production  of  graded  milk  has  been  expand- 
ed; cost  of  transportation  has  been  reduced;  the  farm 
cheesemaking  craft  has  been  revived;  supplies  have  been 
allocated  in  time  of  scarcity;  the  board  is  financing  an 
investigation  of  the  costs  of  milk  production;  producers 
own  a  chain  of  creameries  in  various  parts  of  the  country. 
Outlines  a  similar  program  for  the  future. 

728.  GT.  BRIT.  MILK  MARKETING  BOARD.     Sixth  an- 
nual general  meeting  of  registered  producers,  report  and 
accounts,  1st  April,  1938-31st  March,  1939.     London, 
1939.     20  p.     280.3449  G79A 

Report  on  the  working  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme. 

729.  GT.  BRIT.  MILK  PRODUCTS  MARKETING  BOARD. 
Scheme  under  the  Agricultural  Marketing  Acts,  1931  to 
1933,  regulating  the  marketing  of  milk  products.     London, 
H.  M.  Stationery  Off.,  1939.     31  p.     280.344  G796 

Gives  details  of  the  scheme,  which  covers  butter,  cheese, 
condensed  milk,  condensed  skim  milk,  dried  milk,  dried 
skimmed  milk,  cream  and  sterilized  cream. 

730.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Arrangements  under  the  Milk  Act,  1934  to 

1938,  for  increasing  the  demand  for  milk  within  the  area 
of  the  Milk  Marketing  Board  for  England  and  Wales  by 
the  supply  of  milk  to  nursing  and  expectant  mothers  and 
children  under  five  years  of  age  at  reduced  rates... 
London,  H.  M.  Stationery  Off.,  1939.     4  p. 

280.344  G792Arm 
Price  control  of  milk  falling  within  this  category. 

731.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  HEALTH.     Scheme  for 
the  supply  of  milk  at  a  reduced  rate  for  mothers  and 
children.     London,  H.  M.  Stationery  Off.,  1939.     16  p. 
280.344  G797 

Introductory  letter  and  explanatory  memorandum  dis- 
cuss the  purpose  and  functions  of  the  scheme. 

732.  HALE,  R.  W.     Cost  of  rearing  dairy  heifers.     Gt. 
Brit.  Min.  Agr.  J.  46:  268-276.     June  1939.     10  G79J 

During  1934-38,  69  heifers  were  reared  by  the  Agricul- 
tural Research  Institute  of  Northern  Ireland  at  an  average 
cost  of  L22  per  head.     This  was  L2  or  -L3  higher  than  the 
price  at  which  heifers  of  roughly  similar  type  could  have 
been  purchased  in  the  open  market  at  the  same  time,  but 
the  Institute  herd  was  being  graded  up  and  was  producing 
a  tuberculin-tested  grade  of  milk.    The  components  enter- 
ing into  this  figure  are  cost  of  keep,  allowance  for  heifers 
not  calved,  and  credit  balance  on  stock  account. 

733.  HARE,  H.  R.     Factors  affecting  efficiency  in  dairy 
farming.     Sci.  Agr.  20:  51-60.     Sept.  1939.     7  Sci2 

A  management  study  of  Ontario  dairy  farms  for  the  year 
ending  June  30,  1937,  which  includes  data  on  the  cost  of 
milk  per  cwt.  as'  related  to  numerous  given  faptors. 

734.  HARE,  H.  R.     Rating  the  success  of  farm  business. 
Econ.  Annal.  9:  19-23.     Apr.  1939.     281.8  Ec72 

Based  on  data  from  the  Ontario  whole  milk  shipper 
farms  for  the  year  ending  June  20,  1937.    Shows  the  effect 
of  varying  degrees  of  efficiency  in  the  five  farm  manage- 
ment factors  of  size  of  business,  crop  production,  live- 
stock and  livestock  product  production  (milk  production 
per  cow),  use  of  labor  and  of  capital  on  operator  labor 
earnings  and  on  the  cost  of  producing  100  pounds  of  milk. 
Presents  an  analysis  of  the  data  relating  to  the  business 
of  the  Ontario  whole  milk  producers  which  shows  the 
cumulative  effect  of  above-average  efficiency  in  these  fac- 
tors. 

735.  HARMON,  E.  M.     How  the  New  York  milk  market- 
ing agreement  works.     Amer.  Agr.  136(3):  5,  19.     Feb.  4, 

1939.  6  Am3 

Deals  with  milk  prices,  and  the  Producer  Settlement 
Fund.   Mentions  the  Agricultural  Marketing  Act,  and  the 
New  York  State  Rogers-Allen  Law  of  1937. 


45 


736.  HARRY,  E.  L.,  and  PHILLIPS,  J.  R.  E.     Milk  con- 
sumption in  a  North  Wales  slate  quarrying  community. 
Welsh  J.  Agr.  15:  41-54.     Jan.  1939.     10  W46 

In  addition  to  information  on  household  constitution,  and 
quantities  and  values  of  fresh  and  other  milks  purchased, 
details  of  use  made  of  fresh  milk,  number  of  retailers 
supplying  milk  at  each  household,  and  number  of  deliver- 
ies per  household  per  day  are  shown  for  185  households 
containing  a  total  of  596  persons.    The  relation  between 
income  and  milk  consumption  of  these  families  is  brought 
out. 

737.  HASKELL,  W.  H.     Milk  supply  control.     Amer. 
Municipalities  63(4):  17-21.     Jan.  1939.     Libr.  Cong. 

The  value  of  the  U.  S.  Public  Health  Service  Milk  Ordi- 
nance in  promoting  uniform  milk  regulatory  standards  is 
set  forth.  Its  main  characteristics  are  outlined  and  dis- 
cussed. The  ordinance  is  subject  to  annual  review,  thus 
admitting  of  desirable  changes. 

738.  HEPBURN,  N.  W.  Labeling  provisions  of  the  new 
Federal  Food  and  Drug  Act.  Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J. 
30(5):  14-15,  23.     May  1939.     286.85  B98Bu 

Suggestions  are  offered  for  the  labeling  of  butter  cartons 
and  wrappers  to  conform  with  the  provisions  of  the  new 
Federal  law.    The  use  of  certain  terms  in  this  connection 
is  discussed. 

739.  HOFFMAN,  A.  C.  The  patent  situation  in  the  food 
industries.  In  Brown,  E.  F.  Milk  Papers  6(114):  1-13. 
June-Dec.  1939.     281.344  B81 

Issued  separately  by  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Agricultural 
Economics.     1.941  M1P27 

Patents  affecting  the  dairy  industry,  their  holders,  and 
the  dates  of  expiration  are  discussed  in  detail.    Control  of 
important  processes  by  means  of  patent  rights  has  given 
the  holder  commercial  advantages  and  in  a  few  cases 
seems  to  be  an  important  factor  in  the  growth  of  some 
large  concerns. 

740.  HOLM,  G.  E.  Industrial  products  of  the  dairy  in- 
dustry. Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.  News  Ed.  17:  348-349. 
May  20,  1939.     381  J825N 

Products  derived  from  the  53,000,000,000  pounds  of 
skim  milk  produced  annually  in  the  United  States,  includ- 
ing lactose,  lactic  acid  and  casein,  are  discussed,  quanti- 
ties produced  are  noted  and  possible  industrial  uses  are 
considered.    A  statistical  flow  sheet  showing  production 
of  milk  and  products  derived  therefrom,  United  States, 
1937,  is  included. 

741.  HOOD,  E.  G.,  WHITE,  A.  H.,  and  FELLOWS,  E.  S. 
Wood  taint  in  butter  boxes.     Ottawa?  1939.     14  p. 
280.344  H76 

Experiments  conducted  by  the  Division  of  Dairy  Re- 
search, Science  Service,  of  the  Dominion  Department  of 
Agriculture  and  the  Forest  Products  Laboratories  of 
Canada,  of  the  Lands,  Parks,  and  Forests  Branch  of  the 
Department  of  Mines  and  Resources,  at  the  request  and 
with  the  assistance  of  the  British  Columbia  Lumber  and 
Shingle  Manufacturers  Association.    Western  hemlock, 
Sitka  spruce,  amabilis  fir  and  grand  fir  were  tested. 
Types  of  lining  employed  were  aluminum  foil,  single 
parchments  and  single  parchment  with  circular  liner,  all 
of  40-pound  weight. 

742.  HOPSON,  G.  H.     Quality  milk  and  its  control. 
Amer.  Vet.  Med.  Assoc.  J.  94(6,  pt.  2):  378-382.     Apr. 
1939.     41.8  Am3 

Presented  at  the  seventy -fifth  annual  meeting  of  the 
American  Veterinary  Medical  Association,  New  York, 
N.  Y-,  July  5-9,  1938. 

Gives  results  of  tests  of  over  2,670  consumers'  door- 
step samples  of  certified  milk  during  1937. 

743.  HUMRICKHOUSE,  C.  W.     The  milk  control  law  in 
Indiana.     Mo.  Farmer  31(14):  3,  7.     July  15,  1939. 
6M696 

Deals  with  costs  of  production  and  distribution,  and 
with  the  effect  of  this  law  on  milk  prices. 


744.  ILLINOIS  DAIRY  PRODUCTS  ASSOCIATION.     What 
the  farmer  gets  and  what  the  consumer  has  to  pay  under 
milk  control.     In  Brown,  E.  F.  MUk  Papers  6(126):  1-12. 
June-Dec.  1939.     281.344  B81 

Results  of  the  study  comparing  prices  in  Chicago  with 
prices  in  several  middle  western  cities,  including  Milwau- 
kee, St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis,  show  that  consumers  in 
regulated  markets  have  been  forced  to  pay  high  prices  for 
their  milk  and  that  farmers  whose  prices  are  controlled 
received  little,  if  any  more,  real  income  than  farmers 
supplying  the  Chicago  market  under  a  free  price  system. 

745.  INCREASING  cheese  factory  income  with  mechanical 
refrigeration.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  30(10):  14-15, 
50.     Oct.  1939.     286.85  B98Bu 

Control  of  temperature  and  humidity  in  the  curing  room 
creates  savings  and  increases  profits  by  preventing  devel- 
opment of  rind  rot,  pin  holes,  or  other  defects  which 
would  lower  the  value  of  the  product,  and  by  reducing 
shrinkage  and  weight  loss  to  a  minimum. 

746.  INTERNATIONAL  ASSOCIATION  OF  ICE  CREAM 
MANUFACTURERS.     Ice  cream  can  analysis.     Internatl. 
Assoc.  Ice  Cream  Mfrs.  Spec.  B.  59,  23  p.     Feb.  1939. 
389.9  In83S 

Includes  material  on  the  plant  costs  of  metal  and  paper 
cans,  and  of  the  effect  on  distribution  costs  of  the  use  of 
each  type  of  can. 

747.  INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURE. 
International  chronicle  of  agriculture:  United  Kingdom; 
milk  market.     Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Monthly  B.  Agr.  Econ. 
and  Sociol.  30:  170E-182E.     Apr.  1939.     280.29  In83 

The  milk  marketing  schemes  of  England  and  Wales, 
Scotland,  and  Northern  Ireland  are  discussed.  Tables  are 
given  for  milk  prices  and  sales  (including  sales  for  manu- 
facture) in  the  area  of  the  English  Milk  Marketing  Scheme, 
and  of  the  Scottish  Milk  Marketing  Scheme,  1933/34- 
1937/38;  milk  sold  to  creameries  for  manufacture,  North- 
ern Ireland,  1934/35-1937/38;  and  prices  fixed  for  liquid 
milk  consumption,  Northern  Ireland,  1934/35-1938/39. 

748.  JONES,  E.  H.     Milk  control  in  Vermont-past, 
present,  and  future.     Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept. 
Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb.  Papers  Presented  at  Short  Course 
Conf.  for  Dairy  Plant  Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  18:  9-14. 
1939.     44.9  V593 

The  milk  control  law  has  eliminated  from  most  markets 
in  Vermont  the  price  cutting,  the  giving  of  free  merchan- 
dise, and  other  detrimental  trade  practices  formerly  prev- 
alent. 

749.  KELLY,  E.     Supervision  and  inspection  of  milk. 
U.  S.  D.  A.  Ybk.  1939:  360-363.     1  Ag84Y 

A  brief  account  in  which  it  is  pointed  out  that  mainte- 
nance of  nutritive  value,  prevention  of  fraud  and  sanita- 
tion are  the  main  factors  involved  in  the  inspection  of 
market  milk. 

750.  KENNEDY,  M.     Policies  that  have  promoted  the 
growth  of  the  Rochester  dairy  company,  Rochester, 
Minnesota.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  28(3):  28-33.     Mar.  1939. 
44.8  C864 

9uality  control,  farm  inspection,  cooperation  with  health 
authorities,  premiums  to  farmers  for  high  quality,  pre- 
miums to  operators  for  superior  efficiency  and  active 
promotional  work,  are  among  the  policies  to  which  the 
success  and  growth  of  the  company  are  attributed. 

751.  KENNEDY,  M.  Sliding  scale  of  prices  takes  de- 
livery costs  into  consideration.  Milk  Plant  Monthly  28 
(6):  58-66.     June  1939.     44.8  C864 

Discusses  systems  adopted  by  milk  dealers  in  Minne- 
sota, Iowa,  and  Wisconsin  allowing  discounts  for  quantity 
purchases  and  thus  increasing  milk  sales. 

752.  KESSLER,  L.  M.     Cost  control  in  the  ice  cream  in- 
dustry.    Ice  Cream  Trade  J.  35(9):  10-11,  14,  28-30. 
Sept.  1939.     389.8  Ic2 

Certain  concepts  of  cost  in  the  ice  cream  industry  and 
their  control  are  advanced. 

753.  KLINEFELTER,  H.  E.     Missouri's  fiUed  milk  case. 
Mo.  Farmer  31(6):  8.     Aug.  15,  1939.     6  M696 

Account  of  litigation  resulting  from  violation  of  the  Mis- 
souri FiUed  Milk  Law. 


46 


754.  KLUETER,  H.     Is  the  creamery  industry  obligated 
to  consider  the  wishes  of  the  consumer?     In  Consolidated 
Reporting  Co.  1938  butter  and  cheese  industry  symposium, 
p.  156-160.     New  York,  1939?    44  C764 

Deals  mainly  with  cream  and  butter  grading  and  stand- 
ards, with  reference  to  conditions  in  Wisconsin. 

755.  ROLLER,  E.  F.     Recent  trends  in  the  Minnesota 
dairy  industry.     Minn.  U.  Dept.  Agr.  Farm  Business 
Notes  196:  1-2.     Apr.  1939.     275.29  M663 

Between  1920  and  1938,  the  dairy  industry  in  Minnesota 
expanded  in  nearly  all  its  branches  including  the  number 
of  milk  cows,  quantity  of  milk  produced,  and  the  produc- 
tion of  butter,  cheese,  and  other  milk  products.  A  signi- 
ficant trend  in  the  marketing  of  butter  has  been  that  of 
more  direct  sale  with  less  dependence  on  wholesale  re- 
ceivers. 

756.  KRUISHEER,  C.  I.     Methods  of  dairy  control  in 
Holland  and  an  analytical  study  on  the  quality  and  special- 
ly the  firmness  of  butter.     Chem.  &  Indus.  58:  732-740. 
Aug.  5,  1939.     382  M31C 

Shows  how  standards  are  maintained  by  butter  and 
cheese  control  stations  supported  by  the  producers  and 
under  Government  supervision.    Milk  powder,  condensed 
milk,  and  other  milk  products  are  subject  to  control  by  a 
special  station  at  the  Hague.    The  second  half  of  the 
article  reviews  the  research  work  of  the  Government 
Dairy  Station  at  Leyden. 

757.  LECUYER,  R.     Ten-year  cost  study,  production  of 
fluid  milk,  region  of  Montreal.     Quebec,  Dept.  Agr.  1939? 
22  p.     281.344  Q3 

A  study  begun  in  October  1929  in  cooperation  with  the 
Economics  Department  of  Macdonald  College  McGill  Uni- 
versity.  Information  was  obtained  from  225  individual 
farm  records  during  the  first  year,  and  from  subsequent 
surveys. 

758.  LET  'EM  drink  Grade  A.  The  milk  industry  sells 
service.  Most  of  its  customers  would  rather  have  milk... 
at  4  cents  less.     Fortune  20(5):  82-84,  128,  131-132,  134, 
136.     Nov.  1939.     110  F772 

Points  out  that  high  prices  result  in  reduced  consump- 
tion; that  prices  are  too  high  and  could  be  reduced;  that 
milk  can  be  sold  through  stores  at  4  cents  less  a  quart 
than  through  home  delivery;  and  that  farmers  and  labor  in 
some  markets  have  raised  prices  and  wages  to  uneconom- 
ic levels. 

759.  LITTLE,  J.  L.     A  new,  quick  and  accurate  method 
of  standardizing  milk  by  the  slide  rule:     Milk  Plant 
Monthly  28(1):  22-25.     Jan.  1939.     44.8  C864 

A  modification  of  the  slide  rule  is  used  in  this  method  of 
standardizing  milk  and  cream  for  butterfat.    Found  appli- 
cable to  any  type  of  standardizing  problem,  the  method,  it 
is  claimed,  accounts  for  the  butterfat-  in  each  ingredient 
entering  into  the  standardized  product  so  that  proof  will  be 
completed  along  with  the  standardizing  calculations.    An 
explanation  of  the  procedure  is  given  for  each  kind  of 
standardizing  and  calculation  commonly  encountered. 

760.  LONG,  W.  H.  Is  "milk-and-feed"  system  justified? 
Farmer  and  Stock-Breeder  53(2579):666.  Mar.  14,  1939. 
10  F228 

Analysis  of  figures  of  six  reasonably  representative 
Yorkshire  farms  for  the  contract  year  1936/37.    Cows  in 
milk-and-feed"  herds  cost  nearly  L12  a  year  more  than 
™i*"£?r.  herdS-    Production  ?er  stall,  however,  was 

761.  LONG,  W.  H.  Three  years'  milk  costs  in  York- 
shire. Farm  Econ.  3:  47-48.  July  1939.  281.8  F223 
,  Arc?omparls,on  ?f  the  costs  on  35  identical  farms, 

1  n  S ?    io  n^37/38'  S!10WS  **"*■ the  average  cost  rose  fron. 
iu.bd.to  12. Od.  per  gal. 

762.  MCCARTHY,  D.  A.  From  raw  to  pasteurized  milk. 
Milk  Dealer  28:  39,  60.     Mar.  1939.     44.8  M595 

Also  la  Milk  Plant  Monthly  28:  39.    Apr.  1939. 
44.8  C864 

Results  of  a  survey  of  milk  distributors  in  Luzerne 
County,  Pa.,  who  installed  pasteurizing  equipment  during 
the  previous  10  years,  show  that  nearly  all  the  distribu- 
tors increased  their  daily  output  thereby,  and  that  the 
changes  were  made,  voluntarily  for  the  most  part,  in 
accordance  with  consumer  demand  and  milk  sanitation 
standards. 


763.  MCDONOUGH,  W.  F.     State  regulations  covering 
the  fat  testing  of  milk.     N.  Y.  State  Assoc.  Dairy  and 
Milk  Insp.,  Ann.  Rpt.  (1938)  12:  121-122,  124-127.    1939. 
44.9  N4833 

Discusses  New  York  State  laws  relating  to  fat  tests  and 
fat  testing  of  milk.    Checking  the  accuracy  of  work  done  by 
licensed  testers  employed  by  those  who  purchase  milk 
from  producers  is  a  major  project  of  the  Division  of  Milk 
Control.    Records  indicate  that  somewhat  over  1,400 
plants  receiving  milk  from  producers  buy  on  fat  test  and 
require  the  milk  to  be  tested. 

764.  MACKINTOSH,  J.     The  evolution  of  milk-produc- 
tion.    In  Agriculture  in  the  twentieth  century;  essays  on 
research",  practice,  and  organization  to  be  presented  to 
Sir  Daniel  Hall,  p.  397-421.     Oxford,  Clarendon  Press, 
1939.     30.4  Ag8 

Traces  the  development  of  dairy  science  in  Great 
Britain  and  its  application  to  milk  production,  including 
sanitary  quality  control.    Discusses  briefly  some  features 
and  results  of  the  Milk  Marketing  Scheme. 

765.  MACY,  H.,  and  OLSON,  J.  C.     Preliminary  observa- 
tions on  the  treatment  of  parchment  paper  with  sodium  or 
calcium  propionate.     J.  Dairy  Sci.  22(7):  527-534.     July 
1939.     44.8  J822 

Experiments  to  determine  the  most  practical  and 
efficient  methods  for  inhibiting  surface  mold  growth  on 
butter. 

766.  MALOTT,  D.  W.,  and  MARTIN,  B.  F.     The  agri- 
cultural industries.     New  York,  McGraw-Hill,  1939. 
483  p.     Ref.     281.12  M29 

Presents  the  business  aspects  of  purchasing,  processing, 
financing,  and  marketing  the  leading  agricultural  raw 
materials.    Analyzes  the  business  problems  peculiar  to 
these  industries.    Chapter  2,  deals  with  the  dairy  industry. 

767.  MARION,  J.  A.     Problems  in  the  butter  market. 
Eastern  Canada  Conf.  on  the  Mktg.  of  Farm  Prod.  Proc. 
1939:  71-75.     280.39  Ea73 

Problems  of  overproduction  and  disposal  of  the  surplus 
are  discussed.    Increasing  the  production  of  cheese,  for 
which  there  is  a  market  in  Britain  so  long  as  it  is  offered 
in  quantities  to  provide  for  a  continuous  supply,  is  sugges- 
ted as  a  possible  solution.    Attention  is  also  called  to  the 
Australian  Equilization  Scheme,  under  which  producers 
have  regulated  the  home  price  through  their  power  to  ex- 
port the  surplus  month  by  month  and  to  require  every 
creamery  in  Australia  to  bear  its  share  of  the  loss  in  ex- 
porting such  butter. 

768.  MARQUARDT,  J.  C.     Proposed  changes  in  scoring 
Cheddar  cheese.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  30(4):  12,  13. 
Apr.  1939.     286.85  B98Bu 

Recommendations  for  crediting  desirable  qualities  of  the 
product,  rather  than  using  standards  which  are  mainly 
measures  of  defects. 

769.  MASUROVSKY,  B.  I.     Milkmeter— a  slide  rule  for 
the  dairy  industries.     J.  Milk  Technol.  2(4):  174.    Julv 
1939.     44.8  J824 

The  rule  is  used  to  calculate  the  milk-solids-not-fat 
when  the  specific  gravity  and  butterfat  content  are  known. 

770.  MASUROVSKY,  B.  I.     Slide  rule  aids  in  standardi- 
zing milk  and  cream.     Food  Indus.  11(9):  489.     Sept.  1939. 
389.8  F737 

A  simplified  method,  with  examples  illustrating  its 
application. 

771.  MAYBERRY,  R.  H.     The  Canadian  cheese  industry, 
with  special  reference  to  export.     Eastern  Canada  Conf. 
on  the  Mktg.  of  Farm  Prod.  Proc.  1939:  76-81 
280.39  Ea73 

Mainly  a  discussion  of  the  problems  confronting  the  dis- 
tribution of  Canadian  cheese,  with  recommendations  for 
improvement. 


47 


772."  MELDER,  F.  E.     Trade  barriers  and  dairy  prod- 
ucts.    Chicago,  1939.     7  p.     (Council  of  state  govt.  Trade 
barrier  research  bull,  ser.)     286  C832 

Market  protection  takes  various  forms,  including  con- 
trol of  wholesale  and  retail  prices  of  fluid  milk  and  the 
exclusion  of  competitive  milk  or  cream  from  a  local 
market.   Measures  which  tend  to  cause  this  condition, 
although  they  may  be  merely  incidental  to  achieving  some 
other  public  purpose,  constitute  trade  barriers.  He  dis- 
cusses the  operation  of  these  measures  in  relation  to  the 
trade  barrier  problem  which  exists  in  the  dairy  industry. 

773.  MENAFRA,  A.     Selective  distribution,  a  unique 
dealer  sales  policy.     Ice  Cream  Trade  J.  35(12):  8-10, 
59.   Dec  1939.     389.8  Ic2 

The  principle  of  select  representation,  plus  an  "ex- 
clusive agency,"  In  the  dealer  relationships  of  one  firm 
has  helped  bring  a  higher -than -average  price  and  built 
volume  consistently  for  its  products  since  the  program 
was  first  inaugurated. 

774.  MERKET,  H.  Miichwirtschaftliche  marktordnung 
als  beispieL  Internal!.  Agrar -Rundschau  1939(9):  19- 
21.     Sept.  1939.     28  In89 

The  controlled  milk  market  in  Germany  is  credited 
with  raising  the  prices  to  producers,  building  up  the  milk 
industry,  reducing  the  costs  of  distribution,  and  improving 
the  quality  of  milk  products  with  special  reference  to  the 
needs  of  the  consumers. 

775.  MICHIGAN  MTT.K  PRODUCERS  ASSOCIATION. 
Detroit-Michigan  dairy  products  prices,  1928-1938.     23  p. 
1939.     284.344  M58 

Tables  give  monthly  prices  for  all  Detroit  milk,  Detroit 
sales  milk,  surplus  milk,  net  base  price,  and  condensary 
prices  -  all  f .  o.  b.  country;  3.5  times  average  Chicago 
92-score  butter  prices,  and  Chicago  batter  prices;  cents 
and  percent  Detroit  sales  milk  was  above  all  Detroit  milk, 
condensary  prices,  and  3.5  times  Chicago  butter  prices; 
cents  and  percent  all  Detroit  milk  was  above  condensary 
prices  and  3.5  times  Chicago  butter  prices;  and  various 
index  numbers  and  relatives. 

776.  MILEY,  D.  G.     A  summary  of  12  dairy  farm  rec- 
ords, Jacksonville  area,  for  the  two-year  period  from 
July  1,  1937  to  June  30,  1939.     Gainesville,  Fla.  Univ. 
Agr.  Ext.  Serv.,  1939.     25  p.     275.29  F661S 

The  net  cost  for  producing  and  marketing  miTk  on  the  5 
retail  dairy  farms  for  the  two-years  was  $0,453  per  gaL 
and  the  value  of  all  milk  produced  was  $0,469.    On  the  7 
wholesale  dairy  farms  the  net  cost  of  producing  and  mar- 
keting milk  for  the  period  was  $3.02  per  cwt.  and  the 
value  of  all  milk  produced  was  $2.97. 

777.  MILK  in  Chicago.  When  Meadowmoor  Dairies  cut 
the  price  of  milk  two  cents,  the  bombs  began  to  burst. 
Then  came  the  U.  S.  Government  with  charges  of  conspir- 
acy.    Fortune  20(5):  80-81,  124,  126,  128.     Nov.  1939. 
110  F772 

Discusses  briefly  the  milk  problem  and  describes  the 
system,  adopted  by  Meadowmoor  Dairies,  for  the  distri- 
bution of  milk  through  stores  at  cut-rate  prices.    Tells 
of  the  milk  strike  of  Jan.  1934,  and  of  the  efforts  of  the 
U.  S.  Agricultural  Adjustment  Administration  to  stabilize 
orices  in  the  market. 

778.  MTLK  INDUSTRY  FOUNDATION.     Milk  for  millions. 
New  York,  1939.     20  p.     280.344  M592Mm 

Includes  information  on  prices  and  milTr  economics. 
Shows  the  higher  prices  paid  by  milk  companies  for  milk 
they  seU  in  bottles,  the  relationship  between  21  milk  com- 
panies' selling  prices  and  cost  prices  per  quart,  and  how 
these  milk  companies'  sales  to  the  public  were  divided 
among  their  different  products. 

779.  MTLK  RESEARCH  COUNCIL.     Comparative  study 
of  attitudes  of  housewives,  executives  and  milk-route  men 
in  the  New  York  City  area.  1.  Housewives.     In  Brown, 

E.  F.  Milk  Papers  5(97):  1-49.     Jan.-May  1939. 
281.344  B81 

Sanford  Griffith  was  in  charge  of  the  study  and  was  as- 
sisted by  Mar jorie  Fiske  and  Alvin  Meyrowitz. 

Based  on  interviews  with  1,025  housewives.   Discusses 
milk  buying  habits,  brand  buying  habits,  reasons  for  brand 
selection,  familiarity  with  the  milk  industry  and  factors 
influential  in  milk  buying.   Questionnaire  used  by  the 
interviewers  is  appended. 


780.  MILK  RESEARCH  COUNCIL.     Housewives'  atti- 
tudes toward  the  milk  companies  in  New  York  City;  a  pre- 
liminary survey.     New  York,  1939.     38  p. 

281.344  M59H 

Market  Analysts,  Inc.,  joint  authors. 

Based  on  surveys  of  a  conservative  low-ineome  area  in 
Manhattan   an  average  low-income  area  in  Brooklyn,  and 
a  radical  (mainly  cooperatively  housed)  area  in  the  Bronx. 
Reports  attitudes  as  to  prices,  propaganda  against  high 
prices,  and  government  control  of  the  milk  industry. 

781.  MILLER,  L  C.     Laws  forced  by  farm  groups  halt 
trade  in  processed  foods.     Food  Indus.  11:  500-503. 
Sept.  1939.     389.8  F737 

Shows  how  barriers  to  out-of-State  trade  are  created  by 
the  administration  of  State  dairy  laws. 

782.  MIOLLIS,  R.     Suggested  standards  for  the  cheese 
industry.     Nail.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  30(3):  64-65.     Mar. 
1939.     286,85  B98Bu 

Advocates  the  adoption  of  new  measures,  in  line  with  in- 
ternational cheese  standards.   These  relate  to  the  correct 
statement  of  butterf  at  and  moisture  content;  the  classifi- 
cation, specifications  and  nomenclature  for  all  fermented 
types  of  cheese;  the  manufacture  and  sale  of  raw  milk 
cheese;  and  the  use  of  "green"  or  uncured  cheese,  as 
well  as  of  deteriorated  cheese  in  the  processing  blends. 
Conditions  in  France  and  Holland  in  regard  to  such  regu- 
lation are  described. 

783.  MJSNER,  E.  G.     Dairy  economics;  the  cost  of  milk 
production.     Holstein-Friesian  World  36:  616,  630. 
June  10,  1939.     43.8  H742 

Costs  and  returns  in  New  York  State  are  shown,  espe- 
cially labor  costs. 

784.  M1SNER,  E.  G.     Relation  of  size  of  cow  to  produc- 
tion and  cost  of  production  of  milk  on  94  grade  A  farms  in 
the  Tally- Homer  area.     N.  Y.  (CorneH)  Agr.  Expt  B. 
719,  25  p.     June  1939.     100  N48C 

Total  cost  of  production  was  16  percent  less  for  large 
cows  than  for  small  cows. 

785.  MOFFETT,  W.  K.     Milk  regulations  in  Pennsyl- 
vania.    Rural  New  Yorker  98:  86,  119.     Feb.  11,  25,  1939. 
6R88 

In  1935  a  new  Stale  miHc  sanitation  bill  was  passed  winch 
tightened  up  the  supervision  over  the  fluid  milk  industry 
and  placed  ice  cream  and  all  prodacts  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  ice  cream  on  the  same  health  basis  as  required 
for  fluid  milk.    The  situation  prior  to  the  passage  of  this 
bill,  especially  with  respect  to  the  manufacture  and  use  of 
ice  cream,  is  reviewed,  in  contrast  to  the  improvements 
which  have  since  been  effected. 

786.  MOONEY,  G.  L.     Skim  cheese — a  menace  to  the 
dairy  industry.     Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  30(3):  56-57. 
Mar.  1939.     286.85  B98Bu 

Cheese  made  from  skimmed  or  partly  skimmed  milk 
provides  unfair  competition  resulting  from  the  fact  that 
the  retail  price  of  "skim  cheese"  may  be  less  than  the 
price  of  Cheddar  cheese  with  which  it  is  identical  in  shape 
and  appearance,  but  which  complies  with  the  established 
standards.    The  price  attraction  is  sufficient  to  induce  the 
consumer  to  purchase  this  product,  although  not  properly 
marked  or  labeled.    The  author  looks  to  the  new  Food, 
Drug  and  Cosmetic  Act  for  correction  of  this  practice. 

787.  NATIONAL  FARM  CHEMURGIC  COUNCIL.    Re- 
search committee.  Chemurgic  potentialities.     Columbus? 
Ohio,  1939.     1  v.     281.12  N217 

Contains  section  on  the  utilization  of  milk  byproducts, 
including  casein  and  lactose. 

788.  NEW  JERSEY  MTT.K  CONTROL  BOARD.     Report, 
July  1,  1935- June  30,  1938.     Trenton,  1939.     35  p. 
280.3449  N46 

This  is  the  second  report  of  the  Board  since  the  passage 
of  the  original  act  in  1933  and  is  continuous  with  the  first. 
The  two  cover  the  entire  five-year  period.   Such  topics 
as  controlling  milk  in  interstate  commerce,  trends  of 
milk  production  in  the  State,  returns  to  producers,  and 
production  regulation  are  considered.   The  basic  presen- 
tation is  supplemented  by  tables. 


48 


789.  NEW  YORK  (STATE)  MILK  COMMITTEE.  Albany 
milk  conference:  a  record  of  proceedings.  Albany,  1939. 
62  p.     281.3449  All 

Producers,  consumers  and  state  executives  and  legisla- 
tors attended  this  conference.    Contains  brief  addresses 
by  dairy  farmers  from  every  section  of  the  State,  with  an 
analysis  of  present  dairy  sentiment  in  their  territories. 

790.  NICHOLLS,  W.  H.     Post-war  concentration  in  the 
cheese  industry.     J.  Polit.  Econ.  47:  823-845.     Dec.  1939. 
280.8  J82 

Traces  the  shift  in  cheese  from  an  unstandardized  bulk 
product  to  one  in  a  form  adapted  to  extensive  product 
differentiation  and  advertising.    Considers  the  causes  of 
certain  postwar  developments  in  the  industry,  the  most 
important  of  which,  were  patents  on  the  new    processed" 
cheese.    Presents  trends  in  the  sale  of  the  processed 
product  and  in  the  purchase  of  the  bulk  cheese.    Estimates 
the  quantitative  importance  of  the  various  cheese-market- 
ing channels,  and  analyzes  the  forces  operating  toward 
more  direct  marketing. 

791.  NICHOLLS,  W.  H.  Post-war  developments  in  the 
marketing  of  butter.  Iowa.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Res.  B.  250: 
321-384.     June  1939.     100  Io9 

Important  trends  in  butter  marketing  during  the  post- 
war period  were  the  rapidly  increasing  total  volume  of 
butter  available,  with  production  on  farms  forming  an 
ever-smaller  proportion  of  the  whole;  improvement  of 
quality  and  consumers'  preferences  therefor;  increasing 
amount  of  butter  sold  in  package;  tendency  toward  grading 
at  point  of  production  rather  than  on  the  terminal  market; 
and  the  trend  toward  an  increased  number  of  large  oper- 
ators and  more  direct  marketing  channels.    The  move- 
ment toward  more  direct  marketing  raises  the  question  of 
the  relative  economies  of  specialized  independent  agencies 
and  integrated  organizations. 

792.  NICHOLLS,  W.  H.     Post-war  developments  in  the 
marketing  of  cheese.     Iowa.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Res.  B.  261, 
148  p.     June  1939.     100  Io9 

The  post-war  increase  in  direct  marketing  of  cheese 
was  brought  about  by  the  development  of  organizations  of 
size,  financial  strength,  and  standardization  comparable 
with  those  in  other  industries.    Post-war  concentration 
was  largely  due  to  monopolistic  elements,  especially  to 
patents.    The  concentration  on  processed  cheese  and  on 
packaging  was  hastened  and  enhanced  by  these  legal 
monopolies. 

793.  NICHOLLS,  W.  H.     Short-circuiting  the  butter 
middleman.     Iowa  Farm  Econ.  5(1):  13-14.     Ames,  Jan. 
1939.     275.28  Io92 

Finds  that  the  postwar  period  has  brought  a  marked  in- 
crease in  direct  marketing  of  butter. 

794.  ONTARIO  CREAM  PATRONS'  ASSOCIATION.     A 
plan  to  improve  the  price  of  butter-fat  in  Canada.     Farm- 
er's Advocate  &  Home  Mag.  74:  439,  461.     July  27,  1939. 
7  F22 

Calls  for  the  setting  up  of  a  central  agency  in  each  Pro- 
vince under  provincial  marketing  legislation,  and  the  col- 
lection of  a  toll  of  1/2  c.  per  lb.  (tentatively  set)  on  every 
pound  of  butter  produced  within  the  Province.  Effects  of 
the  plan  would  be  to  improve  the  income  of  the  farmer, 
take  care  of  surplus,  and  establish  Canadian  butter  on  the 
British  market. 

795.  PARSONS,  F.  L.,  and  others.     Butter  storage.  I-n. 
Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  30(5):  16-18;  (6):  50-52.     May- 
June  1939.     286.85  B98Bu 

Pt.  I,  by  F.  L.  Parsons,  W.  H.  Martin,  and  D.  L.  Martin; 
Pt.  H,  by  F.  L.  Parsons,  W.  H.  Martin,  and  D.  Murray. 

Only  high  quality  butter  should  be  stored.    Shrinkage  of 
storage  butter  is  not  of  great  importance  as  a  risk  factor. 
The  quantity  of  butter  in  storage  in  the  United  States  is 
greatest  between  August  and  October  and  lowest  in  April." 
The  cost  of  storing  butter  for  six  months  in  a  Chicago 
warehouse  is  approximately  1.58  c.  per  lb.    Hedging  costs 
increase  the  total  costs  to  1.86  c.  per  lb.  for  a  six-months 
period. 


796.  PERRING,  C.     International  chronicle  of  agricul- 
ture: United  Kingdom.     Internatl.  Inst.  Agr.  Monthly  B. 
Agr.  Econ.  and  Sociol.  30:  475  E-486  E.     Oct.  1939. 
241  In82A 

An  account  of  the  provisions  of  the  Milk  Industry  Bill 
introduced  at  the  end  of  1938,  and  the  objections  which  led 
to  its  withdrawal;  and  of  the  Milk  Industry  Act,  No.  2, 
1939.    The  milk  marketing  schemes  do  not  include  proces- 
sed milk,  but  at  the  beginning  of  1939  the  Government  pro- 
posed the  establishment  of  a  marketing  scheme  for  pro- 
cessed milk. 

797.  PETERSEN,  W.  E.     Dairy  science, its  principles 
and  practice  in  production,  management,  and  processing. 
Philadelphia,  Lippincott,  1939.     679  p.     Ref.     (Lippin- 
cott's  Agr.  Sci.  Ser.)     44  P444 

Chapters  on  milk  consumption,  the  economics  of  milk 
production,  market  milk,  the  butter  industry,  the  cheese 
industry,  the  ice-cream  industry,  and  the  economic 
phases  of  milk  by-products  and  concentrated  milk 
products,  contributed  by  H.  C.  Trelogan. 

798.  PHILLIPS,  J.  R.  E.     The  operation  of  the  milk  mar- 
keting scheme  in  Wales,  1937-8.     Welsh  J.  Agr.  15-  115- 
128.     Jan.  1939.     10  W46 

Subjects  discussed  include  nominal  contract  prices  and 
actual  realized  prices  for  liquid  milk,  manufacturing  and 
sales  prices,  deductions  from  contract  prices,  producers- 
retailers'  levies,  pool  prices,  retail  prices,  and  quality 
milks. 

For  similar  reviews  of  the  operation  of  the  milk  market- 
ing scheme  in  Wales  in  earlier  years  see  Welsh  J.  Agr. 
12:  86-97,  Jan.  1936  for  1934-35;  13:  94-107,  Jan.  1937 
for  1935-6;  14:  133-146,  Jan.  1938  for  1936-7. 

799.  POLLARD,  A.  J.,  and  CHAMPLIN,  L.  F.  Receipts 
of  milk  and  cream  at  the  New  York  market.  Washington, 
U.  S.  Bur.  of  Agr.  Econ.,  1939.     12  p.     1.9  Ec724Rem 

In  cooperation  with  the  N.  Y.  State  College  of  Agricul- 

Thls  study  supplements  previous  ones  reporting  rail  and 
truck  receipts  of  milk  and  cream  at  the  New  York  market, 
covering  the  period  from  July  1937  to  July  1938,  inclusive, 
certain  estimates  being  obtained  for  earlier  periods. 
Receipts  of  milk  and  of  cream  and  plain  condensed  milk 
at  this  market  are  tabulated  for  the  period  1933-38. 

800.  POTTER,  P.     What  consumers  think  about  milk 
and  the  milk  business.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  28(4):  36-38. 
Apr.  1939.     44.8  C864 

A  study  of  consumer  and  storekeeper  attitudes  in  regard 
to  the  use  and  sale  of  milk,  conducted  by  the  Business  Re- 
search Corporation  of  Chicago  on  behalf  of  the  Associated 
Milk  Dealers  of  Chicago,  was  completed  in  March,  1938. 
Another  survey  was  made  about  the  same  time  by  the 
Research  Bureau  of  De  Paul  University  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Prof.  L.  M.  McDermott.    Findings  of  the  two  sur- 
veys are  summarized. 

801.  PRICE,  W.  T.,  and  FLEMING,  R.  J.     Accredited 
milk.     Gt.  Brit.  Min.  Agr.  J.  46(5):  429-435.     Aug.  1939. 
10  G79J 

The  Accredited  Milk  Scheme,  first  introduced  in  Wilt- 
shire on  a  county  basis  in  1929  as  a  "register"  of  accred- 
ited producers,  has  made  considerable  progress  during 
the  past  ten  years  and  done  much  to  increase  the  hygienic 
quality  of  the  milk  supply  of  England  and  Wales.    De- 
scribes the  operation  and  effects  of  the  system  as  it  re- 
lates to  the  health  of  the  cattle,  producing  processes, 
sanitation,  and  farm  facilities.    A  large  proportion  of  the 
herds  in  the  country  are  still  outside  the  scheme,  although 
the  financial  inducement  of  a  bonus  for  designated  milk 
is  offered, 

802.  QUINTUS..P.  E.,  and  ROBOTKA,  F.     Butterfat  pro- 
curement by  creameries  in  Butler  County,  Iowa.     Iowa 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  265:  253-302.     Dec.  1939.     100  Io9 

Finds  that  the  areas  served  by  individual  creameries 
are  characterized  by  excessive  overlapping,  and  that 
many  of  the  creameries  have  too  small  a  volume  of  busi- 
ness to  operate  most  economically. 


49 


803.  QUINTUS.  P.  E.,  and  ROBOTKA,  F.     Cutting  butter  - 
fat  marketing  costs.     Iowa  Farm  Econ.  5(3):  3-7.     July 
1939.     275.28  Io92 

A  survey  of  Butler  County,  Iowa,  showed  that  much  of 
the  inefficiency  in  obtaining  cream  by  local  creameries 
resulted  from  the  prevailing  system  of  paying  truckers 
on  a  commission  basis  without  designating  the  territory 
or  the  farmers  they  shall  serve,  confusing  methods  of 
making  hauling  charges  against  patrons,  and  lack  of  effec- 
tive control  over  hauling  practices.    Recommendations 
for  improvements  are  made. 

804.  QUINTUS,  P.  F.  Wholesale  butter  prices  and 
premiums.  J.  Farm  Econ.  21:  595-605.  Aug.  1939. 
280.8  J822 

The  emergence  of  premiums  appears  to  be  the  result 
of  two  closely  interrelated  peculiarities  of  the  market:  the 
nature  of  the  receivers'  business,  and  the  manner  in 
which  the  quotations  are  made.     Growing  out  of  the  sys- 
tem of  outright  purchases,  premium  payments  became, 
in  effect,  a  competitive  device  developed  by  buyers  in  an 
effort  to  insure  themselves  particular  marks  of  butter. 
The  author  traces  this  development  to  the  stage  when 
price  stabilization  purchases  counteracted  the  system. 
The  relationship  between  the  settlement  price  and  the 
type  of  bulk  packages  is  included  in  the  discussion. 

805.  REED,  O.  E.     New  developments  in  the  uses  of 
manufactured  dairy  products.     Washington,  U.  S.  Bur. 
Dairy  Indus.,  1939.     12  p.     1.973  A2R25 

Increasing  the  consumption  of  manufactured  dairy  prod- 
ucts and  the  utilization  of  byproducts,  such  as  casein, 
whey  and  lactic  acid,  are  dealt  with.    Better  management 
of  dairy  herds  for  lower  production  costs  is  another  sub- 
ject considered. 

806.  REGIONAL  conference  on  dairy  problems;  held  at 
the  Council  of  State  Governments,  Chicago,  Illinois, 
October  6  and  7,  1939.     13  p.     44.9  R26 

Recommendations  regarding  sanitary  inspection  stand- 
ards and  herd  inspection. 

807.  REID,  W.  H.  E.,  DREW,  R.  J.,  and  ARBUCKLE, 

W.  S.     The  effect  of  composition  and  serving  temperature 
upon  consumer  acceptance  and  dispensing  qualities  of  ice 
cream.     Mo.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Res.  B.  303,  44  p.     July 
1939.     100  M693 

A  serving  temperature  of  10    F  was  considered  most 
desirable  from  the  consumer's  viewpoint.    Ice  cream  con- 
taining 14  percent  fat,  13  percent  serum  solids,  14  per- 
cent sugar  and  o.3  percent  gelatin  was  preferred  in  the 
series  of  mixes  studied.  As  the  serving  temperature  was 
increased  the  vanilla  flavor  was  more  pronounced,  the 
ice  creams  were  sweeter,  the  high-fat  ice  creams  were 
criticized  less  for  being  buttery  and  were  considered  to 
be  more  desirable.    Considers  also  crystalline  structure, 
stability,  dipping  and  keeping  qualities  of  ice  cream. 

808.  RICE,  E.  B.     Some  observations  on  dairying  in 
Britain.     Queensland  Agr.  J.  51(5):  476-495.     May  1939. 
23  Q33 

Discusses  milk  standards  and  the  Milk  Marketing 
Scheme.    About  10  percent  of  Britain's  milk  production 
is  converted  into  cheese. 

809.  RICE,  J.  L.,  and  others.     Administration  and  pro- 
cedure in  the  enforcement  of  milk  regulations;  a  sympo- 
sium.    N.  Y.  State  Assoc,  of  Dairy  and  Milk  Insp.  Ann. 
Rpt.  (1938)  12:  241-273.     1939.     44.9  N4833 

G.  W.  Molyneaux,  M.  Dooling,  J.  E.  Greenway,  W.  Roth- 
ery,  D.  R.  Davidson,  J.  J.  Regan,  and  C.  S.  Leete,  joint 
authors.     The  status  of  milk  control  is  treated  from  the 
standpoint  of  cities  and  localities  of  different  size  and 
facilities,  and  also  from  that  of  the  agencies  administer- 
ing the  programs. 

810.  RICHARDSON,  C.  S.     High  grade  milk  production 
and  marketing  in  Tynedale.     Gt.  Brit.  Min.  Agr.  J.  46: 
547-552.     Sept.  1939.     10  G79J 

Describes  conditions  on  an  English  farm,  producing 
from  both  an  "attested"  and  an  untested  herd.   Indicates 
milk  sales  and  farm  management  practices,  with  regard  to 
maintaining  and  improving  the  quality  of  the  product. 


811.  RINEAR,  E.  H.     Milk  distribution  costs  of  producer- 
distributors  and  subdealers  in  New  Jersey.     N.  J.  Agr. 
Expt.  Sta.  B.  663,  56  p.     Mar.  1939.     100  N46S 

Shows  the  distribution  costs  involved  in  processing, 
bottling,  and  delivering  milk,  the  relationships  between 
volume  of  business,  capital,  and  labor,  and  the  conditions 
whereby  one  distributor  has  lower  costs  than  another. 

812.  ROSS,  H.  E.     Care  and  handling  of  milk.     New 
York,  Orange  Judd,  1939.     Rev.  ed.,  417  p.     44  R73C 

Ch.  8  and  9,  Grades  of  milk;  The  transportation  and 
distribution  of  milk. 

813.  SAFFORD,  C.  E.     Milk  &  cream;  determination  of 
bacteria  in  milk  purchased  on  basis  of  bacterial  count 
with  law  and  recommended  procedure.     N.  Y.  State  Dept. 
Agr.  &  Markets.  B.  323,  30  p.     1939.     2  N482 

Sanitation  regulation  under  the  New  York  State  Agricul- 
ture and  Markets  Law. 

814.  SANBORN,  J.  R.,  and  BREED,  R.  S.     Sanitation 

of  paper  milk  containers.     Milk  Dealer  28(7):  36-37,  88- 
91.     Apr.  1939.     44.8  M595 

Sanitary  problems  that  arise  in  connection  with   the 
making  of  containers.    The  sanitary  condition  of  the 
finished  container  was  found  comparable  to  that  of  glass 
bottles  used  on  well  operated  certified  farms.    It  is  con- 
cluded that  the  single  service  containers  should  be  able 
to  meet  a  standard  of  freedom  from  pathogenic  organisms 
even  more  severe  than  those  enforceable  for  present  milk 
containers. 

81 4A.  SHAUL,  K.  A.     A  survey  of  the  New  York  metro- 
politan grade  A  milk  supply  from  the  producers'  stand- 
point.    N.  Y.  State  Assoc,  of  Dairy  and  Milk  Insp.,  Ann. 
Rpt.  (1938)  12:  157-172.     1939.     44.9  N4833 

Report  on  a  survey  designed  to  compare  the  quality  and 
varying  conditions  of  production  of  grades  A  and  B,  pas- 
teurized milk  as  distributed  in  the  New  York  metropolitan 
area.    Summarizes  the  significance  of  the  findings  and  re- 
ports the  conclusion  of  the  investigators  that  milk  pro- 
duced on  the  average  farm  of  grade  A  classification  has 
had  much  better  care  in  its  production  and  handling  and 
that  the  conditions  under  which  it  is  produced  are  far 
superior  to  those  for  the  grade  B  milk. 

Discussion,  p.  172-183 

815.  SHERMAN,  R.  W.,  and  MCBRIDE,  C.  G.     Ten  years 
of  farm  sales  of  milk  in  four  Ohio  markets.     Ohio.  Agr. 
Expt.  Sta.  B.  609,  38  p.     Dec.  1939.     100  Oh3S 

The  introduction  and  use  of  base  and  surplus  plans  have 
been  the  greatest  change  in  marketing  practices  in  the 
major  markets  of  Ohio  during  the  period  1925  to  1936. 

816.  SHOULD  the  term  "surplus"  be  eliminated  from 
marketing  terminology  and  should  fresh  fluid  milk  be 
called  "premium"  milk?     Milk  Plant  Monthly  28(7):  21- 
23.     July  1939.     44.8  C864 

An  editorial  pointing  out  that  the  terms  "surplus"  and 
"skimmed"  are  derogatory  and  advocating  a  change  in 
milk  market  terminology.    States  that  elimination  of  the 
term  "surplus"  and  adoption  of  the  term  "premium" 
might  "remove  psychological  difficulties  as  between  the 
milk  industry  and  the  regulatory  and  legislative  authori- 
ties and  help  to  prepare  a  sober  and  dignified  groundwork 
for  milk  control  and  for  stable,  rational  marketing." 

817.  SMITH,  L.  T.,  and  CLABORN,    H.  V.     Utilization  of 
lactic  acid.     U.  S.  Bur.  Dairy  Indus.  BDIM  845,  4  p. 
1939.     1.9B14Bd 

Also  in  Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.  News  Ed.  17:  370-371. 
June  10,  1939.     381  J825N 

Use  of  lactic  acid  and  its  derivatives  in  the  field  of 
solvents,  lacquers  and  plastics  and  as  an  acidulent  for 
beverages  and  foods,  are  briefly  discussed. 

818.  SMITH,  R.  G.  C.     Market  for  dry  milk  in  the  United 
States.     Canada  Dept.  Trade  and  Com.  Com.  Intel.  J.  61 : 
734-735.     Oct.  21,  1939.     286>.8  C16 

Under  heavy  tariff  protection,  the   market  for  dry  milk 
in  the  United  States  has  not  offered  any  openings  to  im- 
ports for  some  time.   Reviews  the  current  situation  re- 
garding this  market  from  the  Canadian  point  of  view, 
with  a  presentation  of  facts  on  domestic  production, 
prices,  and  trade  channels  and  methods. 


50 


819.  SPENCER,  L.     Competition  between  fresh  milk  and 
canned  milk.    In  Brown,  E.  F.     Milk  Papers  6(123):  61- 
80.     June-Dec."T939.     281.344  B81 

Also  in  Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk  Dealers.  Assoc.  B.  32: 
61-80.     Dec.  5,  1939.     44.9  In8 

Based  on  a  study  of  milk  prices,  conducted  jointly  by  the 
New  York  State  College  of  Agriculture  and  the  U.  S.  Bu- 
reau of  Agricultural  Economics. 

Points  out  that  evaporated  milk  has  become  cheaper  and 
cheaper  in  comparison  with  the  cost  of  fresh  milk  and 
states  that  the  reduced  buying  power  of  consumers  in  re- 
cent years  affords  an  ample  explanation  for  the  increased 
consumption  of  canned  milk.    Competitive  position  of 
fluid  milk  producers  and  dealers  can  be  improved  through 
efforts  to  reduce  the  costs  of  production  and  distribution 
of  fresh  milk. 

("List  of  reports  on  surveys  pertaining  to  the  consump- 
tion of  dairy  products,"  p.  79-80.) 

820.  SPENCER,  L.,  and  BLANDFORD,  C.     The  distribu- 
tion of  milk  through  health  and  welfare  depots  in  New 
York  City.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  A.  E.  273,  17  p.     May  1939. 
281.9  D81 

Coincident  with  a  rise  in  the  retail  price  of  milk  in  New 
York,  53  city-supervised  depots  were  opened  for  the  sale 
of  milk  at  8  cents  per  quart  to  needy  families.  These 
depots  at  no  time  handled  more  than  3  percent  of  the  total 
distribution,  and  the  cheaper  type  of  service  can  scarcely 
be  said  to  have  caused  a  significant  increase  in  the  city's 
total  consumption  of  milk. 

821.  SPENCER,  L.  Public  regulation  of  the  milk  indus- 
try: recent  legislation  aimed  at  raising  farmers'  incomes. 
State  Govt.  12:  179-180,  187-190.     Oct.  1939. 

280.8  St2 

Public  regulation  of  the  milk  industry  has  only  recently 
been  undertaken  by  State  and  Federal  units  of  government. 
This  article  analyzes  the  developments  in  milk  control 
since  New  York  pioneered  with  price-fixing  legislation  in 
1933.    Judicial  interpretation  of  State  and  Federal  powers 
in  regard  to  the  regulation  of  this  intra-  and  inter -state 
problem  is  emphasized,  pointing  the  way  in  long-term  ob- 
jectives to  more  adequate  public  control. 

822.  SPENCER,  L.  A.     A  revised  series  of  milk  prices 
for  New  York.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  Farm  Econ.  Ill: 
2707-2710.     Feb.  1939.     280.8  C812 

Includes  material  on  average  of  net  prices  paid  by 
Dairymen's  League  and  Sheffield  Farms  for  3.7  percent 
grade  B  milk  at  the  201-210-mile  zone,  1910-1938;  sea- 
sonal variation  in  the  farm  price  of  milk  in  New  York, 
1912-1936;  index  numbers  of  the  farm  price  of  milk  in 
New  York,  1910-1938;  and  prices  of  milk  and  basic  com- 
modities, 1910-1938. 

823.  SPENCER,  L.     Subsidized  distribution  of  milk  and 
other  products.     Amer.  Agr.  136(22):  10-11;  (24):  13. 
Oct.  28,  1939,  Nov.  25,  1939.     6  Am3 

A  discussion  of  plans  for  Boston,  Chicago,  and  New  York. 
Includes  material  on  the  stamp  plan. 

824.  SPENCER,  L.     Ways  of  reducing  costs  of  distribu- 
ting milk  in  New  York.     J.  Farm  Econ.  21(1):  291-298. 
Feb.  1939.     280.8  J822 

Deals  with  changes  in  price  spread  on  grade  B  milk; 
items  in  spread  on  grade  B  retail  milk;  changes  in  costs; 
costs  of  distribution  through  stores;  use  of  paper  con- 
tainers; and  maladjustment  of  prices  and  wages.    The 
necessary  adjustments  resulting  from  the  adoption  of  new 
methods  and  equipment  requiring  less  labor  in  distribu- 
tion would  be  much  less  painful  if  commodity  prices  were 
to  rise  in  the  near  future  to  40  percent  or  more  above 
pre-war.    The  Government  can  assist  in  promoting  more 
efficient  methods  of  distribution  by  providing  adequately 
for  research  and  education  in  this  field,  and  by  seeing  to 
it  that  fair  opportunity  is  given  for  the  exploitation  of  new 
methods  and  devices. 


825.  STEVENSON,  JORDAN  &  HARRISON.     A  study  of 
milk  distribution  in  New  Haven  [Conn.]  with  recommen- 
dations, June  26,  1939.     New  Haven?  1939.     77  p. 
280.344  St4 

Analyzes  costs  created  by  the  milk  dealer's  plant  and 
delivery  procedures.    Findings  reveal  that  dairy  plant 
costs  are  very  small  in  comparison  with  the  costs  that 
are  imposed  on  dealers  by  prevailing  delivery  and  col- 
lection practices.    For  this  reason,  the  delivery  of  milk 
was  analyzed  in  more  complete  detail.    \Vhat  influence 
such  factors  as  increases  in  store  sales,  fluctuations  in 
community  income,  variations  in  birth  rates,  and  changes 
in  resale  prices  have  on  the  ponsumption  of  fresh  fluid 
milk  is  also  considered.    The  trend  of  evaporated  milk 
sales  is  investigated  to  determine  the  competitive  dangers 
of  this  product. 

826.  STEWART,  P.  W.,  DEWHURST,  J.  F.,  and  FIELD, 
L.     Does  distribution  cost  too  much?  A  review  of  the 
costs  involved  in  current  marketing  methods  and  a  pro- 
gram for  improvement.     New  York,  Twentieth  Century 
Fund,  1939.     403  p.     280.3  T91 

Milk  distribution  problems  and  costs  are  discussed  on 
p.  34-39. 

827.  STIEBELING,  H.  K.,  and  PHIPARD,  E.  F.     Diets  of 
families  of  employed  wage  earners  and  clerical  workers 
in  cities.     U.  S.  D.  A.  C.  507,  140  p.     Jan.  1939. 

1  Ag84Ci 

Includes  data  on  milk  consumption  in  these  families 
from  December  1934-February  1937. 

"Literature  cited,"  p.  101-104. 

828.  STOLTZ,  R.  B.,  and  ARMSTRONG,  T.  V.     A  com- 
parison of  the  imperviousness  of  commonly  used  paper 
milk  containers  when  in  contact  with  contained  liquids. 
Milk  Plant  Monthly  28(12):  54-58.     Dec.  1939.     44.8  C864 

Five  experiments  with  five  different  makes  of  paper 
milk  containers  of  one  quart  capacity. 

829.  STOLZ,  R.  B.,  and  ROBERTS,  H.  E.     Consumer 
preference  for  ice  cream.     Ohio  State  U.  Col.  Agr.  and 
Domestic  Sci.  Dairy  Technol.  Conf.  Mater.  Presented 
1939:  3-7.     44.9  Oh35M 

Results  in  respect  to  color,  sugar,  serum  solids,  egg 
yolk  and  fat  content  and  flavoring,  of  tests  of  consumer 
preference. 

830.  STRINGER,  W.  E.     Profits  from  byproduct  recovery 
depend  upon  products  made.     Food  Indus.  11:  72-74,  262- 
263,  290.     Feb.,  May  1939.     389.8  F737 

The  first  installment  shows  that  in  the  recovery  of  milk 
solids  from  whey,  only  part  of  the  milk  sugar  should  be 
recovered,  the  remainder  being  utilized  in  poultry  feed. 
The  second  deals  with  the  manufacture  of  lactose  from 
crude  milk  sugar.    Flow  sheets  for  the  manufacture  of 
these  products  are  included. 

831.  SUTERMEISTER,  E.,  and  BROWNE,  F.  L.     Casein 
and  its  industrial  applications.     Ed.  2.     New  York, 
Reinhold,  1939.     433  p.     Ref.     309  Su8 

Partial  contents:  Storage  of  casein,  by  Albin  H.  Warth, 
p.  169-180;  Statistics,  p.  398-404  (includes  production, 
imports,  and  consumption,  1916-37;  production  by  States, 
1920-37). 

832.  TANNER,  F.  W.  The  present  status  of  the  paper 
milk  container.  J.  Milk  Technol.  2:  4-15.  Ref.  Jan. 
1939.     44.8  J824 

Finds  that  pathogenic  bacteria  cannot  survive  the  various 
procedures  used  in  the  manufacture  of  these  containers, 
especially  the  paraffin  treatment. 

833.  TAYLOR,  C.  C.     Agricultural  price-supporting 
measures  in  Ireland.     Foreign  Agr.  3:  347-370.     Aug. 
1939       1.9  Ec7For 

Deals  with  butter,  cream,  cheese,  condensed  milk,  and 
milk  powder. 


51 


834.  THIS  milk  business.  Hoard's  Dairyman  84:  138, 
167,  213,  251,  269.     Mar.  10,  Apr.  10-25,  1939. 

44.8  H65 

A  series  of  three  articles  on  marketing  milk  in  Rock- 
ford,  111.,  a  city  of  95,000  population.    The  first  article 
deals  with  efficiency  in  milk  distribution.   The  second 
covers  cooperative  marketing,  and  the  third  outlines  and 
shows  results  of  a  public  health  plan  for  milk  that  has 
been  in  operation  since  1929. 

835.  THOMSEN,  L.  C.     New  technique  in  butter  judging. 
Amer.  Prod.  Rev.  87:  658,  660,  671.     Apr.  12,  1939. 
286.85  N482 

Changes  in  scoring  procedure  under  the  revised  Federal 
standards,  effective  April  1,  1939,'  are  discussed.    Criti- 
cisms of  the  new  score  card  are:  the  variation  in  weight 
which  is  given  to  body,  color  and  salt  defects  and  the  dis- 
regard of  package  as  an  item  in  scoring.    Commenting  on 
the  advantages  of  committee  scoring,  the  author  says  the 
system  will  have  a  general  tendency  to  produce  a  common 
level  for  the  scores. 

836.  THOMSON,  G.  S.     Dairying;  paying  for  fat  in  milk 
and  cream.     Sherborne,  Dorset,  England,  Sawtells,  1939. 
52  p.     280.344  T38 

A  resume  of  milk-buying  practices  in  21  countries. 
Urges  payment  for  milk  on  butter-fat  content. 

837.  TINLEY,  J.  M.     Reducing  cost  of  distributing  milk 
in  California.     J.  Farm  Econ.  21:  299-308.     Feb.  1939. 
280.8  J822 

Reduction  in  cost  of  distributing  fluid  milk  involves  the 
problems  of  how  to  determine  potential,  immediate  and 
long-time  reductions  in  unit  costs  (or  increased  efficiency) 
and  how  to  induce  the  milk-distribution  industries  in  indi- 
vidual markets  to  adopt  the  necessary  economies,.    The 
success  of  an  industry  program  depends  upon  the'  develop- 
ment of  a  uniform  detailed  system  of  cost  accounting  and 
cost  allocation,  and  upon  the  establishment  of  an  adequate- 
ly financed  research  agency  whose  main  function  would  be 
to  conduct  continuing  analyses,  based  on  cost  and  invest- 
ment data  supplied  by  individual  distributors,  of  ways  and 
means  of  increasing  efficiency  and  reducing  unit  costs 
of  distribution. 

838.  TOMLINSON,  F.  R.  World  production  and  inter- 
national trade  in  butter  and  cheese.  Washington,  U.  S. 
Bur.  Agr.  Econ.,  1939.     146  p.     1.9  Ec752Wp 

In  a  statistical  presentation,  long-range  production  of 
butter  and  cheese  in  the  21  most  important  countries  is 
shown.    Data  are  also  given  on  intercontinental  and  world 
trade  in  the  same  products. 

839.  TOTMAN,  C.  C,  MCKAY,  G.  L.,  and  LARSEN,  C. 
Butter.     Ed.  4.     New  York,  Wiley,  1939.     472  p. 

44  T642 

Three  phases  of  the  butter  industry  are  treated  more 
fully  than  others:  buying  and  grading  of  cream,  churning 
(working  of  butter  and  composition  control),  and  market- 
ing. 

840.  TOVELL,  G.  W.  Markets  for  creamery  butter. 
Conf.  Markets  West.  Farm  Prod.  Proc.  1938:  292-300. 
1939.     280.39  C768 

Includes  discussion  of  butterfat  price  trends,  and  cost  to 
Canadian  Government  under  the  Natural  Products  Market- 
ing Act  of  exporting  creamery  butter  in  1935. 

841.  TRACY,  P.  H.,  and  TUCKEY,  S.  L.     Accuracy  of 
methods  of  sampling  milk  deliveries  at  milk  plants.     111. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  459:  45-84.     Nov.  1939.     100  IL6S 

Report  of  a  study  begun  in  the  fall  of  1936  at  the  sugges- 
tion of  the  Champaign  County  Milk  Producers  Association, 
using  milk  delivered  by  members  of  the  Association  to 
each  of  four  milk  plants  in  Champaign  and  Urbana. 

842.  TRACY,  P.  H.     Problems  in  the  processing  and 
marketing  of  homogenized  milk.     N.  Y.  State  Assoc.  Dairy 
and  Milk  Insp.  Ann.  Rpt.  1938(12):  69-84.     1939. 

44.9  N4833 

Quality  control  is  more  important  in  the  marketing  of 
homogenized  milk  than  in  the  case  of  other  types  of  dairy 
products.   Discusses  factors  making  for  superior  quality, 
processing  techniques,  and  suggests  a  program  to  in- 
crease sales  of  this  product. 


843.  ULREY,  O.     Kalamazoo  milk  market.     Mich.  Agr. 
Expt.  Sta.  Spec.  B.  300,  44  p.     Dec.  1939.     100  M58S 

Includes  material  on  milk  prices  and  distribution  costs. 

844.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
Boston  drinks  "surplus"  milk.  A  new  plan  sponsored  by 
the  Department  of  Agriculture  opens  up  the  sluice  gates  to 
let  more  milk  flow  into  the  homes  of  needy  families  and  to 
build  up  farmers'  income  from  surplus  milk.     (J.  S.  Agr. 
Adjust.  Admin.  Consumers'  Guide  6(10):  3-4.     Nov.  1, 
1939.     1.94  Ad422C 

Also- in  Brown,  E.  C.     Milk  Papers  6(119):  3-4.     Juie- 
Dec.  1939.     281.344  B81 

Facts  concerning  the  operation  of  the  plan  effective  Aug. 
7,  1939.   With  the  help  of  the  Federal  Surplus  Commodi- 
ties Corporation,  milk  regularly  retailing  for  12  or  13  c.  a 
qt.  was  sold  for  5  c.  a  qt.  to  families  receiving  relief,  and 
for  7  c.  a  qt.  to  families  with  wage  earners  on  WPA. 
Approximately  60,000  qts.  were  distributed  on  an  average 
day. 

845.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN.  The 
share  of  the  domestic  dairy  market  supplied  by  the  Ameri- 
can producer.     Washington,  1939.     3  p.     1.94  Ad45Sdd 

Dairy  imports  into  the  United  States  are  made  up  pri- 
marily of  special  and  fancy  European  cheeses  supplying  a 
luxury  demand  and  a  small  amount  of  fresh  milk  and 
cream  from  Canada.   Imports  in  1938  amounted  to  only 
0.5  percent  of  domestic  production.   A  table  and  chart 
showing  imports  as  a  percent  of  production,  calendar 
years  1924-38  are  included. 

846.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  MARKETING  SERV.     Dis- 
position and  value  of  milk  produced  on  farms  1937  and 
1938.     Washington?      1939.     5  p.     1.942  D22M59 

Estimates  of  quantity  of  milk  utilized  in  1938  for  butter; 
cheese,  evaporated  milk  and  other  products,  and  for 
butter-making  on  farms. 

847.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Agricultural  price  control  in  foreign  countries— Germany. 
Foreign  Agr.  3(2):  50-55.     Feb.  1939.     1.9  Ec7For 

Includes  material  on  prices  and  price  spreads  for  milk 
for  fluid  consumption,  and  for  butter  and  cheese. 

848.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Barriers  to  internal  trade  in  farm  products,  by  G.  R. 
Taylor,  E.  L.  Burtis,  and  F.  V.  Waugh.     Washington,  1939. 
104  p.     1  Ec7Ba 

In  the  section  on  dairy  products  it  is  pointed  out  that 
dairy  legislation  of  the  past  10  or  15  years,  while  designed 
primarily  to  protect  the  health  of  consumers  and  to  stabi- 
lize the  dairy  industry  and  to  increase  the  purchasing 
power  of  dairy  farmers,  has  caused  serious  interference 
with  interstate  and  also  intrastate  commerce. 

849.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS.  The 
dairy  outlook  for  1939,  by  O.  C.  Stine.  Washington,  1939. 
7  p.     1.9  Ec752Do 

Address  before  the  Maryland- Virginia  Milk  Producers' 
Association,  Feb.  6,  1939. 

An  increase  in  dairy  production  is  anticipated  due  partly 
to  the  large  number  of  milk  cows  and  better  herd  manage- 
ment, and  partly  to  the  low  price  of  feedstuffs.  One  of  the 
problems  will  be  how  to  increase  consumption  correspond- 
ingly. 

850.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS. 
Dairy  products:  the  World  War  and  the  1939  European  War. 
Washington,  1939.     7  p.     1.941  H2D14 

Includes  discussion  of  price  trends  of  dairy  products 
during  World  War  I,  and  of  important  differences  between 
1914  and  1939. 

851.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS.     A 
survey  of  quality  of  selected  brands  of  butter  sold  in  one 
pound  cartons  at  retail  in  New  York  and  Chicago,  by  G.  W. 
Sprague,  G.  G.  Foelsch,  and  E.  Small.     Washington,  1939. 
20  p.     1.9  Ec724Sq 

Actual  grades  as  determined  by  Government  graders  of 
butter  purchased  in  retail  stores  were  compared  with  the 
grade  stated  on  the  certificate  of  quality,  if  any,  or  with 
claims  made  on  the  carton.    Brands  carrying  certificates 
of  quality  were  found  to  be  of  higher  average  quality  and 
more  uniformly  standardized  than  butter  sold  without 
these  certificates. 


F>2 


852.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  DAIRY  INDUSTRY  and  U.  S.  BUR.  OF 
AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS.     Preliminary  summary 
and  analysis  of  records  of  16  dairy  farms  in  Louisiana. 
Washington,  1939.     21  p.     (BDIM-864)     1.9  D14Bd 

In  cooperation  with  the  Louisiana  State  University  and 
Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College. 
Includes  material  on  cost  of  production. 

853.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  DAIRY  INDUSTRY.     Publications 
relating  to  the  dairy  industry.     Washington,  1939.     10  p. 
1.9  Am55Pu 

Contains  references  on  herd  management,  milk  and 
cream,  butter,  cheese,  ice  cream,  and  on  dairying  in 
general. 

854.  U.  S.  CONGRESS.  HOUSE.  COMMITTEE  ON  THE 
DISTRICT  OF  COLUMBIA.     Investigation  of  the  milk  and 
cream  supply  of  the  District  of  Columbia...  Report  pur- 
suant to  H.  Res.  113.     76th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  H.  Rpt.  1095, 
8  p.     1939.     148  10300 

Points  out  that  in  the  main,  the  supply  of  milk  of  the 
District  of  Columbia  comes  from  sources  licensed  by  the 
Health  Department,  but  that  some  imported  and  unlicensed 
cream  finds  its  way  into  fluid  consumption;  also  that  the 
spread  between  what  the  producer  receives  and  wnat  the 
consumer  pays  is  far  too  great.    Remedial  legislation  to 
correct  present  unsatisfactory  conditions  is  recommended 

855.  U.  S.  CONGRESS.  HOUSE.  COMMITTEE  ON  THE 
DISTRICT  OF  COLUMBIA.  Regulations  governing  the 
sale  of  milk  and  cream  and  ice  cream  in  the  District  of 
Columbia.  Hearing's  before  the  Subcommittee  on  Public 
Health.  Hospitals,  and  Charities,  76th  Cong.,  1st  sess.  on 
H.  R.  6316,  May  23,  24,  and  26,  1939.  Washington,  1939. 
150  p.     280.344  Un322 

856.  U.  S.  DELEGATION  TO  THE  INTERNATIONAL 
DAIRY  CONGRESS,  11,  BERLIN,  1937.     Report.. .of  dele- 
gation of  the  United  States  to  the  Secretary  of  State.     U.  S. 
Dept.  of  State.  P.  1277  (Conference  ser.  38),  119  p.     1939. 
44.9  In82HR 

Summarizes  the  work  of  the  Congress,  gives  a  brief 
account  of  the  participation  by  delegates  from  the  United 
States,  and  includes  reviews  and  abstracts  of  scientific 
papers  presented  by  representatives  of  governments  of 
various  countries. 

Sect.  3  covers  legislation,  sale  of  milk  and  milk  prod- 
ucts, and  marketing. 

857.  U.  S.  EXTENSION  SERVICE.     The  recently  nego- 
tiated trade  agreements  with  Canada  and  the  United  King- 
dom, with  particular  reference  to  dairy  and  poultry  and 
other  agricultural  products,  by  W.  B.  Silcox.     Washington, 
1939.     8  p.     1.913  E2R24 

Status  of  Cheddar  cheese,  cream,  whole  milk,  skimmed 
milk,  and  dried  buttermilk  under  the  agreement  with 
Canada,  p.  2. 

858.  U.  S.  MARKETING  LAWS  SURVEY.  Comparative 
charts  of  State  statutes  illustrating  barriers  to  trade  be- 
tween States.     Washington,  1939.     88  p.     173.?  W89Com 

Selected  Dairy  Laws,  p.  21-29,  analyze  legislation 
relating  to  licensing,  inspection,  price-fixing,  ana  other 
restrictive  features  affecting  the  interstate  market  in 
dairy  products. 

859.  U.  S.  PUBLIC  HEALTH  SERVICE.     Frozen  desserts 
ordinance.     Washington,  1939.     18  p.     151.66  F93 

Standards  for  the  sanitary  control  of  frozen  desserts. 

860.  WASHBURN,  R.  M.     Some  points  to  consider  in 
making  consumer  preference  tests  of  ice  cream  flavor. 
Ice  Cream  Rev.  22(8):  40,  70.     Mar.  1939.     389.8  Ic22 

Factors  considered  include  type  of  consumer,  tempera- 
ture of  ice  cream,  and  effect  of  food  and  drink  previously 
consumed  and  of  odors  breathed. 

861.  WATSON,  J.  S.     The  status  of  milk  marketing  and 
stabilization  in  California.    Calif.  Dept.  Agr.  B.  28:  47-51. 
Jan.  1939.     2  C12M 

The  benefits  derived  from  the  enactment  and  operation  of 
the  California  Milk  Stabilization  and  Marketing  Act  are 
appraised.    The  background  for  the  legislation  and  some 
of  its  important  features  are  discussed. 


862.  WEAVER,  E.     Physiological  factors  affecting  milk 
flavor,  with  a  consideration  of  the  validity  of  flavor 
scores.     Okla.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Tech.  B.  6,  56  p.     Julv 
1939.     100  Ok4T 

"From  a  thesis  submitted  by  the  author  in  partial  ful- 
fillment of  the  requirements  for  the  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Philosophy  at  the  University  of  Minnesota,  March,  1938." 
A  total  of  1,641  milk  samples  for  flavor  scoring  was  col- 
lected over  a  period  of  140  weeks  from  32  Jersey  cows  in 
the  station  herd.    Flavor  scoring  was  done  by  a  panel  of 
seven  staff  members. 

863.  WELLINGHOFF,  E.  F.-   Much  of  industry  success 
depends  upon  co-operation  of  processors,  distributors  and 
machinery  and  supply  houses.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  23(3): 
34,  36,  38.     Mar.  1939.     44.8  C864 

The  author  develops  the  thesis  that  just  as  changes  have 
taken  place  in  the  dairy  industry,  in  point  of  production, 
processing  and  distribution,  as  well  as  in  the  equipment 
required  to  handle  dairy  products,  so  must  the  industry 
and  the  dairy  equipment  houses  cooperate  and  the  activi- 
ties of  both  be  interrelated  for  mutual  benefit. 

864.  WHEN  you  cut  price  how  much  more  ice  cream 
must  you  sell  to  justify  your  action?     Ice  Cream  Rev. 
22(S):  40.     Apr.  1939.     3~8.8  Ic22 

A  table,  prepared  by  the  Eddy -Rucker -Nickels  Co., 
merchandising  analysts,  of  Cambridge,  Mass.,  shows  how 
much  more  dollar  volume  is  necessary  to  justify  price 
cuts  of  from  5  to  33  1/3  percent  on  regular  profits  on 
selling  prices  ranging  from  15  to  50  percent. 

865.  WHITE,  F.  C.  The  marketing  of  dairy  produce  in 
England  and  Wales.  Agr.  Progress  16:  173-180.  1S39. 
10  Ag86 

It  was  not  until  1933  that  dairy  produce  was  brought 
within  the  scope  of  the  National  Mark  Schemes,  when  a 
scheme  was  introduced  for  Cheshire  cheese;  since  then, 
schemes  have  been  introduced  for  nine  other  varieties  of 
cheese,  comprising  all  those  of  commercial  significance, 
in  addition  to  one  for  creamery  butter.    They  provide  for 
the  use  of  a  statutory  grade  designation,  guaranteeing  the 
quality  and  origin  of  the  produce,  and  thus  foster  in- 
creased domestic  demand.    Explains  how  these  schemes 
operate. 

866.  WHITE,  R.  G.     Systems  of  dairy  farming.     Gt. 
Brit.  Min.  Agr.  and  Fisheries  J.  46:  372-378.     July,  193S. 
10  G79J 

The  distribution  of  dairy  farming  in  England  and  Wales 
in  relation  to  milk  markets  or  consuming  centers,  and 
also  in  relation  to  the  suitability  of  soil,  climate  and 
other  conditions  for  the  economical  production  of  milk; 
labor  problems  and  the  question  of  herd  replacements 
as  influencing  the  system  of  dairy  farm  management. 

867.  WHITNEY,  C.  'What  price  milk?     New  York, 
Caroline  Whitney  Memo.  Fimd,  1939.     79  p.,  illus. 
281.344  W61 

Manuscripts  left  by  the  organizer  and  chairman  of  the 
Milk  Consumers  Protective  Committee  of  New  York  City, 
edited  and  brought  up  to  date  by  G.  Barsky,  P.  B.  Nort  - 
man,  and  G.  Holland.    Includes  chapters  on  the  farmer  and 
his  problems,  farm  organizations,  distributors,  milk  con- 
trol laws,  and  the  Committee. 

868.  WHITTIER,  E.  O.     Greater  uses  for  dairy  by- 
products.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Agr.  Situation  23(7): 
14-16.     July,  1939.      1  Ec7Ag 

Also  in  Hoard's  Dairyman  84:  499.     Sept.  25,  1939. 
44.8  H65 

Gives  amount  of  milk  used  in  1937  for  manufacture  of 
casein,  condensed  skim  milk,  skim  milk  powder,  cul- 
tured milk,  chocolate  milk  and  skim  milk  cheese,  and 
amount  of  whey  converted  to  different  products.  Dis- 
cusses uses  for  skim  milk,  milk  powder,  casein,  milk 
sugar,  whey,  and  lactoflavin. 


53 


869.  WILLIAMS,  H.  T.  High  and  low  costs  in  milk  pro- 
duction.    Farm  Econ.  3:  63-67.     Oct.  1939.     281.8  F223 

An  analysis  of  costs  of  two  groups  of  farms  producing 
milk  for  the  wholesale  market,  one  at  a  low  cost  and  the 
other  at  a  high  cost,  selected  from  those  farms  which 
have  taken  part  in  the  Milk  Costs  Investigation  Scheme 
for  England  and  Wales  for  tlie  3  years  1935/36-1937/38. 
The  most  striking  difference  between  the  two  groups  is 
in  the  price  of  cattle  sold  or  transferred  out,  far  higher 
in  the  low  cost  group.    It  is  noteworthy,  too,  that  family 
labor  forms  a  higher  proportion  of  the  total  labor  in  the 
low  cost  group  (23  percent)  than  it  does  in  the  high  cost 
group  (14  percent). 

870.  WILLIAMS,  W.  E.  Milk  marketing  scheme  of  the 
lower  mainland  of  British  Columbia.  Sci.  Agr.  20:  39- 
42.     Sept.  1939.     7  Sci2 

The  scheme  provides  for  the  establishment  of  a  mar- 
keting board.    Milk  is  to  be  marketed  by  producers 
through  an  agency  designated  by  the  board.    The  agency 
in  turn  is  to  sell  the  milk  to  distributors  and  manu- 
facturers at  prices  to  be  fixed  by  the  board. 

871.  WILLIAMSON,  P.     Costs  and  returns  from  dairy 
cows  on  selected  New  York  State  farms.    Based  on  cost- 
account  records  for  the  years,  1935,  1936  and  1937. 

N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  A.  E.  248,  8  p.     Jan.  1939.     281.9  C81 

A  study  based  on  records  for  60  farms  with  1,248  cows, 
1935;  52  farms  with  1,110  cows,  1936;  and  53  farms  with 
1,153,  1937. 


872.  WINTER  ice  cream  increased  sales  for  Shaw  of 
Danville,  111.  59  to  83  percent  during  season  ending  March 
31.     Ice  Cream  Rev.  22(10):  34-35.     May,  1939. 
389.8  Ic22 

Changing  its  formula  to  include  an  increased  butterfat, 
sugar  and  total  solids  content  made  the  ice  cream  taste 
warmer  and  resulted  in  increased  sales. 

373.  WRIGHT,  K.  T.,  and  BALTZER,  A.  C.  Profitable 
dairy  management.  Mich.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Spec.  B.  297, 
57  p.     Apr.  1939.     100  M58S 

A  total  of  499  records  of  dairy  farms  in  Michigan  was 
studied  for  the  years  1932-36.    The  main  points  analyzed 
in  this  report  are  dairy  costs  and  returns  and  factors 
affecting  them. 

874.  WYLIE,  C.  E.     Dairy  industry  development  in 
Tennessee.     Natl.  Butter  &  Cheese  J.  30:  16-18.     Mar. 
1939.     286.85  B98Bu 

Production,  quality  and  marketing  of  milk  in  Tennessee. 
Production  statistics  are  included  for  various  dairy 
products  for  the  period  1925-37,  with  relation  to  the  num- 
ber of  milk  cows  for  the  most  part. 

875.  YALE,  M.  W.     Believes  New  York  State  cheese 
industry  has  promising  future.     Farm  Res.  [N.  Y.  State 
Sta.]  5(2):  10,  11.     Apr.  1,  1939.     100  N48A 

Trends  toward  the  production  of  new  varieties  of  cheese 
in  the  State,  and  the  need  of  new  merchandising  methods. 


1940 


876.  ABBOTT,  J.  S.     The  food  value  and  economics  of 
skim  milk.     Amer.  J.  Pub.  Health  30:  237-239.     Mar. 
1940.     449.9  Am3J 

Deprecates  the  waste  of  skim  milk,  in  view  of  its 
nutritive  value,  and  restrictions  against  its  sale  or  use. 

877.  ABELE,  C.  A.     Frozen  desserts  ordinance  rec- 
ommended by  the  United  States  Public  Health  Service. 
Ice  Cream  Rev.  23(8):  31-32,  89-90,  92.     Mar.  1940. 
389.8  Ic22 

Paper  presented  at  the  Silver  Anniversary  Convention 
of  the  Southern  Association  of  Ice  Cream  Manufacturers 
in  Memphis,  Tenn. 

Includes  grading  the  plant,  specifications  for  grade  A 
plant,  and  bacteria  count  requirements  for  milk  and  milk 
products  used  as  ingredients  of  the  mix  and  for  the 
finished  frozen  dessert. 

878.  AGENJO  CECILIA,  C.     Le  contr&le  hygienique  du 
"lait  concentre  Sucre."      Lait  20:  271-279.     May  1940. 
Ref.     44.8  L143 

Examines  the  causes  of  contaminated  condensed  milk 
in  Spain  and  calls  for  stricter  sanitary  control. 

879.  ALLEN,  R.  H.,  HOLE,  E.,  and  MIGHELL,  R.  L. 
Supply  responses  in  milk  production  in  the  Cabot -Marsh- 
field  area,  Vermont.     U.  S.  D.  A.  Tech.  B.  709,  60  p. 
Ref.     Apr.  1940.      1  Ag84Te 

This  study  is  based  primarily  upon  farm -management 
data  for  the  adjacent  towns  of  Cabot  and  Marshfield  in 
northrcentral  Vermont.    The  data  cover  1926  and  1936. 
Changes  during  the  intervening  period  are  described  and 
future  trends  in  production  are  estimated  for  three  al- 
ternative price  levels; 

880.  ALLRED,  C.  E.,  LUEBKE,  B.  H.,  and  CRAWFORD, 
W.  S.     Shipments  of  dairy  products  into  Knoxville,  Tenn. 
Tenn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Rur.  Res.  Ser.  Monog.  103,  20  p. 
Feb.  25,  1940.      173.2  W89Co 

Of  total  purchases  of  dairy  products  by  Knoxville  whole- 
salers 57.5  percent  are  shipped  in  from  other  States. 
Wisconsin  is  the  chief  out-of-state  source  of  dairy  pro- 
ducts.  One  of  the  principal  reasons  for  buying  elsewhere 
is  underproduction  in  the  area  at  certain  seasons  of  the 
year.   Quality  and  consumer  demand  are  especially  im- 
portant in  the  case  of  cheese  importations. 


881.  AMERICAN  ASSOCIATION  OF  MEDICAL  MILK 
COMMISSIONS,  INC.     Methods  and  standards  for  the  pro- 
duction of  certified  milk  adopted... June  10,  1940.     New 
York,  1940.     24  p.     44  Am38 

Includes  laboratory  standards,  buildings  and  equipment, 
care  and  handling  of  animals,  milking,  milk  handling, 
transportation,  and  distribution. 

882.  ANDERSON,  L.  C.     The  Elwell  plan.     In  Brown, 
E.  F.     Milk  Papers  7(190):  1-4.     Jan. -Feb.  1940. 
281.344  B81 

Address,  annual  meeting  of  the  New  England  Milk 
Dealers'  Association,  Inc.,  Boston,  Mass.,  Feb.  15,  1940. 

Cites  objections  to  the  plan  under  which  milk  is  sold  to 
consumers  at  one  price  for  the  first  unit,  additional  units 
being  supplied  at  a  lower  price. 

883.  ANTIOXIDANT  gains  favor ;  pure  oat  flour  concen- 
trate added  to  cream  or  for  parchment  treatment  aids  in 
overcoming  butter  quality  deterioration.     Amer.  Butter 
Rev.  2:  266-267.     Aug.  1940.     44.8  Am37 

Results  of  studies  on  "Avenex"  at  Pennsylvania  State 
College  and  the  University  of  Illinois. 

884.  +BACKMAN,  J.     Flexibility  of  cheese  prices. 
J.  Polit.  Econ.  48:  579-582.     Aug.  1940.     280.8J82 

885.  BARR,  W.  L.     A  preliminary  report  of  the  cost  of 
milk  production  on  53  dairy  farms  in  four  areas  of  Penn- 
sylvania, 1939.     Pa.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  J.  Ser.  Papers  987, 
7p.     Aug.  1940.      100  P381J 

Report  based  on  detailed  records  kept  by  53  dairy 
farmers  in  northeast,  southeast,  central  and-western 
Pennsylvania  in  1939. 

886.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Increasing  milk  consumption 
by  lowering  distribution  costs.     111.  Farm  Econ.  68: 
421-428.     Nov.  1940.     275.28  IL5 

Finds  store  distribution  more  economical  than  wagon 
distribution.    Shows  variations  in  distribution  costs,  and 
savings  made  possible  by  the  use  of  paper  containers. 

887.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.  Increasing  milk  consumption 
by  quantity  discounts.  Milk  Plant  Monthly  29(4):  40-41. 
Apr.  1940.     44.8  C864 

Increases  in  store  sales  and  in  the  sale  of  milk  in 
gallon  and  half -gallon  lots  through  stores  and  by  wagon 
are  discussed.    The  relation  between  quantity  discounts 
and  total  milk  sales  is  traced. 

♦Not  examined 


54 


888.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Maintaining  stability  in  the 
market-milk  industry  through  the  use  of  flexible  prices. 
111.  Farm  Econ.  62:  369-376.     July  1940.     275.28  IL5 

Deals  with  the  importance  of  butter  prices  in  arriving 
at  market-milk  prices;  price  flexibility  versus  rigidity 
in  the  Chicago  and  St.  Louis  milk  areas;  actual  and  code 
prices  for  condensery  milk;  determination  of  Chicago 
milk  prices  under  a  flexible  price  plan;  and  effects  of  the 
Federal  order  upon  consumer  prices  and  milk  consump- 
tion.   Emphasis  is  placed  upon  butter  prices  in  arriving 
at  the  price  of  market  milk  because  butter  prices  con- 
stitute the  best  index  available  for  measuring  changes  in 
supply  and  demand  conditions  in  the  dairy  industry. 
About  three -fourths  of  all  the  milk  manufactured  is  used 
for  butter. 

889.  BARTLETT,  R.  W.     Prospects  for  exports  of  dairy 
products.     111.  Farm  Econ.  56:  301-303.     Urbana,  Jan. 
1940.     275.28  IL5 

Shows  United  States  exports  for  these  products  for 
1914-19  and  1937-38  and  finds  that  with  our  present  pro- 
duction capacity  a  small  volume  of  concentrated  milk  and 
dairy  products  could  be  exported  without  materially  affect- 
ing prices. 

890.  BELL,  E.  W.     Adapting  pooling  plans  to  milk 
markets.  A  comparison  of  dealer  pool  and  market -wide 
pool  operations.     Mass.  U.  Agr.  Ext.  Farm  Econ.  Facts, 
13(1):  2-3.     Jan.  1940.     275.29  M381Fa 

Milk  markets  in  Massachusetts  under  public  control 
have  had  experience  with  both  types  of  pool.    Although  it 
may  be  too  soon  to  draw  conclusions  from  this  experience, 
the  greater  possibility  of  obtaining  permanent  market  sta- 
bility with  the  market -wide  pool  is  apparent. 

891.  BERCAW,  L.  O.     The  dairy  industry  in  the  United 
States;  selected  references  on  the  economic  aspects  of 
the  industry.     U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Libr.  List  11,  59  p. 
Washington,  1940.      1.9  Ec73E 

A  classified  list  of  323  references  to  publications  issued 
during  the  period  January  1939  through  June  1940. 

892.  BERCAW,  L.  O.     State  trade  barriers;  selected  ref- 
erences.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Econ.  Libr.  List  1,  rev., 
59  p.      1940.      1.9  Ec73E 

i    References  to  dairy  products,  including  milk,  are  listed 
in  the  index  to  fhis  bibliography. 

893.  BERGFELD,  A.  J.     Changing  methods  of  distribu- 
tion: New  Haven,  Connecticut,  study.     In  Northeastern 
Dair^  Conference,  Providence,  Rhode  Island,  March  7-8, 
1940.     Stenoeraohic  proceedings,  d.  87-91.     New  York, 
Consolidated  Rptg.  Co.,  1940.     44.9  N818 

A  study  made  in  1939  whose  purpose  was  to  determine 
the  cost  of  milk  distribution,  and  to  investigate  every 
possible  method  for  reducing  costs. 

894.  BISHOP,  G.  R.     An  analysis  of  dealers'  sales  of 
milk  and  cream  in  the  Buffalo  market  on  December  9,  1937 
In  Brown,  E.  F.     Milk  Papers  7(173):  1-18.     Jan. -Feb. 
T940.      281.344  B81 

Issued  as  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Econ.  and  Farm  Mangt. 
A.  E.  253,  18  p.     Feb.  1939.     281.9  C81 

Material  based  on  reports  obtained  from  all  dealers 
licensed  to  sell  milk  in  the  Buffalo  area.    Includes  data  on 
sales  of  milk,  cream,  and  other  products,  types  and  size 
of  containers,  number  of  customers  and  routes,  and  per 
capita  consumption. 

895.  BLACK,  J.  D.,  and  others.     Is  production  control 
of  milk  desirable?  If  so,  how  can  it  be  accomplished? 
In  Northeastern  Dairy  Conference.  Stenographic  Proc 
Providence,  R.  I.,  Mar.  7-8,  1940,  p.  42-67.     New  York 
Consolidated  Rptg.  Co.,  1940?     44.9  N818 

K.  Geyer,  R.  J.  Cooper,  and  W.  H.  Bronson,  joint  authors. 
Discusses  the  subject  mainly  in  relation  to  a  program  in- 
volving also  such  considerations  as  consumption  adjust- 
ment, production  and  distribution  costs,  and  market  reg- 
ulation. b 

896.  BLANCH,  G.  T.,  and  BROADBENT,  D.  A      Pre- 
liminary report  of  study  of  dairy  farms  which  marketed 
dairy  products  in  Ogden,  Utah -193  9.     Utah  Agr.  Expt.  Sta 
Mimeograph  Sheet  240,  20  p.     Oct.  1940.      100  UtlMi 

Includes  material  on  average  itemized  expenses  for 
milking  herds  in  different  areas  near  Ogden  in  1939   and 
average  total  expenses  for  1937-1939,  inclusive 


897.  BLANFORD,  C.  J.     An  analysis  of  dealers'  sales 
of  milk  and  cream  in  the  New  York  market,  1933-1938. 
N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  735,  24  p.     June  1940. 
100  N48C 

Gives  information  on  grades  of  milk  and  types  of  pack- 
ages, milk  and  cream  receipts,  trends  in  sales  of  grades 
A  and  B  milk  and  heavy  cream,  and  variations  in  sales. 

898.  BOTTLENECK  busters.     U.  S.  Agr.  Adjustment 
Admin.     Consumers'  Guide  7:  14-15.     Dec.  2,  1940. 
1.94  Ad422C 

Results  of  a  questionnaire  survey  covering  more  than 
250  American  cities.    Deals  in  part  with  milk  distribution 
from  point  of  view  of  quantity  discounts. 

899.  BRESSLER,  R.  G.,  Jr.     Transportation  and  country 
assembly  of  milk.     J.  Farm  Econ.  22:  220-224.     Feb. 
1940.     280.8  J822 

Three  phases  of  country  assembly  of  milk  are  consider- 
ed: farm  collection  and  transportation  to  country  plants, 
country  plant  operation,  and  plant  to  market  transporta- 
tion.   The  object  of  the  analysis  is  to  determine  the  most 
economical  combination  of  these  three  elements,  or  to  dis- 
cover the  optimum  size  of  plant,  of  plant  production  area, 
and  of  transportation. 

900.  BROCK,  F.  D.  Necessity  for  and  some  difficulties 
of  public  health  milk  control.  J.  Milk  Technol.  3:  36-40. 
Jan./Feb.  1940.     44.8  J824 

Problems  affecting  milk  quality  and  milk  sanitation  con- 
trol are  discussed.    The  program  elaborated  in  Texas, 
which  incorporates  the  U.  S.  Public  Health  Service  Milk 
Ordinance  and  Code  in  its  state  law,  is  described  as  an 
example  of  what  is  being  done  in  this  field. 

901.  BROWN,  E.  F.     Let  'em  eat  Fortune.  Easier  to 
swallow  than  "facts"  offered  in  Fortune  article.  "Let 
'em  drink  Grade  A."     In  his  Milk  Papers  7(186):  1-11. 
Jan.-Feb.l940;<    281.344  B81 

Reply  to  the  "misconceptions  and  erroneous  conclusions 
reached  by  Fortune"  in  an  article  which  appeared  in  the 
November  1939  issue. 

Explains  that  the  high  cost  of  milk  is  not  due  to  profit- 
eering on  the  part  of  milk  companies,  but  to  labor  costs, 
low  consumption  and  the  cost  of  the  milk  itself. 

902.  BROWN,  E.  F.     Milk  papers,  v.  2-8,  1936-1940. 
7  v.  New  York,  Milk  research  council,  inc.,  1939-40. 
281.344  B81 

Consists  of  various  documents  and  reports,  bound  to- 
gether, and  intended  to  present  all  significant  material  on 
milk.    The  material  is  arranged  by  subject,  including  in- 
vestigations, consumer  relations,  labor  relations,  and 
milk  control. 

Certain  publications  from  this  compilation  are  listed 
separately  in  this  bibliography  under  author  or  issuing 
agency. 

903.  BROWN,  E.  F.     Psychological  studies  of  consumers 
of  dairy  products. ..what  the  consumer  believes.     In  Wis. 
Univ.  Dept.  of  Dairy  Indus.     Papers  presented  at  Dairy 
Mfrs.  Conf.  Mar.  12-14,  1940,  p.  80-85.     44.9  W757 

Deals  with  milk  buying  habits  of  New  York  consumers, 
their  reasons  for  particular  brand  selection,  reactions  to 
suggested  innovations,  and  familiarity  with  practices  in 
the  milk  industry. 

904.  BROWN,  E.  F.     Some  "grade  A"  milk  facts. 
New  York,  Milk  Res.  Council,  1940.     15  p.     280.344  B81 

Refutes  the  advisability  of  a  proposed  single-grade 
system  in  New  York  in  view  of  expected  cost,  price,  and 
quality  changes. 

905    BROWN,  E.  F.     Toward  stabilizing  the  milk  indus- 
try.    Chamber  Com.  State  N.  Y.  Mo.  Bui.  31:  403-411. 
Mar.  1940.     Libr.  Cong. 

Fair  milk  prices  and  profits  are  the  keynote  of  the 
author's  thesis.    He  shows  that  there  are  many  factors  at 
play  in  this  connection,  which  are  not  generally  recog- 
nized.   He  lays  down  several  principles  which  should  mo- 
tivate intelligent  effort  to  improve  the  situation. 


55 


906.  BROWN,  E.  F.     What  do  we  know  about  consump- 
tion of  milk  by  consumers.     In  Wis.  U.  Dept.  of  Dairy 
Indus.     Papers  presented  at  Dairy  Mfrs.  Conf.  Mar.  12- 
14,  1940,  p.  74-79.     44.9  W757 

Considers  consumer  "likes  and  dislikes"  in  regard  to 
milk  and  suggests  a  public  relations  policy  to  increase 
consumption. 

907.  BUCK,  R.  K.,  HOPKINS,  J.  A.,  and  MALONE,  C.  C. 
An  economic  study  of  the  dairy  enterprise  in  northeastern 
Iowa.     Iowa  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Res.  B.  278:  853-875. 

Sept.  1940.      100  Io9 

Considers  the  principal  influences  affecting  the  profit 
from  dairying  in  northeastern  Iowa,  the  amount  of  dairy 
income  per  cow  which  may  be  expected,  and  the  capital 
investments,  cash  expenditures,  feed  and  other  costs  that 
are  involved  in  securing  this  income. 

908.  BURTIS,  E.  L.     Barriers  and  the  milk  industry. 
In  Brown,  E.  F.,  comp.     Milk  Papers  9(279),  13  p. 
Oct.  1940-Sept.  1941.     281.344  B81 

Reprint  from  Ind.  Law  J.  16:  191-203.     Dec.  1940. 

Discusses  public  health  measures  and  economic  stabi- 
lization measures  as  trade  barriers.    Suggests  that  ameli- 
oration would  result  if  sanitarV  requirements  were  made 
reasonably  uniform  from  State  to  State  and  if  all  grounds 
for  suspicion  of  the  reliability  of  inspections  could  be 
removed. 

909.  BURTIS,  E.  L.,  and  WAUGH,  F.  V.     Barriers  to 
internal  trade  in  farm  products.     U.  S.  D.  A.  Ybk.  1940: 
656-666.      1  Ag84Y 

Deals  in  part  with  milk. 

910.  CAMENGA,  C.  C.     The  production  of  quality  milk 
in  the  New  York  milk  shed  as  affected  by  state  and  feder- 
al marketing  control.     N.  Y.  State  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk 
Insp.  Ann.  Rpt.  (1939)  13:  167-172.     1940.     44.9  N4833 

Discusses  marketing  control  of  milk  through  legislative 
action,  with  reference  to  the  situation  in  New  York.  The 
price  stabilization  and  favorable  returns  to  the  producer 
made  possible  by  this  regulation  are  cited  as  proof  of  its 
usefulness. 

911.  CANADA.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.  DAIRY  PRO- 
DUCTS DIVISION.     The  correct  branding  for  cheese  and 
for  cheese  boxes.     Canada  Dept.  Agr.  C.  170,  3  p.     1940. 
7  C16C 

Designs  and  methods  of  marking  cheese  and  cheese 
boxes,  as  provided  by  regulations  under  the  Dairy  Indus- 
try Act,  are  explained  and  illustrated. 

a  12.  CASALINI,  M.  L'agricoltura  e  le  industrie  legate 
all  agricoltura.  Rome,  Edizioni  Sormani,  1940.  416  d. 
281.176  C26  V 

Contains  section,  "L'industria  casearia,"  p.  295-302, 
which  discusses  the  development  of  the  industry  in  Italy, 
and  the  extent  of  production  and  trade  in  butter,  cheese,' 
casein,  condensed  milk,  and  milk  powder. 

913.  COWAN,  H.  B.     A  municipally  owned  and  operated 
milk  plant.     Wellington,  New  Zealand,  has  demonstrated 
the  possibilities  of  such  a  system  -  which  has  paid  for  it- 
self.    In  Brown.  E.  F.  Milk  Papers  7(199):  47-48. 

Jan. -Feb.  1940.     281.344  B81 

Reprinted  from  Amer.  City,  55(1):  47-48.     Jan.  1940. 
98.58  Am31 

The  system  has  been  a  success  financially  and  has  effec- 
ted a  vast  improvement  in  the  quality  of  the  city's  milk 
supply.    Under  the  system,  milk  with  a  butterfat  content  of 
almost  4.5  percent,  is  delivered  to  consumers  at  a  price 
of  about  8  c.  a  qt. 

914.  CROWE,  L.  K.,  and  DOWNS,  P.  A.  A  comparative 
evaluation  of  an  ice  cream  supply  as  it  reaches  the  con- 
sumer.    J.  Dairy  Sci.  23:  615-620.     July  1940.     44.8  J822 

No  reason  was  found  for  differences  in  price  of  a  number 
of  pint  samples  of  vanilla  ice  cream  when  compared  on  Che 
basis  of  the  following:  net  weight  of  ice  cream  obtained; 
calculated  overrun  in  percent;  composition  including 
butterfat,  total  solids,  protein  and  calculated  carbohy- 
drate; bacteria  count  of  either  total  or  colon  type  organ- 
isms; calorific  value,  or  quality  as  determined  by  organ- 
oleptic examination. 


915.  CUNNINGHAM,  L.  C.       Dairy-farm  management. 
N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  B.  450,  36  p.     Dec.  1940. 

275.29  N48E 

Based  on  3700  survey  records  of  New  York  farms  pro- 
ducing grade  B  milk,  obtained  during  1926-38.   Shows 
labor  income,  size  of  business,  labor  efficiency,  capital 
efficiency,  rate  of  milk  production,  crop  yields,  combina- 
tion of  enterprises,  and  the  effects  of  these  factors  in 
different  combinations. 

916.  DARLINGTON,  J.  B.  A  cost  of  production  plan. 
Rural  New  Yorker  99:  278,  281.     Apr.  20,  1940.     6  R88 

Advocates  revision  of  the  Pennsylvania  Milk  Control 
Board's  price  orders  to  cover  adequately  the  cost  of  milk 
production,  regardless  of  the  use  to  which  it  is  put. 

917.  DAVIS,  W.  P.     Financing  the  surplus  removal  of 
dairy  products.     In  Northeastern  Dairy  Conference. 
Stenographic  Proceedings. ..Providence,  R.  I.,  Mar.  7-8, 
1940,  p.  74-76.     N.  Y.,  Consolidated  Rptg.  Co.  1940? 
44.9  N818 

Directs  attention  to  a  Treasury  appropriation  for  this 
purpose. 

918.  DELOACH,  D.  B.,  and  WEST,  W.  A.     Some  econom- 
ic implications  of  milk  control  in  Oregon.     Oreg.  Agr. 
Expt.  Sta.  B.  375,  16  p.     Aug.  1940.     100  Or3 

County  surveys  of  the  administration  of  the  Oregon    Milk 
Control  Act,  effective  Jan.  i934,  showed  weaknesses  to  be 
the  attempted  maintenance  of  a  uniform  price  under  con- 
ditions of  widely  varying  quality  standards  and  widely 
varying  costs  with  respect  to  the  State  as  a  whole. 

919.  DOW,  G.  F.  Receipts,  utilization,  and  prices  of 
milk  and  cream  in  Maine  milk  control  areas.  Maine. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  399:  71-183.     Ref.     1940.     100  M28S 

Shows  developments  in  milk  price  regulation  and  ana- 
lyzes milk  distributors'  records  from  May  1935  to  Dec- 
ember 1937.    Describes  the  Maine  milk  market  control 
areas,  indicates  trends  in  utilization  and  seasonal  varia- 
tion in  receipts  and  utilization.    Discusses  prices  paid 
producers,  distributor's  spread,  and  effect  of  price 
changes  on  consumption. 

920.  DOWN  go  delivery  costs.  Milk  Dealer  30(3):  41. 
Dec.  1940.     44.8  M595 

Users  of  a  coordinated  rail-highway  milk  transportation 
system  report  appreciable  savings  and  improved  sanitary 
conditions  through  the  elimination  of  the  pumping  opera- 
tion at  railheads.    Increased  volume  per  man  is  moved  in 
less  time. 

921.  DOWNS,  F.  H.,  Jr.     The  voluntary  grading  of  milk 
supplies  in  Alabama.     Jour.  Milk  Tech.  3:  97-100. 
Mar. -Apr.  1940.     44.8  J824 

Finds  that  the  level  of  safety  in  the  milk  supply  achieved 
under  this  program  has  been  higher  than  was  the  case  with 
a  mandatory  grading  policy,  inadequately  enforced. 

922.  DURAND,  L.,  Jr.  Dairy  region  of  southeastern 
Wisconsin  and  northeastern  Illinois.  Econ.  Geog.  16: 
416-428.     Oct.  1940.     278.8  Ec7 

Tells  of  the  settlement  and  development  of  the  region, 
describes  the  various  city  markets  and  milksheds,  shows 
the  location  of  condenseries,  and  discusses  prices  and  the 
surplus  problem. 

923.  EDEL,  H.  Cutting  production  costs  through  planned 
work  schedules.     Milk  Dealer  29(9):  32-33,  59. 

June  1940.     44.8  M595 

Personnel  management  at  Gehl's  Guernsey  Farms, 
Milwaukee,  Wis.,  involving  use  of  a  "working  and  relief 
schedule"  on  which  every  employee's  starting  and  finish- 
ing time  each  day  is  recorded,  together  with  his  various 
duties  and  his  day  off. 

924.  EFFERSON,  J.  N.,  and  MERRICK,  F.     An  economic 
study  of  dairy  farms  in  the  Kentwood  area  of  southeastern 
Louisiana,  1937-1938.     La.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  325,  28  p. 
June  1940.     100  L93 

Discusses  farm  organization,  costs  and  returns  of  milk 
production  and  factors  affecting  them,  including  number 
of  cows  per  farm,  production  per  cow,  milk  prices,  and 
proportion  of  receipts  from  dairying. 


56 


925.  EFFERSON,  J.  N.,  and  MERRICK,  F.     Factors 
affecting  costs  of  milk  production  in  southeastern  Louisi- 
ana.    La.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  321,  8  p.     june  1940. 

100  L93 

Factors  associated  with  low  costs  and  high  returns 
among  68  farms  for  the  crop  year  1937-38  were:  (1)  con- 
siderable home-produced  feed  and  roughage  and  home- 
mixing  of  purchased  feeds,  (2)  relatively  large  number  of 
dairy  cows  (more  than  20  cows),  (3)  relatively  high  pro- 
duction per  cow  (more  than  4,000  pounds),  (4)  relatively 
high  butterfat  test  (more  than  4  percent),  and  (5)  most  of 
cows  freshening  in  the  fall. 

926.  EVANS,  R.  M.     The  AAA  farm  program  and  the 
northeast  dairyman.     Washington,  U.  S.  Agr.  Adjust. 
Admin.  1940.     8  p.      1.42  Ad4Ev 

Shows  that  the  Vermont  dairyman  has  been  benefited  by 
its  operation,  and  that  his  welfare  is  dependent  on  farm- 
ing conditions  in  other  parts  of  the  country. 

927.  FARON,  S.     Use  and  future  of  two-quart  and  gallon 
milk  bottles.     Milk  Dealer  29(7):  96,  98,  100,  102-104. 
Apr.  1940.     44.8  M595 

Multiple  quart  bottles  increase  sales  and  consumption 
by  the  offer  of  a  price  inducement  justified  by  reductions 
in  plant  and  distribution  costs.    This  method  of  distribu- 
tion is  found  feasible  for  small  as  well  as  large  dairies. 

928.  FOREST,  H.  L.     Increasing  the  consumption  of 
dairy  products  by  low -income  distribution.     Washington, 
U.  S.  Surplus  Mktg.  Admin.,  Dec.  1940.     10  p. 

1.944  D2F761 

Presented  to  the  American  Farm  Bureau  Federation, 
Baltimore,  Md.,  Dec.  9,  1940. 

Describes  the  efforts  made  to  expand  the  outlets  and  to 
increase  the  consumption  of  dairy  products  among  needy 
families  in  Boston,  Chicago,  New  Orleans,  and  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  and  to  improve  the  marketing  conditions  for 
such  products  as  a  means  of  improving  returns  to  dairy 

farmers.    Activities  of  the  Surplus  Marketing  Administra- 
tion, the  Federal  Surplus  Commodities  Corporation,  and 
Dairy  Products  Marketing  Association  are  discussed. 

929.  GAUMNITZ,  E.  W.     New  trends  in  milk  distribu- 
tion.    U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Agr.  Situation  24(11):  18-21. 
Nov.  1940.     1  Ec7Ag 

Reports  a  definite  tendency  for  milk  dealers  to  experi- 
ment with  new  delivery  methods,  new  types  of  containers, 
and  new  pricing  plan6,  pointing  toward  reduction  in  con- 
sumer prices. 

930.  GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  FOOD.     Report  of  the 
committee  appointed  ...to  examine  the  cost  of  milk  dis- 
tribution, 1940.     London,  H.  M.  Stationery  Off.,  1940. 
38  p.     280.344  G7982 

Suggestions  for  reducing  costs  of  distribution  include 
abolition  of  the  half-pint  bottle,  deposits  on  bottles,  ex- 
clusion from  the  milk  round  of  the  sale  of  other  goods, 
and  restriction  of  milk  deliveries  in  any  one  district  to 
two  organizations. 

931.  GRIGSBY,  R.  M.     Federal  regulation  in  the  New 
Orleans  milk  market.     La.  Agr.  Col.  Ext.  La.  Rural  Econ, 
2(2):  8-10.     Apr.  1940.     281.8  L93 

Considers  the  Agricultural  Marketing  Agreement  Act  of 
1937,  marketing  problems  in  the  New  Orleans  milkshed, 
and  the  application  of  Federal  and  State  marketing  orders. 

932.  HADARY,  G.     The  use  of  flavored  milk  drinks  in 
the  dairy  industry.     In  111.  U.  Dept.  of  Dairy  Husb. 
Mater,  presented  at  the  Dairy  Mfgr.  Shortcourse.     1940: 
133-138.     Ref.     44.9  IL63M 

Reviews  literature  on  fruit-flavored  milk  drinks  and 
states  that  today,  chocolate -flavored  milk  is  regarded  as 
a  standard  dairy  product.    State  standards  for  chocolate  - 
flavored  milk  drinks  are  discussed  and  compared.    Pro- 
motion by  the  industry  of  flavoredl  milk  as  a  means  of  in- 
creasing consumption  is  suggested. 


933.  HAMMERBERG,  D.  O.  Allocation  of  milk  sup- 
plies among  contiguous  markets.  J.  Farm  Econ.  22: 
215-219.     Feb.  1940.     280.8  J822 

A  study  of  the  supply  problems  of  14  markets  in  Connect- 
icut, whose  supply  areas  overlap  to  a  considerable  ex- 
tent, shows  that  significant  economies  can  be  effected 
through  re-allocation  of  supplies  among  adjacent  markets. 
Consolidation  of  supply  areas  through  re-allocation  would 
facilitate  re-organization  of  transportation  routes  through 
which  appreciable  reductions  in  transportation  costs 
might  be  possible.    Suggests  that  a  study  of  these  inter - 
market  relationships  would  furnish  criteria  of  inestimable 
value  in  connection  with  the  problem  of  formulating  fluid 
milk  price  policies. 

934.  HANNAY,  A.  M.,  comp.     Price  fixing  by  govern- 
ment in  foreign  countries,  1926-1939;  a  selected  list  of 
references  on  direct  price  fixing  of  agricultural  products 
by  foreign  governments.     U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Bibliog. 
86,  631  p.     1940.     1.9  Ec73A 

Includes  references  to  butter,  casein,  cheese,  cream, 
milk,  and  dairy  products. 

935.  HARE,  H.  R.     Dairy  farm  business  in  Ontario. 
Economic  survey  of  farms  producing  milk  for  fluid  con- 
sumption.    Ottawa,  Canad.  Dept.  Agr.  Mktg.  Serv.  Econ. 
Div.,  1940.     65  p.     281.344  C1632 

A  preliminary  report  based  on  the  books  of  490  farmers 
in  eight  market  zones  in  Ontario.    Includes  information  on 
costs  of  production  and  price  received  per  hundredweight 
in  the  various  zones.    Conclusions  are  drawn  on  factors 
affecting  profitable  operation. 

936.  HOFFMAN,  A.  C.     Large-scale  organization  in  the 
food  industries.     U.  S.  Temporary  Natl.  Econ.  Com. 
Monog.  35,  174  p.     Ref.     1940.     280.12  Un3986M 

In  Ch.  4,  Large-scale  Organization  in  the  Dairy  Indus- 
try, information  is  given  on  sales,  proportion  of  products 
handled,  extent  of  activities  of  leading  dairy  companies 
and  producer  cooperatives.    The  economic  significance  of 
the  growth  of  large-scale  food  corporations,  is  evaluated. 

937.  HOLFORD,  F.  D.  The  importance  of  milk  trucking 
in  maintaining  sanitary  quality.  N.  Y.  State  Assoc.  Dairy 
and  Milk  Insp.  Ann.  Rpt.  (1939)  13:  105-112.     1940. 

44.9  N4833 

Discusses  use  of  hired  trucks  for  transporting  milk  from 
the  farms  to  the  receiving  plant  and  returning  the  clean 
empty  cans  to  the  farmers.    Suggestions  are  made  for 
maintaining  sanitary  conditions  while  the  milk  is  in  trans- 
it.   The  covered  insulated  truck  is  considered  the  ideal 
vehicle  for  hauling  milk. 

Discussion,  p.  112-118. 

938.  HOLMAN,  C.  W.     Proposed  Federal  legislation 
affecting  dairymen.     In  Northeastern  Dairy  Conference. 
Stenographic  Proceedings. ..Providence,  R.  I.,  Mar.  7-8, 
1940.     p.  68-74.     N.  Y.,  The  Consolidated  Rptg.  Co. 
1940?     44.9  N818 

Contains  information  on  the  status  of  the  Marketing 
Agreement  Amendment  Act  and  conditions  under  the 
Trade  Agreement  Act  of  1934. 

939.  HOLMAN,  H.  P.,  and  others.  Farm  products  and 
by  products  for  industrial  use.  U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Chem  & 
Engin.  ACE-55,  69  p.     May  1940.     1.932  A2Ag8 

V.  A.  Pease,  T.  D.  Jarrell,  C.  E.  Senseman,  Md  A.  B. 
Genung,  joint  authors. 

Contains  section  on  dairy  products  (p.  60-62)  showing 
the  various  purposes  for  which  milk  is  utilized,  together 
with  amounts  of  the  various  products  manufactured. 

940.  HOPPER,  W.  C,  and  CASSELMAN,  P.  H.     Con- 
sumption of  dairy  products  in  rural  Canadian  homes. 
Ottawa,  Mktg.  Serv.,  Econ.  Div.  Dominion  Dept.  of  Agr., 
Sept.  1940.     45  p.     281.344  H77 

Based  on  a  questionnaire  distributed  to  women  of  farm 
and  other  rural  households  in  1937.    Includes  information 
on  per  capita  consumption  of  whole  and  skim  milk,  butter- 
milk, cream,  cheese,  and  butter,  and  prices  paid  for  those 
products.  All  Provinces  were  covered  by  the  survey,  but 
inadequate  data  were  received  from  Alberta  and  British 
Columbia. 


57 


941.  HOTON,  L.     La  reglementation  du  lait  malpropre. 
Lait  20:  287-291.     May  1940.     44.8  L143 

Reviews  milk  sanitary  regulations  in  effect  in  Europe 
and  holds  that  a  strict  legal  definition  of  what  is  clean 
milk  should  be  avoided,  since  the  possibility  of  contami- 
nated milk  is  not  necessarily  excluded  by  the  usual  norms, 

942.  HOWE,  F.  C.     Final  report  on  the  milk  and  dairy 
industry  directed  to  the  Temporary  National  Economic 
Committee.     Washington,  U.  S.  D.  A..  1940.     47  d 
1.90A1F49  "" 

Testimony  on  the  milk  industry  before  the  Committee 
brought  to  light  various  abuses.    These  are  discussed  and 
remedial  suggestions,  in  addition  to  anti-trust  proceed- 
ings, are  offered.    Suggestions  include  establishing  a  Fed- 
eral milk  authority  having  large  administrative  power 
over  the  entire  industry,  with  authority  to  fix  prices  to 
producers;  adopting  a  milk  control  code  by  the  District  of 
Columbia  which  would  serve  as  a  model;  and  drafting  a 
milk  code  by  the  U.  S.  Public  Health  Service  in  Coopera- 
tion with  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  to  correct 
many  abuses  which  have  been  written  into  the  codes  of 
many  towns  and  cities.    These  abuses  are  responsbile  for 
the  birth  of  the  milk  monoply,  as  the  necessity  for  the 
purification  of  fluid  milk  has  divested  the  farmer  of  an 
open  market  for  his  product  which  must  now  be  sold  to 
two  major  and  four  minor  processing  corporations. 

943.  HUEBNER,  E.     A  review  of  the  State's  dairy  laws 
and  regulations.     Wis.  U.  Dept.  Dairy  Indus.  Dairy 
Manfrs.  Conf.  Papers  1940:  59-68.     44.9  W757 

Relates  to  the  sanitary  control  of  milk  and  cream, 
cheese,  butter,  condensery  products,  and  ice  cream  in 
Wisconsin. 

944.  HUFFMAN,  G.  L.     Paper  bottles:  economics.of 
their  use  and  consumer  reaction.     Wis.  U.  Dept.  Dairy 
Indus.  Dairy  Manfrs.  Conf.  Papers  1940:  122-126. 
44.9  W757 

Cites  advantages  of  the  paper  container  for  the  distrib- 
utor and  consumer. 

945.  HUGHES,  E.  M.     The  business  of  milk  retailing  by 
producer -distributors  in  New  York  State.     N.  Y.  (Cornell) 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  741,  85  p.     Nov.  1940.     100  N48C 

Abridged  report  in  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Farm  Econ.  105: 
2558-2561.     Feb.  1938.     280.8  C812 

Ascertains  the  amount  and  variation  of  costs  and  profits 
in  milk  distribution  and  measures  the  effects  of  volume  of 
business,  labor,  route  and  capital  efficiency,  snd  type  of 
business  on  costs  and  profits. 

946.  HUGHES,  E.  M.     Milk  retailing  by  producer -dis- 
tributors in  New  York  State.     In  Brown,  E.  F.  Milk 
Papers  7  (172):  1-18.     Jan.-Feb.  1940.     281.344  B81 

Issued  as  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Farm 
Mangt.  A.  E.  239,  18  p.     Feb.  1939.     281.9  C81 

This  study,  made  from  detailed  records  of  92  producer - 
distributors  located  in  upstate  New  York  and  on  Long 
Island,  shows  capital  invested,  costs  of  distribution  and 
sales  outlets,  and  discusses  factors  affecting  costs  and 
profits. 

947.  HUNZIKER,  O.  F.     The  butter  industry,  prepared 
for  factory,  school  and  laboratory.     Ed.  3,  LaGrange,  111., 
1940.     780  p.     44  H92B 

Partial  contents:  Ch.  6,  Care  of  milk  and  cream  on  farm 
and  in  transit;  Ch.  8,  Systems  of  cream  buying  -  relative 
merits;  Ch.  9,  Receiving  -  grading,  sampling,  weighing, 
can  washing;  Ch.  17,  Packing  -  wrappers,  containers, 
machines;  Ch.  18,  Creamery  overrun,  utilization  of  by- 
products (skim  milk,  skim  milk  powder,  casein,  butter- 
milk); Ch.  19,  Markets,  imports,  exports,  consumption; 
Ch.  20,  Cold  storage  -  volume,  cost,  effect  on  butter; 
Ch.  24,  Butter  scoring,  butter  standards,  standardizing  of 
milk  and  cream. 

948.  IRWIN,  H.  S.  Impressions  of  trading  in  butter  and 
egg  futures.  U.  S.  Commod.  Exch.  Admin.  CEA-21,  28  p. 
1940.     1.9  C73C 

Tables  give  volume  of  futures  trading,  1927-38,  and 
maximum  aggregates  of  open  contracts,  1928-38.   Charts 
show  average  weekly  spreads  between  cash  and  futures 
prices  of  butter  in  Chicago,  1932-37,  and  the  relation  be- 
tween storage  holdings  and  open  futures  contracts  in 
Chicago  on  the  first  day  of  May-April  1931-38.   Effects 
of  futures  trading  on  butter  prices  are  considered. 


949.  IRWIN,  H.  S.     Survey  of  butter  futures  as  of 
August  31,  1939.     U.  S.  Commod.  Exch.  Admin.  CEA-22, 
36  p.     1940.     1.9  C73C 

Most  of  the  traders  in  butter  futures  were  engaged  in  the 
butter,  egg,  and  poultry  business.    "Short  selling"  was  al- 
most negligible.    Hedging  was  highly  concentrated  at  Chi- 
cago, where  almost  three -fifths  of  the  storage  butter  was 
hedged,  compared  with  less  than  one-twentieth  of  the  but- 
ter stored  elsewhere.    In  contrast  to  the  concentration 
among  the  hedgers,  speculative  long  positions  were  wide- 
ly scattered  throughout  the  country,  and  most  of  them 
were  small;  concerns  accounted  for  60  percent  of  the  long 
positions  and  for  99  percent  of  the  short  positions.    Most 
longs  showed  paper  losses  and  most  shorts  paper  profits, 
but  this  situation  was  reversed  quickly  by  the  rise  in 
prices  occasioned  by  the  outbreak  of  war. 

950.  IRWIN,  R.  E.     Has  the  approved  inspector  system 
promoted  uniformity?    N.  Y.  State  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk 
Insp.  Ann.  Rpt.  (1939)  13:  173-176.     1940.     44.9  N4833 

Requirements  for  farm  inspection  by  approved  inspec- 
tors is  set  forth  in  an  act  passed  in  1935  in  Pennsylvania. 
The  system  is  described  and  appraised. 

Discussion,  p.  176-178. 

951.  JACKSON,  R.  C.     Trend  in  milk  consumption   in 
the  Boston    market.     Milk  Dealer  29(12):  92-93. 
Sept.  1940.     44,8  M595 

Data  on  consumer  opinion  regarding  milk  profits,  wagon 
and  store  sales,  and  milk-drinking  habits  and  preferences 
of  adults  and  children  is  presented. 

952.  JENSEN,  E.  Determining  input-output  relation- 
ships in  milk  production.  J.  Farm  Econ.  22:  249-258. 
Feb.  1940.     280.8  J822 

Results  of  experiments  with  cows  to  determine  how  far 
milk  production  can  be  influenced  by  increased  feeding. 
Indications  are  given  as  to  use  of  these  data. 

953.  JENSEN,  J.  M.     A  study  of  cream  quality  from 
creameries  located  in  southern  Michigan.     Mich.  Agr. 
Expt.  Sta.  Q.  B.  22:  203-208.     Feb.  1940.     100  M58S 

A  wide  spread  exists  in  the  quality  of  cream  purchased 
for  buttermaking.    Cream  cannot  be  graded  entirely  by 
acid  test,  on  the  basis  of  percentages  in  relation  to  score. 
The  atmospheric  temperature  during  the  days  the  cream 
was  accumulated  and  shipped  to  the  creamery  influenced 
the  quality  appreciably.    On  the  whole,  the  cream  which 
was  held  three  days  was  of  better  quality  than  that  held 
four  days.   The  flavor  criticisms  of  cream  scoring  less 
than  90  were  due  to  such  factors  as  improper  cream 
storage  and  water  contamination. 

954.  JOHNSTON,  C.  I.     Distribution  of  surplus  butter. 
Econ.  Annal.  10(4):  61-64.     Aug.  J940.     281.8  Ec72 

About  May  15,  1939,  vouchers  foY  3,081,697  lbs.  of  but- 
ter were  distributed  to  Canadian  families  on  relief  and  to 
families  with  very  low  incomes  as  a  means  of  reducing 
surplus  stocks  of  butter  in  storage  in  Canada.    The  Do- 
minion Parliament  voted  funds  for  the  redemption  of 
vouchers  exchanged  for  butter  at  grocery  stores,  where 
the^price  of  the  butter  was  marked  on  the  vouchers  by  the 
grocers.    Grocers,  upon  presenting  these  vouchers  to  the 
banks,  received  the  value  of  the  butter  as  shown  thereon. 
The  Dominion  government  reimbursed  the  banks  for  the 
amounts  paid  to  grocers,  plus  a  commission.    Statistics 
are  given  on  the  increase  in  consumption  of  butter  as  the 
result  of  this  free  distribution. 

955.  JOHNSTON,  C.  I.,  and  HOPPER,  W.  C.     An  econom- 
ic study  of  the  consumption  of  milk  and  cream  in  Vancou- 
ver.    (Pub.  678)     Dept.  Agr.  Tech.  B.  25,  41  p.     Feb. 
1940.     7  C16T 

Eesides  measuring  the  extent  of  consumption  of  milk  and 
cream  in  Vancouver,  this  study  purports  to  assess  the 
effect  that  various  conditions  -  such  as  income,  number  of 
young  children  in  the  family,  type  of  occupation,  racial 
origin,  and  the  section  of  the  city  in  which  consumers 
lived  -  have  upon  the  consumption.    Fresh  fluid  milk  is  the 
form  of  milk  considered,  but  one  section  of  the  bulletin 
deals  with  the  consumption  of  milk  as  a  beverage.    In- 
cludes a  few  tables  relating  to  the  consumption  of  evapor,. 
ated  and  condensed  milk. 


58 


956.  KENNEDY,  M.     Elwell  plan  meets  with  both  suc- 
cess and  setbacks.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  29(4):  38,  40. 
Apr.  1940.     44.8  C864 

Discusses  the  functioning  of  the  Elwell  plan  of  quantity 
discounts  in  milk  distribution,  with  particular  reference 
to  Minneapolis  and  Cedar  Rapids. 

957.  KNIGHT,  H.  W.     Inter  municipal  co-operation  in 
milk  inspection.     Pub.  Mangt.  22:  103-106.     Apr.  1940. 
Libr.  Cong. 

Also  in  111.  Municipal  Rev.  19:  109-110.     June,  1940. 

The  cooperative  plan  of  six  adjacent  Illinois  municipal- 
ities in  complete  compliance  with  U.  S.  Public  Health  Ser- 
vice standards  is  described.    Methods  of  operation  and  the 
cost  of  the  service  are  discussed. 

958.  KOENIG,  N.     Six  years  of  marketing  agreements. 
HI.  Dairy  products.     U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Agr.  Situation, 
24(3):  21-23.     Mar.  1940.     1  Ec7Ag 

A  discussion  of  the  nature  and  scope  of,  and  problems 
arising  under,  marketing  agreement  programs.   Includes 
material  on  price  structure. 

959.  ROLLER,  E.  F.,  and  JESNESS,  O.  B.     Trends  in  the 
Minnesota  dairy  industrv.     Minn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  346. 
40  p.     Jan.  1940.     100  M66 

Relatively  rapid  growth  in  all  phases  of  the  industry  in 
Minnesota  over  a  long  period  of  time  is  reported.    Trans- 
portation and  distribution  arrangements  have  improved. 

960.  pAUSS,  W.  E.    Responsibility  of  the  milk  produc- 
ts #%?n£ume™-  ?.hi0 Agr-  Exp1-  sta- Bimo- B- 

-sa^U-i).  31-35.     Mar./Apr.  1940.     100  Oh3S 

Deals  m  part  with  lowering  costs  of  production  and 
gives  figures  showing  relationship  between  productfon 
level  and  cost  of  milk  production,  1938.        productlon 

961.  KRIEGEL,  M.  W.     Establishing  a  cheese  factory  in 
Texas;  fundamental  considerations.     Austin,  U.  of  Tex 
1940.     49  p.     44  K89 

Suggests  desirable  conditions  for  manufacturing  cheese 
covering  location  of  plant,  raw  materials,  and  equipment. 

962.  LAYSON,  S.  V.     New  laws  designed  to  improve 
sanitation,  preserve  inherent  quality,  and  for  the  benefit 
of  all  to  increase  consumption  of  milk.     Milk  Plant  Month- 
ly 29(1):  53-54,  56.     Jan.  1940.     44.8  C864 

From  an  address  delivered  at  the  convention  of  the  Illi- 
nois Dairy  Products  Association.    A  discussion  of  the 
Grade  A  Milk  Law  and  the  rewritten  Pasteurization  Law 
enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  Illinois  in  1939. 

963.  LOW- COST  milk  program  seeks  wider  outlets. 
U.  S.  Ext.  Serv.  Ext.  Serv.  Rev.  11:  42.  Mar.  1940. 
1  Ex892Ex 

Operating  with  Federal  funds,  low-cost  milk  programs 
for  needy  and  relief  families  are  in  effect  in  the  Boston 
and  Chicago  milk  markets.    One  of  the  prime  objectives 
is  to  make  it  possible  for  people  to  use  milk  in  greater 
quantities  with  a  minimum  amount  of  interference  with 
regular  business. 

964.  LUCAS,  P.  S.     It  pays  to  condense.     Natl.  Butter 
and  Cheese  J.  31(9):  36,  38.     Sept.  1940.     286.85  B98Bu 

Cost  of  manufacturing  bulk  condensed  milk  suitable  for 
ice  cream  mix,  and  for  use  bv  bakers. 

965.  MAACK,  A.  C,  and  TRACY,  P.  H.     A  method  for 
the  accurate  sampling  of  ice  cream.     Ice  Cream  Rev.  23 
(8):  36,  58.     Mar.  1940.     389.8  Ic22 

Paper  presented  at  the  Miiiois  Dairy  Manufacturers  Con- 
ference, Urbana,  111.,  Nov.  13-17,  1939. 

Results  of  research  at  the  University  of  Hlinois  in  1939 
in  the  testing  of  fruit,  nut,  and  candy  ice  cream. 

966.  MCBRIDE,  C.  G.,  and  SHERMAN,  R.  W.     Farm 
sales  of  Ohio  milk  through  different  outlets.     Ohio  State 
U.  Dept.  of  Rural  Econ.,  Mimeo.  B.  131,  pt.  1,     30  p. 
1940.     281.9  Oh32 

Pt.  1,  covers  the  Columbus  area  and  includes  Delaware, 
Fairfield,  Franklin,  Licking,  Madison,  Pickaway  and  Union 
Counties. 

Study  is  based  on  a  survey  of  all  farms  with  three  or 
more  cows.    Creameries  and  milk  products  manu- 
facturing plants  in  the  area  are  shown  and  changes  in  mar- 
ket outlets,  1903-1940  are  discussed. 

Data  for  counties  and  townships  are  presented  in  tables 
and  charts,  and  show  number  of  dairy  farms  and  milk 
cattle,  and  percent  of  each  by  market  outlet,  1939. 


967.  MCBRIDE,  C.  G.     The  Ohio  farmer  and  his  milk 
market.     Ohio.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  614,  50  p.     1940. 
100  Oh3S 

Deals  with  the  experiences  of  farmers  in  marketing 
whole  milk,  with  emphasis  upon  the  behavior  and  problems 
of  the  individual  producer.    Data  used  were  taken  from 
surveys  of  three  townships,  farm  account  records,  and 
dealer  statements.    Topics  discussed  include  finding  and 
holding  a  market,  milk  statements,  marketing  plans,  and 
the  producers  stake  in  transportation. 

968.  MACLEOD,  A.     The  transportation  of  New  Hamp- 
shire milk.  H.  Reorganization  of  truck  routes.     N.  H. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  325,  23  p.     June  1940.     100  N45 

Considers  three  schemes  of  reorganization:  the  first 
involving  only  those  producers  whose  milk  is  being  hauled 
on  commercial  truck  routes;  the  second,  those  selling  at 
wholesale,  who  either  take  their  milk  to  the  plant  them- 
selves, or  exchange  hauling  with  one  or  more  of  their 
neighbors;  and  the  third,  involving  a  relocation  of  milk- 
shed  boundaries  so  that  unnecessary  expense  and  duplica- 
tion might  be  eliminated-a  disturbance  of  producer- 
dealer  relations. 

969.  MACLEOD,  A.  G.     Newer  developments  and  needed 
changes  in  State  milk  control.     In^ Northeastern  Dairy 
Conference.     Stenographic  proceedings...  Providence, 

R.  I.,  Mar.  7-8,  1940.  p.  1-6.     N.  Y.,  Consolidated  Rptg. 
Co.,  1940?     44.9  N818 

Legal  and  administrative  aspects  and  bases  for  price- 
fixing. 

970.  MANITOBA.  MILK  CONTROL  BOARD.  Annual  re- 
port, 1938-1940.     Winnipeg,  1939,  1940,     280.3449  M31 

Contains  material  on  milk  distribution,  including  costs 
of  distribution  and  milk  prices  in  the  Winnipeg  area. 

971.  MARQUARDT,  J.  C.  How  cheese  quality  is  deter- 
mined. Farm  Res.  [N.  Y.  State  Sta.l  6(2):  13-14.  Apr. 
1,  1940.     100  N48A 

Discusses  briefly  grading  or  scoring  of  dairy  products, 
and  cheddar  cheese  score  cards. 

972.  MARTIN,  W.  H.,  NELSON,  F.  E.,  and  CAULFIELD, 
W.  J.  Measuring  the  quality  of  ice  cream.  J.  Dairy  Sci. 
23:  135-147.     Jan.  1940.    .44.8  J822 

Shows  standard  plate  counts,  minimum  amounts  of  sam- 
ples containing  Escherichia-Aerobacter  organisms,  re- 
sults of  phosphatase  and  butterfat  tests,  weight  per  gallon, 
and  flavor,  body  and  texture,  color  and  package  scores  on 
318  samples  of  ice  cream  collected  from  over  300  Kansas 
ice  cream  manufacturers  during  July,  1938. 

973.  MILK  and  cream  grading.     J.  Agr.  New  Zeal.  60: 
11-12.     Jan.  15,  1940.     23  N48J 

Discusses  methods  and  standards  of  grading  milk  and 
cream  for  butter-making  and  of  grading  milk  for  cheese- 
making. 

974.  MILK  RESEARCH  COUNCIL.     Housewives'  atti- 
tudes on  milk  containers  in  Manhattan  and  Brooklyn.     In 
Brown,  E.  F.     Milk  Papers  7(184),  59  p.     Jan.-Feb.  1940. 
281.344  B81 

Sanford  Griffith  was  in  charge  of  the  survey  and  was  as- 
sisted by  Alvin  Meyrowitz. 

2,000  housewives  were  interviewed  and  gave  opinions  on 
milk  buying  habits  (place,  grade  and  quantity  bought); 
paper  container  vs.  glass  bottle  (which  is  more  sanitary 
and  takes  less  room  in  the  ice  box);  two-quart  container 
(reasons  for  using  or  not  using);  store  prices;  and  na- 
tionality and  milk  habits  (Americans  buy  more  Grade  A 
than  any  other  nationality). 

Questionnaire  used  in  the  survey  is  given  on  p.  57-59. 

975.  MOON,  H.  A.  Analyzing  packaging  operation  costs. 
Mod.  Packaging  14(3):  77-80.     Nov.  1940.     309.8  M72 

Four  types  of  analysis  are  used  involving  the  investiga- 
tion of  lost  motion,  the  correlation  between  men  and  ma- 
chines, the  relationship  of  the  packaging  operations  to 
other  operations  that  come  either  before  or  after  the  ac- 
tual packaging,  and  the  part  that  the  packaging  operations 
play  in  creating  peak  loads  for  power  systems,  for  labor 
and  the  use  of  refrigeration  or  other  machinery.  The 
application  of  this  method  to  a  milk  pasteurizing  and  bot- 
tling plant  is  shown. 


59 


976.  MORRIS,  C.  G.     What  should  be  the  price  of  milk. 
Milwaukee,  Olsen,  1940.     190  p.     280.344  M83 

Deals  in  part  with  the  class  price  plan  of  buying  milk, 
price  cutting,  milk  control  by  boards  or  officials,  and 
operations  of  producers  and  dealers. 

977.  MORTENSON,  W.  P.     Legal  possibilities  and  limi- 
tations of  milk  distribution  as  a  public  utility.     J.  Land 
and  Pub.  Util.  Econ.  15:  438-447;  16:  61-71.     Nov.  1939- 
Feb.  1940.     282.8  J82 

Although  the  U.  S.  Supreme  Court  has  not  ruled  upon  the 
question,  sufficient  legal  support  exists  for  the  position 
that  the  legislatures  have  power  either  to  grant  exclusive 
franchise  to  a  private  corporation  to  process  and  distrib- 
ute milk,  or  to  delegate  to  the  city  or  municipality  the 
power  to  perform  the  function  itself  through  municipal 
ownership.    Conjectures  are  made  on  the  possibilities  of 
Court  action  in  this  direction  and  on  what  degree  of 
success  public  utility  control  operating  as  a  unified  sys- 
tem of  milk  distribution  would  have. 

978.  MORTENSON,  W.  P.     Milk  distribution  as  a  public 
utility.     Chicago,  U.  Chicago  Press,  1940.     221  p. 
280.344  M84 

If  the  functions  of  processing  and  of  distributing  fluid 
milk  were  operated  as  an  efficient  unified  system,  the 
possible  economies  and  resultant  savings  might  be  con- 
siderable, provided  that  the  general  public  accepts  this 
different  approach  to  the  milk  distribution  problem.    The 
subject  is  in  five  parts:  1,  History  and  background  of  fluid 
milk  regulation;  2,  Costs  and  profits  of  distributing  milk 
and  savings  through  unification:  3.  Legal  aspects  of  milk 
control;  4,  Methods  and  difficulties  of  public  utility  con- 
trol of  milk  distribution;  and  5,  Economic  effects  of  such 
control. 

979.  MOSS,  F.  J.  Milk  investigations  of  the  U.  S.  Public 
Health  Service.  J.  Milk  Technol.  3:  145-154.  May- June 
1940.     44.8  J824 

Reviews  research  work  carried  out  chiefly  since  the 
formation  of  the  Office  of  Milk  Investigations  in  1923. 

980.  MUELLER,  W.  S.     Suggested  standards  for  choco- 
late milk  drinks.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  29(3):  25-28.     Mar. 
1940.     44.8  C864 

Results  of  an  experimental  study  undertaken  in  the  Dairy 
Industry  Department  in  cooperation  with  the  Department 
of  Bacteriology  and  Chemistry  at  the  Massachusetts  State 
College. 

981.  NEW  ENGLAND  RESEARCH  COUNCIL  ON  MAR- 
KETING AND  FOOD  SUPPLY.     Proceedings  of  the  annual 
meeting  held.. .at  Boston,  Massachusetts.     Boston,  1936- 
1940.     5  v.     252.004  N443M 

The  proceedings  of  each  meeting  contain  a  section  in 
which  papers,  round  table  discussions,  and  reports  of  the 
New  England-Wide  milk  marketing  study  are  given.    The 
objectives  and  description  of  the  study  are  covered  in  a 
paper  which  appears  in  the  proceedings  of  the  meeting 
held  in  1936. 

982.  NEW  YORK  (STATE)  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE 
AND  MARKETS.     Annual  report.. .for  the  years  1935-1939, 
Albany,  J.  B.  Lyon,  1936-1940.     5  v.     2  N482R 

Includes  sections  on  milk  control  in  the  State,  with  in- 
formation on  administrative  aspects  and  general  develop- 
ments in  the  industry.    - 

983.  NOYES,  H.  V.     The  effect  of  Federal  and  State 
regulations  on  the  producer.     Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col. 
Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb.  Papers  Presented  at  Short 
Course  Conf.  for  Dairy  Plant  Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  19: 
29-35.     1940.     44.9  V593 

Regulation  of  producer  price  structure  has  helped  to 
stabilize  the  New  York  milk  market  and  has  brought  im- 
proved returns,  but  the  surplus  problem  still  remains. 

984.  NUGENT,  R.     This  milk  company  finds  six  day- 
daylight  delivery  a  success  for  both  company  and  route- 
men.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  29(5):  23-25.     May,  1940. 
44.8  C864 

Outlines  the  advantages  to  both  the  distributor  and  the 
routemen  of  using  a  six -day  milk  delivery  plan.    De- 
s:ribesl  consumer  reaction  to  the  plan  of  the  General  Ice 
Cream  Corporation,  Schenectady,  N.  Y. 


985.  OMMODT,  B.  J.     Quality  improvement;  the  rela- 
tionship of  butter  grading  and  other  factors  to  the  con- 
stant essential  effort  toward  betterment  of  product. 
Amer.  Butter  Rev.  2:  422-423,  427.     Dec.  1940. 

44.8  Am37 

Producers  should  aim  at  a  butter  product  free  from 
foreign  matter,  and  of  United  States  92-93  score  quality, 
with  good  keeping  quality,  uniform  color,  salt  content  and 
texture,  and  low  yeast,  mold  and  bacteria  content. 
Adherence  to  quality  standards  in  the  grading  of  the  raw 
material,  plant  sanitation,  and  Federal  grading  of  the 
butter  are  factors  in  attaining  this  goal. 

986.  OREGON  MILK  CONTROL  BOARD.     Report,  1939- 
1940.     54  p.     Portland?  1940.     280.3449  Or3 

This,  the  first  report  on  operations  under  the  Milk  Con- 
trol Act,  reviews  activities  and  discusses  the  legal  status 
of  the  act.    Financial  statements,  statistical  information 
and  the  text  of  the  act,  are  included. 

987.  OWEN,  R.  L.  The  two-quart  glass  bottle.  In 
111.  U.  Dept.  of  Dairy  Husb.  Mater.  Presented  at  the 
Dairy  Mfg.  Short  Course  1940:  133-138.     44.9  IL63M 

The  bottle  is  not  a  cure-all  for  the  dairy  business,  but 
it  is  a  great  help  in  increasing  consumption  and  in 
stopping  the  trend  away  from  home  delivery. 

988.  OXFORD  UNIVERSITY.  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOM- 
ICS RESEARCH  INSTITUTE.     Milk  investigation  scheme. 
Costs  of  milk  production  in  England  and  Wales.  Interim 
Report  1-4,  Oxford,  U.  1937-40.     4  v.     281.344  Ox2M 

Detailed  analysis  of  cost  figures  for  various  producer 
groups  and  regions  for  the  period  November  1,  1934  to 
September  30,  1938. 

989.  PACKARD,  A.  A.     Some  experiences  under  a  Fed- 
eral milk  marketing  order.    In^  Northeastern  Dairy  Con- 
ference.   Stenographic  Proceedings.. .Providence,  R.  I. 
Mar.  7-8,  1940,     p.  103-107.     New  York,  The  Consoli- 
dated Rptg.  Co.,  1940?     44.9  N818 

Considers  the  subject  chiefly  in  relation  to  price  levels. 

990.  PARKER,  M.  E.     Quality  control  improved  by  re- 
search methods.     Food  Indus.  12(3):  41-44.     Mar    1940 

389.8  F737 

Discusses  the  butter  quality  control  program  in  opera- 
tion at  a  large  creamery,  with  emphasis  on  maintaining 
grade  standards. 

991.  PELTON,  G.  M.     What  is  the  cost  of  a  pound  of 
butter?    Natl.  Butter  and  Cheese  J.  31(8):  10-11    35 
Aug.  1940.     286.85  B98Bu 

Considers  kinds  of  procurement  and  processing  expen- 
ses that  go  into  plant  delivered  cost  of  butterfat. 

992.  PETTIT,  G.  H.'N.     Economic  study  of  foods  and 
grazing  in  milk  production,  study  of  conditions  in  the 
eastern  counties  of  England.     Cambridge  U.  Dept.  of 
Agr.  Farm  Econ.  Br.  Rpt.  28,  40  p.     Ref.     1940. 

281.9  C14 

The  complex  relationships  between  milk  yield  per  cow 
and  food  input  are  discussed  in  detail,  both  in  general 
terms,  and  by  reference  to  data  collected  in  the  eastern 
counties  in  the  operation  of  the  Cambridge  Food  Record- 
ing Scheme  for  Dairy  Cows  during  the  three -year  period 
1S34/35  -  1936/37.  Includes  a  section  on  money  costs. 

993.  PIERCE,  C.  W.  Fluid  milk  vs.  canned  milk. 
Milk  Dealer  29(10):  35,  63-64.     July  1940.     44.8  M595 

PreMminary  results  of  a  study  on  consumer  preference 
in  the  use  of  evaporated  and  fresh  milk  made  in  the 
spring  of  1939  at  Johnstown,  Pa. 

y94.  F1NCUS,  S.,  and  ABRAHAM,  S.     Practical  value 
of  deck  inspection  as  compared  with  farm  inspection. 
M.  Y.  State  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk  Insp.  Ann.  Rpt. 
(1939)  13:  137-149.     1940.     44.9  N4833. 

The  results  of  a  program  of  deck  control,  put  into  ef- 
fect in  1936  in  the  New  York  City  milk  shed,  are  sum- 
marized.   The  author  finds  that  deck  inspection  is  an  in- 
expensive and  rapid  method  of  efficient  sanitary  control 
in  comparison  with  dairy  farm  inspection.    It  is  admitted 
that  some  milk  may  be  rejected  by  the  deck  tests  which 
does  not  contain  an  excessive  bacteria  count  and  also 
milk  with  high  counts  may  be  passed.    Some  of  the  re- 
jections are  based  on  objectionable  odors  and  the  pre- 
sence of  foreign  materials  not  necessarily  associated 
with  high  bacteria  counts.    For  these  reasons  a  more 


60 


uniform  and  less  fallible  procedure  of  deck  examination 
by  plant  and  regulatory  employees  is  desirable 

Discussion,  p.  149-152. 

995.  POLLARD,  A.  J.     Duplication  in  delivery  of  milk 
to  stores  in  New  York  City.     N.  Y.  Col.  Agr.  Farm  Econ. 
116:  2863-2865.     Jan.  1940.     280.8  C812 

Obtained  in  a  survey  of  retail  food  stores  in  New  York 
City  in  June,  1938,  data  indicate  an  average  number  of 
delivery  stops  per  store  of  2.3.    The  independent  stores 
tended  to  buy  from  more  dealers  than  did  the  stores  of 
other  kinds,  especially  in  low-income  sections  of  the 
city.   Duplication  in  delivery  to  independent  stores  was 
greater  in  the  Bronx  than  in  the  other  boroughs. 

9S6.  REED,  O.  E.     Efficiency  in  milk  production.   In 
Brown,  E.  F.,  comp.     Milk  Papers  8(239),  15  p.     Mar.- 
Sept.  1940.  '  281.344  B81 

Finds  that  the  two  essentials  for  efficient  and  profitable 
dairying  are  cheap  feeds  and  good  cows.    More  attention 
should  be  given  to  the  use  of  pasture  and  other  home- 
grown roughage,  and  a  breeding  program  followed  that 
will  eliminate  the  hereditary  factors  causing  low  produc- 
tion.   Discusses  in  part  new  uses  of  skim  milk  and  whey. 

997.  REED,  O.  E.  Improving  dairy  herds  to  lower  the 
cost  of  milk  production.  Internatl.  Assoc.  Milk  Dealers 
Assoc.  B.  6:  159-164.     Dec.  17,  1940.     44.9  In8A 

Shows  how  costs  can  be  reduced  by  using  high-producing 
cows  and  discusses  the  proved -sire  system  of  breeding 
in  this  connection. 

99S.  FEED,  O.  M.     Experiences  in  coordinating  Federal 
and  State  milk  control  activities.    In  Northeastern  Dairy 
Conference.    Stenographic  Proceedings.. .Providence,  R. 
I.,  Mar.  7-8,  1940.     p.  112-123.     New  York,  Consoli- 
dated Rptg.  Co.  1940?     44.9  N818 

Evaluates  the  legal  status  of  the  Federal  program  and 
discusses  price  levels  with  stress  on  uniformity  in  milk 
market  regulation. 

999.  REYNOLDS,  H.  C.     An  analysis  of  milk  classifica- 
tion.   Rural  New  Yorker  99:  20.     Jan.  13,  1940.     6  R88 

Shows  manipulations  under  Pennsylvania  price  orders 
to  increase  dealer  profits. 

1000.  ROCHESTER,  A.  Why  farmers  are  poor;  the  agri- 
cultural crisis  in  the  United  States.  New  York,  Internatl. 
Publishers,  1940.     317  p.     Ref.     280.12  R58 

In  the  section  on  milk,  p.  231-243,  prices,  consumption, 
supply  and  demand  are  discussed  and  it  is  stated  that  the 
drive  by  dairy  corporations  for  profits  at  the  expense  of 
the  farmer  and  consumer  is  a  basic  source  of  difficulty 
to  dairy  farmers,  and  that  the  farmers'  position  is  weak- 
ened by  lack  of  balance  between  supply  and  effective  de- 
mand 

1001.  RUEHE,  H.  A.  The  trade  barrier  problem.  In 
111.  U.  Dept.  of  Dairy  Husb.  Mater.  Presented  at  Dairy 
Mfgrs.  Short  Course  1940:  119-126.     44.9  IL63M 

Defines  an  economic  trade  barrier  and  points  out  that 
activities  of  labor  unions  and  producer  groups,  in 
some  instances,  react  as  trade  barriers  in  the  dairy 
industry.    Barriers  incident  to  the  Agricultural  Mar- 
keting Act  of  1937  are  considered  as  well  as  those 
arising  from  misuse  of  sanitary  regulations  and  con- 
flicting city  inspections. 

1002.  SANBORN,  J.  R.     Microbiological  content  of  paper- 
board  used  in  the  packaging  of  foods.     Amer.  J.  Pub. 
Health  30:  247-255.     Mar.  1940.     449.9  Am3J 

Only  very  few  counts  in  excess  of  500  per  gm.  of  disin- 
tegrated paperboard  were  found  in  2,877  analyses  of  milk 
container  board  from  13  different  mills.    A  standard  of 
less  than  500  colonies  per  gm.  has  been  tentatively  sug- 

fested 
003.  SCHUBRING,  W.     General  review  of  the  production 
and  international  trade  of  preserved  milk.     Internatl. 
Inst.  Agr.  31:  424S-432S.     June  1940.     241  In82A 

Gives  statistics  of  production  of  condensed,  dried,  and 
sterilized  milk  and  exports  and  imports  of  condensed  and 
dried  milk,  by  country,  1932-38. 


1004.  SELBY,  H.  W.     Dairy  products.     Natl.  Assoc. 
Mktg.  Off.  Proc.  22:  21-24.     1940.     280.39  N213P 

Address  before  the  22nd.  annual  meeting,  Oct.  1940, 
Boston,  Mass.,  evaluating  current  milk  distribution  and 
price  control  practices,  and  offering  recommendations 
for  improvement. 

1005.  SELBY,  H.  W.     Should  a  milk  control  program  in- 
clude resale  prices?    In_  Northeastern  Dairy  Confer- 
ence. Stenographic  Proceedings. ..Providence,  R.  I.,  Mar. 
7-8,  1940.     p.  6-12.     New  York,  The  Consolidated  Rptg. 
Co.  1940?     44.9  N818 

Discussion  by  L.  Spencer,  p.  12-16. 
Favors  the  fixing  of  resale  prices  when  it  becomes 
necessary  to  support  a  proper  return  to  producers. 

1006.  SHARP,  P.  F.     New  developments  in  dairy  science 
and  their  applications.     Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept. 
Anim.  and  Dairy  Husb.    Papers  Presented  at  Short  Course 
Conf.  for  Dairy  Plant  Oper.  and  Milk.  Distrib.  19:  15-19. 
1940.     44.9  V593 

Includes  information  on  the  utilization  of  milk  in  larger 
containers  and  held  for  additional  periods  of  time,  frozen 
cream,  evaporated  milk,  dried  whey,  cheese,  butter,  lac- 
tose, and  casein. 

1007.  SHULTIS,  A.     Dairy  management  in  California. 
Calif.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  640,  94  p.     Aug.  1940. 

100  C12S 

Describes  the  four  main  dairy  districts  in  the  state, 
and  presents  information  on  dairy  enterprise  management 
relating  to  production  per  cow,  price  per  pound  of  milk 
fat,  net  stock  income  per  cow,  total  expense  per  cow, 
effect  of  size  of  herd  on  expense  and  net  income  per  cow, 
effect  of  feeding  on  expense  per  cow,  labor,  facility  and 
miscellaneous  costs,  with  standard  of  costs  for  market 
and  manufacturing  milk  in  the  San  Joaquin  Valley  and 
Sonoma  and  Marin  counties. 

1008.  SHURTS,  T.  M.     The  gallon  jug.    In,  111.  U.  Dept.  of 
Dairy  Husb.  Mater.  Presented  at  the  Dairy  Mfgr.  Short 
Course  1940:  50-52.     44.9  I163M 

Advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the  gallon  jug  as  shown 
by  experiences  of  the  Champaign-Urbana  Dairy,  are  no- 
ted. 

1009.  SNOW,  C.  H.  Is  there  a  place  for  substandard 
products  in  the  ice  cream  industry?  Ice  Cream  Rev. 
24(5):  74-75.     Dec.  1940.     389.8  Ic22 

Substandard  or  inferior  commodities  should  not  be  sub- 
stituted for  the  genuine,  but  there  are  places  for  addi- 
tional standards  for  special  products  that  fill  a  real  need 
which  is  beneficial  to  the  industry. 

1010.  SONLEY,  L.  T.     Cost  of  transporting  milk  and 
cream  to  Boston.     Vt.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  462,  56  p.     July 
1940.     100  V59 

Outlines  the  development  of  transportation  facilities  and 
tariff  structures  in  the  Boston  milk  and  cream  sheds, 
describes  the  present  rates  and  methods  of  shipment, 
determines  the  approximate  cost  of  the  services  and  op- 
erations associated  with  transport  which  are  included 
under  rates  only  in  certain  cases,  compares  alternative 
methods  as  to  total  cost.     Pages  3-5  deal  with  transpor- 
tation as  an  element  in  marketing  costs;  table  1  with  the 
relation  of  transportation  rates  to  fluid  milk  and  cream 
prices  in  two  zones,  August  through  December,  1939. 

1011.  SPENCER,  L.     Consumption  and  prices  of  canned 
milk  as  related  to  the  demand  for  fresh  milk.     N.  Y. 
Agr.  Col.  A.  E.  303.     25  p.,  Mav  1940 

281.9  C81  y 

Also  In.  Brown,  E.  F.,  comp.  Milk  Papers  8(213),  25  p. 
Mar. -Sept.  1940.     281.344  B81 

Reports  a  steady  upward  trend  in  per  capita  consump- 
tion of  canned  milk  in  the  United  States,  due  mainly  to 
the  fact  that  it  has  become  much  cheaper  than  fresh  milk. 

1012.  SPENCER,  L.     A  discussion  of  proposals  for  ad- 
justing or  controlling  the  milk  supply  with  particular 
reference  to  the  New  York  market.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col.  A.  E. 
316,  22  p.     1940.     281.9  C81 

Also  in  Brown,  E.  F.,  comp.     Milk  Papers  8,  (228). 
Mar. -Sept.  1940.     281.344  B81 

Considers  the  milk  supply  and  price  situation,  and  dif- 
ferent types  of  control  measures. 


61 


1013.  SPENCER,  L.,  and  KLING,  H.  The  distribution  of 
milk  by  sub-dealers  in  New  York  City.  N.  Y.  Agr.  Col. 
A.  E.  320,  10  p.     May  1940.     281.9  C81 

Sub-dealers,  or  peddlers,  handle  approximately  4  per- 
cent of  all  milk  sold  in  New  York  City,  or  nearly  10  per- 
cent of  the  milk  delivered  to  the  doorstep.    They  have 
established  their  businesses  mainly  in  medium-income 
areas  with  relatively  few  stores.    Four -fifths  of  them  are 
located  in  Brooklyn  and  Queens.    The  daily  average  of 
sales  of  milk,  mostly  Grade  B,  sold  to  family  trade,  is 
227  quarts  per  sub-dealer. 

1014.  SPENCER,  L.     Health  regulations  and  the  milk 
supply.     Amer.  Agr.  137(2):  19.     Jan.  20,  1940.     6  Am3 

A  plan  to  reduce  the  milk  supply  for  the  New  York  mar- 
ket by  withdrawing  inspection  from  certain  plants,  there- 
by cutting  off  some  of  the  dairies. 

1015.  SPENCER,  L.     Milk  production  control.     N.  Y.  Agr. 
Col.  A.  E.  304,  18  p.     Feb.  1940.     281.9  C81 

Includes  material  on  the  milk  supply  and  price  situation, 
New  York  State,  and  on  prices  under  the  Monthly  Quota 
Plan  and  the  Basic-Surplus  Plan. 

1016.  SFENCER,  L.     The  price  differential  for  direct  de- 
livery of  milk  to  the  Buffalo  market.     N.  Y.  Agr.  Col. 
Dept.  Agr.  Econ.  and  Farm  Mangt.  A.  E.  333,  26  p.     Dec. 
1940.     281.9  C81 

Deals  with  price  regulation  under  Order  No.  127,  effec- 
tive Oct.  1938,  issued  by  the  Commissioner  of  Agriculture 
and  Markets,  N.  Y.  State,  and  with  sanitation  regulations 
of  the  Buffalo  Health  Dept. 

1017.  STRAND,  E.  G.,  and  HOLE,  E.     Production  re- 
sponses of  dairy  farmers  in  east-central  Minnesota. 

U.  S.  Bur.  Agr.  Econ.  Farm  Mangt.  Rpt.  6,  71  p.     1940. 
1.941  L6F22 

Minnesota  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  cooperating. 

Includes  material  on  butterfat  price  trends,  1921-1937. 

1018.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
Paper  no.  1-14  series  on  State  milk  control  acts.     Wash- 
ington, 1936-40.     14  v.     1.94  D14Ps 

Discusses  the  type  of  regulations  issued  under  these 
acts  and  legal  developments  in  connection  with  their  en- 
forcement.    One  paper  is  devoted  to  each  of  the  following 
states:  Indiana,  Alabama,  Connecticut,  New  Jersey,  Vir- 
ginia, New  York,  Pennsylvania,  Rhode  Island,  Vermont, 
Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  Wisconsin,  and  Oregon. 

1019.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  ADJUSTMENT  ADMIN. 
Statement  concerning  [various  milk  markets  and  the  pro- 
posed marketing  agreements  for  them].     Washington, 
1938-40.     14  v.     1.94  D14Sta 

Contents:  Calumet,  Indiana-Illinoisy  market,  by  E.  S. 
Harris  and  P.  L.  Miller;  Chicago  market,  by  L.  K. 
Wallace  and  P.  L.  Miller;  Dubuque,  Iowa,  market,  by  E.  S. 
Harris  and  J.  R.  Hanson;  Louisville  market,  by  R.  C. 
Tetro  and  P.  L.  Miller;  Lowell-Lawrence  market,  by 
P.  L.  Miller  and  R.  H.  Farr;  New  Orleans  market,  by 
R.  C.  Tetro  and  P.  L.  Miller;  New  York  metropolitan  mar- 
ket; Omaha-Council  Bluffs  market,  by  P.  L.  Miller  and 
E.  S.  Harris;  Providence,  Rhode  IslancLmarket,  by  C.  W 
Smith,  P.  L.  Miller  and  H.  L.  Forest;  Quad  Cities  market, 
by  E.  S.  Harris,  C.  W.  Smith  and  P.  L.  Miller;  St.  Louis 
market,  by  P.  L.  Miller  and  R.  H.  Farr;  Shreveport, 
Louisiana  market,  by  R.  H.  Farr,  J.  R.  Hanson  and  P.  L. 
Miller;  Sioux  City  market,  by  E.  S.  Harris  and  J.  R. 
Hanson;  Toledo  market;  Washington,  D.  C.  market,  by 
R.  C.  Tetro  and  P.  L.  Miller. 

Bound  with  the  statement  concerning  the  Omaha-Council 
Bluffs  market  is  U.  S.  Agricultural  Adjustment  Admin. 
The  audit  of  handlers'  records  in  connection  with  Federal 
regulation  of  milk  marketing,  by  E.  S.  Harris  and  O.  M. 
Reed.    Washington,  Dec.  1937.     17  p. 

For  each  market  information  is  given  on  economic  con- 
ditions of  producers  supplying  the  market,  the  nature  of 
the  market,  organization,  milk  classification,  price  levels, 
supply  and  demand  and  other  provisions  of  the  agreement. 


1020.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  MARKETING  SERV.     Hand- 
book of  official  United  States  standards  for  quality  of 
creamery  butter;  effective  Apr.  1,  1939.      Washington, 
1940.     29  p.     1  M341H 

"Explanation  of  United  States  Standards  for  Quality  of 
Creamery  Butter,"  p.  11-29,  includes  material  on  new 
features  embodied  in  revised  standards;  the  factor  of  fla- 
vor; classification  of  flavors  according  to  origin;  flavors 
and  conditions  in  butter  that  cause  it  to  be  classified  as 
"no  grade";  factor  of  body,  color  and  salt  in  butter;  rat- 
ings of  defects  in  body,  color,  and  salt;  tolerances  for  de- 
fects in  body,  color,  and  salt  permitted  in  butter  of  cer- 
tain flavor  ratings;  and  container,  finish,  and  appearance. 

1021.  U.  S.  AGRICULTURAL  MARKETING  SERV.     Pro- 
duction of  manufactured  dairy  products,  1938,  and  mis- 
cellaneous dairy  statistics,  1939.     Washington,  1940. 

82  p.     1.9  Ec724D 

Basically  a  statistical  report.    The  discussion  considers 
whole  milk  products,  skimmed  milk  products,  American 
cheese  production,  casein  production  and  prices,  and  the 
disposition  and  value  of  milk  produced,  for  1938;  and, 
separately,  milk  production  and  prices  received  for  dairy 
products  in  1939. 

1022.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  AGRICULTURAL  ECONOMICS.     A 
special  report  to  the  Agricultural  advisory  council  on 
price  spreads  between  farmers  and  consumers.     Wash- 
ington, 1940.     24  p.     1.941  F3Sp31 

Presents  data  on  farm  and  retail  prices  and  price  mar- 
gins between  the  farmer  and  the  consumer  for  a  selected 
group  of  foods,  including  dairy  products. 

1023.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  DAIRY  INDUSTRY.  Condensed  and 
evaporated  milk.  Washington,  1940.  8  p.  (BDIM-548) 
1.9  D142Co 

Includes  figures  for  costs,  prices,  and  production,  and 
outlines  prerequisites  to  establishing  a  condensery 

1024.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  DAIRY  INDUSTRY.     New  evaporated 
milk  and  sweetened  condensed  milk  standards.     Supple- 
ment to  "Condensed  and  evaporated  milk,"  Washington, 
1940.     2  p.     (BDIM-548)     1.9  D142Co  Suppl. 

Relates  chiefly  to  the  identity  of  these  products,  and  for 
evaporated  milk  the  label  statement  of  optional  ingredi- 
ents. 

1025.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  DAIRY  INDUSTRY.     Report  of  the 
chief.     Washington,  1936-1940.     5  v.     1  D14 

Includes  an  account  of  the  work  for  each  year  on  produc- 
tion, utilization,  sanitation  and  quality  of  dairy  products. 

1026.  U.  S.  BUR.  OF  DAIRY  INDUSTRY.     A  summary  and 
analysis  of  the  business  on  23  dairy  farms  in  West  Vir- 
ginia, including  the  cost  of  producing  milk,   i  U.  S.  Bur. 
Dairy  Indus.  BDIM  903,  28  p.     1940?     1.9  B14Bd 

Issued  in  cooperation  with  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Agricul- 
tural Economics  and  the  College  of  Agriculture  of  West 
Virginia  University. 

Net  costs  of  producing  milk  varied  widely  between  farms 
in  the  wholesale  and  retail  groups.    Average  net  cost  on 
wholesale  farms  was  $1.35  per  100  lbs.  of  4  percent  fat- 
corrected  milk  and  on  the  seven  farms  that  bottled  and 
sold  milk  at  retail  the  net  cost  (not  including  cost  of  bot- 
tling and  delivering)  was  $1.89.    11  pages  of  tables  are 
appended. 

1027.  U.  S.  CONGRESS.  HOUSE.  COMMITTEE  ON  AGRI- 
CULTURE.    Dairy  products  stabilization.  Hearing,  76th 
Cong.,  3d  sess.,  on  H.  R.  6500  and  H.  R.  6530.     Washing- 
ton, 1940.     50  p.     280.344  Un323 

Proposed  legislation  would  extend  principles  of  the  Soil 
Conservation  and  Domestic  Allotment  Act,  and  the  Agri- 
cultural Adjustment  Act  of  1938,  to  the  dairy  industry, 
assist  in  the  marketing  of  dairy  products  for  domestic 
consumption  and  export,  and  assist  dairymen  to  obtain, 
insofar  as  possible,  parity  prices  for  milk  and  its  prod- 
ucts and  parity  of  income. 


62 


1028.  U.  S.  CONGRESS.  SENATE.  COMMITTEE  ON  AGRI- 
CULTURE AND  FORESTRY.     Promotion  of  sound  dairy 
practices.  Hearings,  76th  Cong.  3d  sess.,  on  S.  2835, 
Mar.  20-22,  1940.     Washington,  1940.     97  p. 

281.344  Un3 

Testimony  on  a  bill  to  extend  the  provisions  of  the  Soil 
Conservation  and  Domestic  Allotment  Act  and  the  Agri- 
cultural Adjustment  Act  to  milk  and  its  products. 

1029.  U.  S.  MARKETING  LAWS  SURVEY.     A  digest  of 
State  laws  relating  to  the  problem  of  interstate  trade 
barriers  for  States  whose  legislatures  convene  in  1940. 
Prepared...  at  the  request  of  the  United  States  Department 
of  Commerce  and  the  Inter-departmental  Committee  on 
Interstate  Trade  Barriers.     Washington,  1940.     1  v. 
173.2  W89Dis 

A  series  of  32  charts,  covering  the  states  of  Kentucky, 
Louisiana,  Mississippi,  Nebraska,  New  Jersey,  New  York, 
Rhode  Island,  South  Carolina,  and  Virginia,  presenting  a 
digest  of  marketing  legislation  in  certain  categories. 
Milk  and  dairy  is  one  of  the  categories  included. 

1030.  U.  S.  MARKETING  LAWS  SURVEY.     State  price 
control  legislation.     Washington,  1940.     558  p.     (Its  P.  2) 
173.2  W89Map 

Includes  statutes  affecting  marketing  of  milk  and  milk 
products,  and  digest  of  pertinent  court  decisions. 

1031.  U.  S.  NATIONAL  BUR.  OF  STANDARDS.  Ice- 
cream-brick molds  and  cartons.  Simplified  practice 
recommendation  R120-40,  13  p.     1940.     157.88  Si5 

1032.  U.  S.  PUBLIC  HEALTH  SERVICE.     Milk  ordinance 
and  code,  1939,     U.  S.  Pub.  Health  Serv.  B.  220,  160  p. 
1940.     151.66  B87 

Recommended  for  adoption  by  States  and  communities 
in  order  to  encourage  a  greater  uniformity  of  milk  con- 
trol practice  in  the  United  States,  the  ordinance  regulates 
the  production,  transportation,  processing,  handling, 
sampling,  examination,  grading,  labeling,  regrading,  and 
sale  of  milk  and  milk  products;  the  inspection  of  dairy 
herds,  dairies,  and  milk  plants;  the  issuing  and  revoca- 
tion of  permits  to  milk  producers  and  distributors;  the 
placarding  of  restaurants  and  other  establishments  serv- 
ing milk  or  milk  products;  and  the  fixing  of  penalties. 
The  code  is  to  be  used  as  the  legal  interpretation  of  the 
ordinance. 

1033.  U.  S.  TARIFF  COMMISSION.  Dairy  products  and 
reciprocal  trade  agreements.  Washington,  1940.  22  p. 
173  T17Dai 

Summary  for  the  dairy  industry  of  the  principal  tariff 
concessions  granted  by  the  United  States  and  the  conces- 
sions obtained  from  foreign  countries  on  United  States 
exports  of  dairy  products.    Statistics  are  given  for  repre- 
sentative years  since  1929  of  production,  exports,  and 
imports  of  all  products  and  of  individual  major  products 
with  concession  and  non-concession  items  distinguished. 

1034.  VAN  ARSDEL,  W.  B.     The  industrial  market  for 
farm  products.     U.  S.  D.  A.  Ybk.  1940:  606-626.     1  Ag84y 

Outlines  some  uses  of  casein,  p.  613-614,  and  refers  to 
the  product  as  a  plastics  material,  p.  615. 

1035.  VARIOUS  plans  being  tried  tor  increasing  milk 
sales  by  quantity  discounts.     Milk  Plant  Monthly  29(1): 
24-31.     Feb.  1940.     44.8  C864 

Plans  suggested  include  the  use  of  two-quart  and  one- 
gallon  bottles,  multiple  quart  bottle  deliveries,  consoli- 
dated or  cooperative  deliveries,  six-day  deliveries,  and 
voluntary  reduction  of  route  men's  wages. 

1036.  VARNEY,  H.  R.     The  future  of  dairying  in  New  Eng- 
land.    Vt.  U.  and  State  Agr.  Col.  Dept.  Anim.  and  Dairy 
Husb-  Papers  Presented  at  Short  Course  Conf.  for  Dairy 
Plant  Oper.  and  Milk  Distrib.  19:  66-71.     1940. 

44.9  V593 

Discusses  milk  supply  and  demand,  competition  from 
other  areas,  and  price  and  production  control. 

1037.  VIAL,  E.  E.     Ice  cream  consumption  and  consumer 
purchasing  power.     Ice  Cream  Rev.  24(2):  18-19,  68-69. 
Sept.  1940.     389.8  Ic22 

Weather  and  purchasing  power  are  important  factors  af- 
fecting consumption  of  ice  cream. 


1038.  VIAL,  E.  E.  Production  and  consumption  of  manu- 
factured dairy  products.  U.  S.  D.  A.  Tech.  B.  722,  76  p. 
Apr.  1940.     1  Ag84Te 

Shows  changes  in  production  and  consumption,  and  rela- 
tionships between  production,  foreign  trade,  and  consump- 
tion of  the  individual  products,  as  well  as  all  combined. 
Products  considered  are  butter,  cheese,  concentrated 
milks,  ice  cream,  malted  milk,  dried  or  powdered  whole 
milk  and  cream,  and  skim  milk  and  buttermilk.   Uses  for 
skim  milk  are  discussed. 

1039.  WALWORTH,  G.-   Feeding  the  nation  in  peace  and 
war.     London,  Allen  6  Unwin,  1940.     548  p.     280.3  W17F 

Various  marketing  experiments  in  Great  Britain,  includ- 
ing the  Milk  Marketing  Schemes  are  surveyed  and  facts 
arising  from  a  study  of  the  Milk  Board's  activities  are 
presented.   Concludes,  in  the  case  of  milk,  that  the 
schemes  have  not  been  satisfactory  and  that  the  whole  in- 
dustry needs  reorganization. 

1040.  WALWORTH,  G.     Hopeless  milk  position:  new  con- 
tract muddles.     Co-op  Rev.  14:  130-132.     Apr.  1940. 
280.28  C7823. 

A  milk  contract  prescribed  by  the  Milk  Marketing  Board, 
dating  from  Apr.  1,  1940  until  Sept.  30,  1940  and  permit- 
ting of  extension,  is  criticized  chiefly  on  the  score  of  in- 
adequacy in  providing  subsidies  to  producers  from  a  cen- 
tral pool.  Another  difficulty  is  seen  in  the  fact  that  the 
Milk  Board  will  continue  to  function  on  behalf  of  the  pro- 
ducers, but  the  Ministry  of  Food  has  the  responsibility  of 
fixing  prices  of  milk  and,  if  necessary,  deciding  the  pur- 
poses for  which  the  milk  is  used. 

1041.  WARNER,  G.     Controlling  weights  and  measures  of 
packaged  dairy  products.     Wis.  U.  Dept.  Dairy  Indus. 
Dairy  Mfrs.  Conf.  Papers  1940:  8-14.     44.9  W757 

Reviews  laws  and  regulations  on  the  subject,  with  partic- 
ular application  to  Wisconsin. 

1042.  WATSON,  A.  E.,  and  RAUCHENSTEIN,  E.     The  or- 
ganization and  management  of  95  dairy  and  cash  crop 
farms  in  Androscoggin  and  Oxford  counties,  Maine. 
Maine  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  B.  398,  72  p.     Feb.  1940. 

100  M28S 

The  period  covered  is  from  May  1,  1936  to  Apr.  30, 
1937.    Includes  milk  production  costs,  use  of  the  milk 
produced,  and  relation  between  seasonal  variation  of  cows 
freshening,  milk  sales,  and  wholesale  composite  milk 
prices. 

1043.  WATSON,  J.  F.     Container  competition.     In  North- 
eastern Dairy  Conf.  Stenographic  Proc...  Providence, 

R.  I.,  Mar.  7-8,  1940,  p.  91-98.  New  York,  Consolidated 
Rptg.  Co.,  1940?     44.9  N818 

Shows  developments  in  the  construction  and  use  of  glass 
and  paper  milk  containers,  and  compares  container  costs. 

1044.  WERNE,  B.     Statutes  and  decisions  regulating  price 
in  the  New  York  milk  shed.     New  York,  New  York  U. 
School  of  Law,  1940.     94  p.     (Contemporary  Law  Pam. 
Ser.  1,  No.  29.)     284.344  W49 

The  Federal  and  State  decisions  involve  such  considera- 
tions as  constitutionality,  power  to  limit  prices,  reason- 
able return,  and  determination  of  price  fixing.    Includes 
annotations  on  the  Agricultural  Adjustment  Act,  and  Con- 
necticut,.Massachusetts,  New  Jersey,  New  York,  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  Vermont  statutes. 

1045.  WHITE,  W.,  and  others.     Correlation  between 
grades  on  scores  and  grades  on  criticisms  in  the  judging 
of  dairy  products.     J.  Dairy  Sci.  23:  1-12.     Jan.  1940. 
44.8  J822 

P.  A.  Downs,  M.  J.  Mack,  E.  L.  Fouts,  and  G.  M.  Trout, 
joint  authors. 

Results  of  study  of  grades  on  scores  and  on  criticisms 
of  483  contestant-sample  judgments  each  of  butter,  cheese, 
milk  and  ice  cream. 

1046.  WHITMORE,  B.  F.     What  should  we  tell  the  con- 
sumer?    Ice  Cream  Trade  J.  36(2):  10-11,  64.     Feb. 
1940.     389.8  Ic2 

The  author  finds  that  the  ice  cream  industry  lacks  con- 
sumer confidence  and  can  gain  it  only  by  the  quality  of 
the  product  and  by  more  constructive  advertising. 


63 


1047.  WILCOX,  R.  H.     Cost  of  producing  milk  in  the  Chi- 
cago and  St.  Louis  milksheds.     111.  Farm  Econ.  61:  363- 
365.     June,  1940.     275.28  115 

Shows  relation  of  milk  production  per  cow  to  costs  and 
profits,  feed  and  labor  the  largest  items  of  cost,  and  wide 
variations  in  cost  from  farm  to  farm. 

1048.  WILSON,  H.  L.     Packaging  sliced  Cheddar  and 
Swiss  cheese  in  cans  for  sandwich  dispensers.     U.  S.  D. 
A.  Misc.  P.  386,  8  p.     June  1940.     1  Ag84M 

Adaptation  of  the  cheese-canning  process  to  these  two 
cheeses.    Only  good  quality  Swiss  cheese  should  be  used. 
Method  of  cutting  and  slicing,  approximate  cost  of  canning, 
and  advantages  of  canned  cheese. 

1049.  WILSON,  J.  L.     Problems  in  adopting  the  milk  cow. 
U.  S.  Agr.  Mktg.  Serv.  Mktg.Activ.  2(5):  11-21.     May 
1940.     1.942  A8M34 

Also  in  Milk  Dealer  29(11):  42,  44,  46,  48,  50,  52,  54, 
58.     Aug.  1940.     44.8  M595 

Deals  in  part  with  consumer  preference  in  the  matter  of 
evaporated  and  fresh  milk,  and  with  utilization  of  milk, 
skim  milk  and  buttermilk,  as  the  case  may  be,  for  butter, 
cheese,  ice  cream,  concentrated  milk  products,  bakery 
products,  animal  food,  casein,  paper  sizing,  buttons, 
fountain  pens,  paints,  glue,  and  artificial  fibers. 


1050.  WILSTER,  G.  H.,  and  CARPENTER,  P.  Marketing 
Oregon  butter  and  cheese.  Oreg.  State  Col.  Ext.  B.  541, 
56  p.     May  1940.     275.29  Or32B 

Information  on  the  status  of  the  industry,  quality  im- 
provement programs  including  grading  and  standardiza- 
tion, and  activities  of  dairy  organizations  in  the  State. 

1051.  WISE,  W.  S.  Pennsylvania's  milk  marketing  prob- 
lem.    Pa.  Farmer  122(9):  6-7,  22,  30.     May  4,  1940. 

6  P3«3 

Discusses  the  Pennsylvania  Milk  Control  Law  and  offers 
suggestions  for  future  legislation  to  revise  it. 

1052.  WOLD,  H.     Efterfragan  pa  jordbruksprodukter  och 
dess  k'anslighet  for  pris-  och  inkomstfbr'andringar. 
Stockholm,  1940.     144  p.     281.173  W83 

Effect  of  prices  on  consumer  demand  for  agricultural 
products;  including  milk,  butter  and  margarine. 
1053    YALE,  M.  W.     Italian  cheese  industry  growing  in 
New  York  State.     N.  Y.  (Cornell)  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Farm 
Res.  6(2):  7.     Apr.  1,  1940.     100  N48A 

Production  has  increased  nearly  100  percent  in  the  past 
5  years  and  represents  nearly  one -third  of  Italian-type 
cheese  made  in  the  United  States. 


OFFICIAL    SOURCES    OF   STATISTICS 


AUSTRALIA.  BUR.  OF  CENSUS  AND  STATISTICS. 
Official  year  book  of  the  commonwealth  of  Australia, 
no.  29-31,  1936-38.     3  v.     Canberra,  1936-39. 
271  Au72C 

BELGIUM.  OFFICE  CENTRAL  DE  STATISTIQUE. 
Annuaire  statistique  de  la  Belgique  et  du  congo  Beige,  v. 
58-62,  1936-1940.     Bruxelles,  1936-40.     5  v.     258  B41A 

CANADA.  DOMINION  BUREAU  OF  STATISTICS. 
The  Canada  yearbook,  1936-1940.     Ottawa,  1936-40. 
5  v.     253  Ag8yc 

DENMARK.  STATISTISKE  DEPARTEMENT. 
Statistisk  aarbog,  1936-1940.     Copenhagen,  1936-40. 
5  v.     257.1  St2 

ESTONIA.  BUREAU  CENTRAL  DE  STATISTIQUE. 
Annuaire  de  la  statistique,  v.  15-16,  1936-1937. 
Tallinn,  1937-38.     2  v.     267  Es83 

FINLAND.  BUREAU  CENTRAL  DE  STATISTIQUE. 
Annuaire  statistique,  (N.  S.)  v.  34-36,  1936-38.     Helsinki, 
1936-38.     3  v.     267.5  St2S 

FRANCE.  DIRECTION  de  L'AGRICULTURE. 
OFFICE  DE  RENSEIGNEMENTS  AGRICOLES.     Sta- 
tistique agricole  annuelle,  1936-1938.     Paris.  1937-39. 
3  v.     260  Ag8Ag 

GERMANY.  STATISTISCHE3  REICHSAMT. 
Statistisches  jahrbuch  fur  das  Deutsche  Reich,  v. 55-57, 
1936-1938.     Berlin,  1936-38.     3  v.     265  St2St 

GT.  BRIT.  MINISTRY  OF  AGRICULTURE  AND 
FISHERIES.     Agricultural  statistics,  1936  pt.  1-2; 
1937-1938  pt.  1.     London,  1937-40.     4  v. 
256.01  Ag82Ag 

IRELAND  (EIRE).  DEPT.  OF  INDUSTRY  AND  COM- 
MERCE.    Statistical  abstract,  1936-1940.     Dublin, 
1936-40.     5  v.     256.12  In2S 

ITALY.  ISTITUTO  CENTRALE  DI  STATISTICA. 
Annuario  statistico  dell'agricoltura  italiana,  vol.  1,  1936- 
1938.     Rome,  1940.     529  p.     261  Is7An 

LATVIA.  BUREAU  DE  STATISTIQUE  DE  L'ETAT. 
Etat  de  l'agriculture  en  Lettonie,  v.  11-13,  1936-1938. 
Riga,  1937-1939.     3  v.     267  L354E 


LITHUANIA.  CENTRALINIS  STATISTIKOS  BIURAS. 
Annuaire  statistique,  v.  10-12,  1937-1939.  Kaunas,  1938- 
40.     3  v.     267  L71L 

LUXEMBOURG.  OFFICE  DE  STATISTIQUE. 
Apercu  statistique.     Annexe  a  l'Annuaire  official,  1936- 
1939.     Luxembourg,  1936-39.     4  v.     258  L97A 

NETHERLANDS.  CENTRAAL  BUREAU  VOOR  DE- 
STATISTISK     Jaarcijfers  voor  Nederland,  1936-1939. 
'S-Gravenhage,  1937-40.     4  v.     259  N38 

NETHERLANDS.  DIRECTIE  VAN  DEN  LANDBOUW. 
Verslag  over  den  landbouw  in  Nederland,  1936-1938. 
'S-Gravenhage,  1937-39.     3  v.     12  N38 

NEW  ZEALAND.  CENSUS  AND  STATISTICS  DEPT. 
The  New  Zealand  official  year-book,  1936-1940.     5  v. 
Wellington,  1936-40.     271.2  R26N 

NORWAY.  STATISTISKE  CENTRALBUREAU. 
Jordbruksstatistikk  (Landbruksareal  og  husdyrhold  M.  V.) 
1936-1938.     Oslo,  1936-39.     3  v.     257.2  St2La 

NORWAY.  STATISTISKE  CENTRALBUREAU. 
Statistisk  arbok  for  Norge,  1936-1940.     Oslo,  1936-40. 
5  v.     257.2  St2S 

PORTUGAL.  INSTITUTO  NACIONAL  DE  ESTA- 
TISTICA.     Anuario  estatistico,  1936-1938.     Lisbon. 
1937-40.     4  v.     264  F49A 

SCOTLAND.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.     Agri- 
cultural   statistics,  v.  25-27,  1936-1938,  Edinburgh, 
1938-40.     3  v.     256.01  Sco82A  -„ 

SWEDEN.  STATISTISKA  CENTRALBYRAN. 
Statistisk  arsbok  for  Sverige,  1936-1940.     Stockholm, 
1936-40.     5  v.     257.3  St2Nc 

SWITZERLAND.  STATISTISCHES  BUREAU. 
Statistisches  jahrbuch  der  Schweiz.     1936-1939. 
Berne  1937-40.     4  v.     262  St2S 

U.  S.  DEPT.  OF  AGRICULTURE.     Agricultural 
statistics,  1936-1940.     Washington,  1936-40.     5  v. 
1  Ag84Yas 


INDEX 


Item 

Item 

Item 

Item 

Abbott  F  H 

r 

Bennett  K  R 

~BM 

Butter—Continued. 

Butter' —  Continued. 

Abbott  J  S 

876 

Bentham  L  C 

571 

consumption- 

-continued. 

prices — continued. 

Abele  C  A 

m 

877 

Bercaw  L  O 

891-2 

See  also  Families 

,  low  in- 

regulation — continued. 

Abraham  S 

994 

Beresford  H 

393 

come,  distribution  of  butter 

Estonia 

541 

Accredited  Milk  Scheme 

Bergfeld  A  J 

893 

to 

Europe 

934 

British               91 

24» 

280 

Berlin  Institut  fur 

demand 

Germany 

288 

606 

356 

801 

Konjunkturforschung 

191 

Great  Britain 

259 

847 

Acidity  in  ice  cream 

Berry  A  E 

13 

Sweden 

1052 

Netherlands 

464 

641 

mixes 

232 

Bertrand  R 

192 

futures  trading 

643 

Sweden 

617 

725 

Agenjo  Cecilia  C 

878 

Besana  G 

14 

948-9 

Switzerland 

421 

Agr.  Adjust.  Act 

1027 

Biddle  F 

142 

grading  and  standardiza- 

retailnSweden 

15 

1044 

Bishop  G  R 

870 

894 

tion 

12 

156 

234 

supports 

49 

Agr.  Mktg.  Agreement 

Bitzan  R 

193 

379-81 

440 

485 

490 

Ireland 

833 

Act436     638     735 

931 

1001 

Black  J  D 

895 

642      835 

851 

947 

985 

Sweden 

1052 

Agr.  Mktg.  Acts,  G< 

.  Brit. 

276 

Blanch  G  T 

896 

1020 

1045 

production        287 

438 

538 

492 

Blanford  C      476 

671-4 

820 

California 

201 

623    838- 

1038 

Aktiebolaget  Alka 

175 

Blanford  C  J 

194-5 

Canada 

269 

Albania 

719 

Alberta.  Dept.  Agr. 

16 

473-5 

897 

Denmark 

462 

596 

Australia 

259 

Alka  milk  bottle  sealing 

Blink  G  J 

190 

Eire 

597 

Belgium 

719 

machine 

175 

BlundeU  J  E 

36-7 

Finland 

298 

Bulgaria 

719 

Allen  R  H 

879 

Boker  H 

675 

Germany 

397 

costs             437A 

587 

797 

Allred  C  E              2 

46G 

580 

Bond  G  E 

196 

Iowa 

96 

360 

991 

Aluminum  foil 

741 

Bonow  M 

15 

Netherlands 

756 

Austria 

316 

Amer.  Assoc,  cf  Medical 

Booker  H  S 

676 

Oregon 

201 

Canada         302 

373 

396 

Milk-  Comns 

99 

881 

Boucher  G  P         16 

536 

677 

Wisconsin 

754 

Alberta 

582 

Amer.  Chamber  of  Com.  in 

Bowling  G  A 

66 

293 

industry 

446 

Manitoba 

582 

France 

176 

Brabant  Van 

197 

Nebraska 

549 

Saskatchewan 

582 

Amer.  Dairy  Sci.  Assoc. 

461 

Brandt  K 

477 

Italy 

912 

Idaho 

393 

Amer.  Fares  Econ.  Assoc. 

336 

Brannon  J  M 

81 

labeling 

1 

738 

New  Zealand 

136 

337 

Amer.  Munic.  Assoc. 

177 

Breazeale  D  F 

360 

marketing 

46 

275 

791 

Denmark 

259 

719 

Amer.  Pub.Kealth  Assoc. 

Breed  R  S            173 

198 

678 

839 

947 

Estonia 

541 

719 

Com,  on  ^Milk  and  Dairv 

814 

Belgium 

291 

Finland 

719 

Prod. 

248 

512 

Bremer  H  E 

679 

Canada 

954 

Greece 

719 

Amess  A  H  R 

3 

Bremer  K 

199 

costs 

437 

Iceland 

719 

Andersen  L  F 

462 

Bressler  R  G  Jr 

478 

899 

Germany 

477 

606 

Iowa 

Anderson  E  F 

660 

Bridges  A 

680-82 

Minnesota 

755 

Butler  County 

802 

Anderson  H  B 

178 

Bristol  U.  Dept.  of  Agr.  and 

New  Zealanc 

10 

Irish  Free  State 

597 

Anderson  L  C 

882 

Hort. 

36-7 

Oregon 

1050 

Latvia 

119 

Andes  J 

179 

Broadbent  D  A 

896 

postwar 

793 

Lithuania 

719 

Arbuckle  W  S 

592-3 

807 

Brock  F  D 

900 

regulation 

Minnesota 

646 

Ark.  Agr.  Col- 

166 

Bronson  W  H 

200 

895 

Estonia 

307 

Netherlands 

259 

Armentrout  W  W 

5 

Brooke  Sir  B 

17 

Germany 

397 

New  York 

109 

Armstrong  T  V 

828 

Brother  G  H 

683 

Great  Britain 

729 

865 

New  Zealand 

259 

Arnold  L 

463 

661 

Brown  A  A 

584-5 

Italy 

268 

Norway 

719 

Vshby  A  W 

180 

Brown  A  J 

201 

479 

Norway 

359 

on  farms 

846 

Australian  Equalization 

Brown  B 

686 

moisture  test 

186 

Poland 

719 

Scheme 

767 

Brown  C  A 

18 

nutritive  value 

627 

regulation 

432 

Avenex 

229 

Brown  E  F          IP 

687 

301-6 

packing  and  packages 

35 

Rumania 

719 

Brown  3  H 

480 

688 

210 

229 

314 

741 

Sweden 

15 

719 

Babbitt  M 

181 

Brown  H  L 

20 

765 

804 

947 

Switzerland 

719 

Baccheti  S 

182 

Brown  L  O 

481 

Connecticut, 

Bridgeport 

425 

Texas 

482 

Battel  an  J            6 

464-5 

884 

Browne  F  L 

831 

Germany 

272 

390 

types 

275 

Bacon  L  B 

18S 

Brucellosis 

430 

573 

Illinois 

581 

Yugoslavia 

719 

Baker  O  E 

466 

Buck  RE 

607 

Italy 

268 

quality               581 

594 

883 

Bakkes  H  K 

467 

Buckingham  S  M 
Buechei  F  A 

889 

Michigan,  D- 

stroit 

367 

California 

1 

Baldwin  F  B 

662 

432 

weights 

713 

Illinois 

479 

Ballard  C  D 

544 

Buell  R  L 

690 

prices      94 

143 

425 

438 

regulation 

Baltzer  A  C 

170-1 

673 

Buffalo  U.  Bur.  Business  & 

446 

601 

804 

888 

Belgium 

197 

Barnhart  J  L 

393 

Social  Res. 

504 

Belgium 

291 

495 

California 

595 

Barns 

Bulmer  J 

483 

California,  San  Francisco 

Denmark 

308 

331 

sanitation 

118 

881 

Bulmer  L  C 

484 

201 

479 

Germany 

212 

434 

Barr  W  L 

885 

Bundesen  H  N 

202-3 

Canada 

940 

Utah 

618 

Barsky  G 

867 

Burgess  L  A 
Burlingame  B  B 

185-6 

Connecticut, 

Bridgeport 

425 

research 

990 

Bartlett  R  W 

7-8    184-6 

204 

Denmark 

604 

residues,  utilization 

14 

468-9   601   663-6   886-9 

Burtis  E  L 

848 

J08-9 

effects  of  tariff 

576 

sanitation,  regulation 

512 

Barns 

392 

Business  Res.  Corp. 

800 

England 

531 

Wisconsin 

944 

Basic-Surplus  Plan 

18 

21, 

Butler  J  B 

691 

France 

76 

247 

storage  and  warehousing 

179 

1015 

Butter 

178 

371 

Great  Britain 

25& 

621 

costs 

795 

947 

Baudoin 

392 

consumer  preferences. 

Illinois 

479 

Germany 

390 

Bauer  H 

187 

Burlington,  Vt. 

508 

Chicago 

201 

479 

775 

supply,  world 

675 

Bauer  P  T 

667 

consumption 

627 

947 

948 

surplus 

69 

Baxter  T 

9 

470 

1Q38 

Minnesota 

646 

Canada           693 

767 

954 

BeU  E  W             188 

582 

890 

Belgium 

495 

New  York 

584 

tariff 

576 

690 

Bell  R  W 

189 

Canada 

940 

New  Zealand 

10 

136 

trade       538     604 

838 

947 

Belshaw  K 

10 

Minnesota 

646 

604 

Australia 

767 

Bendixen  H  A 

11-12 

190 

Minneapolis 

699 

regulation 

465 

Canada 

840 

471-2 

668 

Sweden 

15 

Argentina 
Australia 

659 

Denmark 

308 

331 

Bennett  J  J  Jr 

574 

6 

464 

767 

subsidies 

49 

Sweden 

85 

65 


Item 


Item 


Item 


Butter--Continued. 

Casein- -Continued. 

Cheese — Continued. 

transportation 

production        189 

251 

265 

packing  and  packages 

273 

bibliography 

697 

538 

740 

831 

313 

472 

506 

costs,  France 

247 

France 

329 

Canada 

911 

refrigeration 

79 

statistics 

1021 

Germany 

272 

utilization 

1006 

storage  and  warehousing 

831 

Wisconsin 

244 

ice  cream  mixes 

591 

trade                  265 

538 

831 

prices                122 

143 

884 

regulation 

432 

utilization         251 

580 

787 

Canada 

940 

Butter  substitutes 

69 

805     831 

868 

947 

France 

76 

247 

consumption 

665 

1006 

1034 

Illinois,  Chicago 

158 

See  also  Margarine. 

adhesives 

265 

New  Zealand 

10 

136 

Butterfat 

film  material 

683 

regulation 

prices               306     446 

836 

foods 

265 

Estonia 

541 

Canada 

840 

Germany 

350 

405 

Europe 

934 

Minnesota 

1017 

insecticides 

265 

Germany 

241 

847 

New  Zealand 

337 

medicines 

265 

Netherlands 

641 

Oklahoma 

306 

paper 

265 

Switzerland 

421 

production  costs 

991 

plastics          265 

683 

1034 

supports,  Eire 

833 

California 

204 

synthetic  wool 

683 

production        231 

287 

312 

tests                              75 

78 

textiles 

265 

519     538 

838 

846 

utilization 

136 

Caskey  W 

21-2 

1021 

1038 

See  also  Milk,  butterfat 

Caskey  W  F 

185 

636 

Albania 

719 

content. 

Casseiman  P  H 

940 

Belgium 

719 

Buttermilk 

178 

Cassels  J  M        128 

183 

208 

Bulgaria 

719 

consumption 

1038 

489 

Canada 

693 

Canada                      536 

940 

Caulfield  W  J 

972 

costs                 34 

338 

437A 

prices,  Canada 

940 

Cell-glass  for  butter 

797 

problems 

119 

packaging 

314 

Austria 

316 

production 

1038 

Cent.  Milk  Distributive 

Canada 

302 

396 

utilization         251     651 

947 

Com. 

58 

Minnesota 

126 

1049 

Chain  stores 

New  Zealand 

136 

337 

England 

207 

milk  marketing 

7 

208 

Denmark 

719 

France 

329 

Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

670 

Eire 

347 

Germany 

389 

taxation,  Wisconsin 

209 

England 

347 

Buttermilk,  dried.  See 

Champaign  Co.  Milk 

Estonia 

719 

Dried  buttermilk. 

Producers  Assoc- 

841 

Europe 

347 

Butterworth  T  H 

692 

Champaign-Urbana  Dairy 

1008 

farm,  Great  Britain 

727 

Champlin  L  F 

799 

Finland 

719 

Cadwallader  R  C 

487 

Cheese 

34 

Germany 

347 

Calif.  Agr.  Col. 

205 

Canada 

206 

Greece 

_ 

719 

Ext.                              204 

515 

consumer  preferences 

472 

Iceland 

719 

Calif.  Agr.  Expt  Sta.       145 

1007 

Tennessee,  Knoxville 

880 

Illinois 

161 

Giannini  Found  Agr.  Econ 

Vermont,  Burlington 

508 

Italy 

182 

See  Giannini  Found.  Agr 

consumption 

1038 

Latvia 

719 

Econ. 

Canada 

677 

940 

Lithuania 

719 

Calif.  Dept.  Agr.               164 

488 

Montreal 

71 

Nebraska 

550 

595 

861 

Oshawa 

71 

New  York 

875 

Calif.  U.  Bur.  Pub.  Admin. 

226 

demand 

472 

Norway 

719 

Cambridge  U.  Dept.  Agr. 

France 

176 

Poland 

719 

Farm  Econ. Br. 

992 

grading  and  standardiza- 

Rumania 

719 

Cambridge  Food  Recording 

tion                   156 

234 

407 

St.  Lawrence  Valley 

374 

Scheme  for  Dairy  Cows 

992 

440 

490 

1045 

Sweden 

719 

Camenga  C  C 

910 

Canada,  Manitoba 

269 

Switzerland 

719 

Canad.Polit.Sci.  Assoc. 

236 

France 

402 

Texas              286 

482 

961 

Canada  Bur.  Statis. 

206 

Germany 

241 

Yugoslavia 

719 

Canada  Dept.  Agr.            16 

677 

international 

782 

quality                273 

402 

618 

955 

Netherlands 

756 

regulation 

241 

455 

Dairy  Products  Div. 

911 

industry 

refrigeration 

745 

Mktg.  Serv. 

693 

France 

782 

sales  by  types 

533 

Econ  Div. 

940 

Illinois 

161 

sanitation,  regulation 

512 

Canned  milk, See  Condensed 

Minnesota 

126 

944 

milk;  Evaporated  milk. 

Netherlands 

782 

trade                 347 

538 

838 

Cans 

public  relations 

493 

533 

845 

metal,  for  ice  cream 

548 

790 

Canada 

767 

771 

558 

Wisconsin 

104 

708 

regulation,  Sweden 

85 

costs 

746 

Italy 

912 

transportation 

valve-vented,  for  cheese 

506 

marketing 

bibliography 

697 

Capstick  E 

207 

Canada 

771 

costs,  France 

247 

Carpenter  P 

1050 

costs 

437A 

types 

273 

Cartons 

methods 

790 

utilization         250 

493 

1006 

design 

181 

New  York 

875 

Cheese,  Cheddar 

Casalim  M 

912 

New  Zealand 

10 

grading  and  standardiza- 

Casein                             14 

287 

Oregon 

1050 

tion 

768 

971 

Italy 

912 

post-war 

792 

packing  and  packag 

es 

424 

packing  and  packages, 

regulation 

1048 

Germany 

272 

Great  Britain 

729 

prices 

786 

prices 

1021 

Norway 

359 

production,  Nebraska 

550 

regulation,  Europe 

934 

trade 

857 

Item 
Cheese,  Cheshire 

marketing  regulation, 

Great  Britain  865 

Cheese,  cottage  178 

Germany  389 

marketing  404 

nutritive  value  404 

packing  and  packages  367 

404 

prices  404 

Cheese,  Emmental  317 

Cheese,  Hollander  347 

Cheese,  Italian-type  1053 

Cheese,  skim-milk 

grading  and  standards         440 
Cheese,  Swiss  104 

packing  and  packages        1048 
Cheese,  Tilsiter  347 

Cheese  boxes,  design  and 

labeling  911 

Chicago.  Mayor  Kelly  Milk 

Ordinance  202 

Chicago  Mercantile  Exch.     626 
643 
Children,  milk  consumption 

172     730 
Chinn  A  694 

Chiplets  210 

Chocolate  coatings  155 

Chocolate  milk 

grading  and  standardiza- 
tion 430     932     980 

industry,  public  relations  932 


packing  and  packages 

367 

production                   155 

868 

Claborn  H  V 

817 

Clausen  P 

211 

Clauss  W                   212-3 

490 

Clement  C  E                  214 

491 

Clement  F  M 

215 

Clerkin  P 

216 

Cocoa 

155 

Cohen  R                     492      395-6 

Cohen  R  L 

23 

Colebank  A  W               636 

716 

Colvin  E  M 

697 

Combs  W  B 

46 

Com.  of  Invest. for  England 

58 
696 

Com. on  Milk  Frod.Prob. 

Mass. 

562 

Concentrated  milk 

consumer  preferences 

150 

consumption 

1038 

packing  and  packages 

272 

prices,  Ohio 

64 

production 

1038 

quality 

150 

stocks,  Canada 

206 

Condensed  milk 

consumption 

663 

British  Malaya 

366 

Canada 

536 

grading  and  standardiza- 

tion                  156     440 

1024 

Netherlands 

756 

Italy 

912 

marketing,  regulation, 

Great  Britain 

729 

prices                          888 

1023 

supports,  Eire 

833 

production        287     519 

1003 

costs                         964 

1023 

France 

328 

receipts,  New  York  City 

799 

sanitation 

Spain 

878 

66 


Item 

Item 

Item 

Condensed  milk — Continued. 

Cows — Continued. 

Cream — Continued. 

sanitation — continued. 

size,  effect  on  milk 

supply,  Florida 

712 

Wisconsin 

944 

production 

784 

trade 

845 

857 

trade 

1003 

tubercular 

444 

transportation 

138 

British  Malaya 

366 

tuberculin-tested 

233 

costs 

138 

Great  Britain 

139 

England  227      260 

503 

609 

Canada 

373 

utilization 

250 

964 

CoxR  W 

646 

699 

Iowa 

803 

Condensed  skim  milk 

591 

Craig  G  H 

223 

Massachusetts 

586 

1010 

868 

Crawford  W  S 

880 

New  York 

162 

Conforti  E 

493 

Crazannes  C  De 

224 

utilization         591 

615 

973 

Conklin  C  T 

494 

Cream 

Maine 

919 

Conn.  Agr.  Col.  Ext. 

345 

butterfat  content 

240 

Cream,  canned,  discolora- 

Conn. Agr.  Expt.  Sta. 

285 

care  and  handling 

947 

tion 

74 

Conn.  Milk  Mktg.  Program 

Alabama,  Birmingham 

484 

Cream,  frozen,  utiliza- 

Com.                          25    219-20 

consumer  preferences, 

tion 

1006 

Consumers'  Com.  for 

Vermont,  Burlington 

508 

Cream,  sour 

England 

26 

consumption 

1038 

grading  and  standardization, 

Container  caps 

Canada            536 

940 

955 

Arkansas 

166 

aluminum 

217 

estimating  methods 

640 

packing  and  packages, 

See  also  Milk  bottle 

caps 

New  York 

612 

Detroit,  Mich. 

367 

Containers 

Buffalo 

894 

utilization  in  butter 

432 

fiber,  for  milk 

649 

New  York  City 

i 

672-3 

Creameries 

137 

glass.  See  Milk  bottles. 

Rochester 

450 

management 

582 

947 

metal,  for  milk 

644 

grading  and  standardiza- 

price problems 

305 

paper 

tion        110      115 

137 

156 

See  also  Butter. 

for  dairy  products 

343 

234      240 

440 

571 

Credicott  J  W 

30 

367 

587      620 

839 

947 

Cripps  J                 225 

498-5'. 

costs 

1043 

973 

Crowe  L  K 

914 

for  ice  cream 

548 

558 

Australia 

523 

Culver  D  C 

226 

costs 

746 

Canada,  Manitoba 

269 

Cumber  W  J 

227 

for  milk           42 

133 

142 

equipment 

759 

770 

Cunningham  L  C         ! 

31-3 

228 

469       476 

578 

634 

Mid-western  States 

378 

502 

915 

649     724 

828 
944 

886 
974 

Minnesota 
supervision 

152 
340 

Currie  J  R 

503 

costs 

469 

723 

Wisconsin 

754 

Dahlberg  A  C 

702 

sanitation 

198 

589 

market  area,  Rochester, 

Dahle  C  D 

229 

602     603 

622 

814 

N.  Y. 

450 

Dairies 

832 

1002 

marketing 

sanitation 

478 

881 

rail-truck 

101 

Arkansas 

166 

See  also  Dairy  plants. 

types 

costs,  Massachusetts 

90 

Dairy  farms 

3 

for  cream 

217 

1010 

England 

290 

for  ice  cream 

548 

Illinois 

479 

Florida,  Miami  area 

712 

for  milk 

423 

894 

Iowa 

803 

Illinois 

922 

Italy 

268 

Maine 

706 

919 

Louisiana 

925 

regulation 

430 

New  York  City 

897 

Kentwood  area 

924 

sizes 

894 

974 

regulation 

management 

190 

509 

wax,  for  milk 

588 

California 

87 

545 

867 

See  also  Cans:  Milk  bottles: 

District  of  Columbia  854-5 

California 

1007 

Milk  jugs;  Packing 

and 

Great  Britain 

729 

San  Joaquin  County 

204 

packages;  and  subhead 

packing  and  packages 

217 

Canada,  Ontario 

530 

packing  and  packages 

Germany 

272 

733-4 

935 

under  names  of  dairy  prod- 

prices 

England            36 

511 

866 

ucts. 

Canada 

940 

Florida 

776 

Cooke  B  A 

698 

Elwell  Plan 

384 

Maine 

1042 

Cools  L  J 

495 

Maine 

919 

Michigan 

170 

873 

Cooper  R  J 

895 

New  York  City 

672 

Nebraska 

318 

Co-op.  Cong.  Parliamentary 

regulation 

587 

New  York       114 

502 

783 

Com. 

58 

Europe 

934 

Pennsylvania 

885 

Cooperatives.  See  Dairy 

Minnesota 

152 

Chester  County 

311 

industry,  cooperative  asso- 

New York 

40 

Wales 

866 

ciations. 

supports,  Eire 

833 

West  Virginia 

1026 

Corbett  R  B 

221 

production        287 

312 

1038 

Maryland 

38 

Corbin  C  I 

27 

quality               519 

594 

883 

Michigan 

171 

Council  of  State  Govts. 

28 

California 

1 

Minnesota 

1017 

806 

Illinois 

479 

Mississippi 

529 

Cowan  H  B 

913 

Kansas 

67 

Nebraska 

550 

Cowden  T  K          29 

327 

336 

Michigan 

953 

Northeastern  States 

494 

Cows 

Utah 

618 

New  York 

32 

915 

Canada 

206 

receipts,  New  York 

City 

799 

Ohio 

967 

costs  and  returns 

871 

sales 

80 

sanitation 

feeds.  See  Feeds. 

New  York,  Buffalo 

894 

regulation 
Finland 

662 

freshening 

205 

New  York  City 

671 

243 

prices 

sanitation 

Pennsylvania 

950 

New  York 

94 

Eastern  States 

615 

Vermont 

679 

Tennessee 

460 

Mid-western  States 

615 

Scotland 

653 

sanitation,  regulation 

99 

New  York 

813 

size 

345 

190     688 

806 

881 

Wisconsin 

943 

Styrian  Enns  Valley 

193 

Item 

Dairy  farms — Continued. 

Vermont                      532  926 

Champlain  Valley      68  196 

Wisconsin                   550  922 

Dairy  industry              169  611 

687  766 

Albania  719 

Belgium  719 

bibliography                853  891 

Bulgaria  719 

California,  San  Joaquin 

County  515 

.  Canada  206      302     395-6 

Fraser  Valley  302 

Manitoba  269 

Connecticut,  New  Haven  825 

cooperative  associations  936 

Illinois,  Chicago  158 

Maryland,  Baltimore  157 

Massachusetts,  Boston  157 

Missouri,  St.  Louis  157 

Ohio,  Cincinnati  157 

costs  and  returns      112  132 

357 

Austria  316 

Denmark           462      596  719 

England             128     616  810 

equipment  519 

Estonia             386      541  719 

Europe  326 

Finland  719 

France  224 

Germany           266      288  405 

471      477  774 

Great  Britain  168      281-2 

462  808 

Greece  719 

Iceland  719 

Iowa  907 

Irish  Free  State  597 

Italy                     24      182  431 

large  scale  organization  936 

Latvia  719 

Lithuania  719 

Minnesota                    755  959 

New  England  1036 

New  York         411      789  821 

824  1012 

New  Zealand               136  375 

Norway  719 

Poland  719 

problems  312 

public  relations          169  238 

245      253      258  264 

416     422      657  715 

506 

Denmark  399 

England  362 

Great  Britain             57  280 

524 

Massachusetts  348 

New  York  City         518  612 

Scotland  527 

regulation 

bibliography  414 

Germany  471 

research                   131  1025 

Rumania  719 

Sweden      85     419     617  719 

Switzerland  719 

Tennessee  874 

Vermont  334 

Virginia  235 

Wales  616 

Washington  120 

Wisconsin         209     652  716 

Yugoslavia  719 


67 


Item 
Dairy  industry- -Continued. 

See  also  Dairy  farming;  Milk. 
Dairy  industry  Act, 
Canada  911 

Dairy  Industry  Com.  34 

Dairy  organizations 
Germany  266 

Oregon  1050 

See  also  Dairy  industry, 
cooperative  associations. 
Dairy  plants.  See  Milk  plants. 
Dairy  Produce  (Price 
Stabilization)  Act, 
Ireland  542 

Dairy  products  287 

care  and  handling  936 

Germany  266 

consumer  preferences        510 
consumption     208     333      357 
416     437A     466    1038 
England,  Oxford  361 

Germany  339 

Tennessee  2 

Texas  482 

Vermont,  Burlington         508 
510 
See  also  Families,  low 
income,  distribution  of 
dairy  products  to;  Income, 
relation  to  consumption,  of 
Hairy  products, 
delivery 
costs  442 

New  York  City  195 

grading  and  standardiza- 
tion 3      156      234     971 
Germany  213 
Netherlands                        756 
New  Zealand                      375 
Oregon                      368    1050 
Great  Britain  539 
Italy                                     912 
marketing         159     416      545 
856     863     928     958 
costs  159 
Mississippi  529 
New  York  575 
New  York  City  195 
Germany                  266     477 
Great  Britain  276 
Illinois,  Chicago  158 
Minnesota,  Twin  City 
area  160 
New  Zealand  10 
regulation      149     439     621 
624       720     772     938 
977    1027    1030 
California                        654 
France                              123 
Germany                          563 
Great  Britain726   729   865 
Italy                                    346 
Maryland,  Baltimore      157 
Massachusetts,  Boston  157 
Missouri,  St.  Louis        157 
New  York  City                441 
New  Zealand  10 
Ohio,  Cincinnati              157 
research                    73      121 
roadside                                92 
services                              258 
Sweden                                572 
Wisconsin                             716 
packing  and  packages  42      127 
NewvZealand                      375 
Wisconsin                           1041 


Item 

Dairy  products — Continued. 

prices      39     143     169     333 

357     460     850     958 

1021 

Canada  206     236 

farm  262 

France  392 

futures  626 

Germany  339 

Great  Britain  23 

Michigan,  Detroit  775 

New  York  94 

New  Zealand  10 

regulation      442     663     858 

1022 

California  654 

Europe  934 

Great  Britain  726 

Netherlands  363 

supports  261 

Netherlands  83 

Sweden  572     621 

460 

652 

262     357  437A 

740     939    1038 

719 

719 

719 

205 

170-1     873 

719 

719 

448      719 

408 

266     339 

719 

719 

719 

719 

719 

719 

1025 

719 

1021 

719 

719 

874 

482 

719 


Item 
Dairy  products— Continued, 
utilization         155     313     715 
787     805 
France  224 

research  1025 

See  also  specific  prodacts. 
Dairy  Prod.  Mktg  Assoc        928 
Dairy  science,  development, 
Great  Britain  764 

Dairying.  See  Dairy  farms; 
Dairy  industry. 
Dairymen's  League     575     822 


Tennessee 

Wisconsin 
production 
538 

Albania 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

costs 
Michigan 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

Florida 

Germany 

Greece 

Iceland 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Norway 

Poland 

research 

Rumania 

statistics 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Yugoslavia 
quality 

control 
France 
Netherlands 

regulation 
Italy 

research 
receipts,  Tennessee, 

Knoxville 

New  York  City 
sanitation 

regulation 

research 
shipments,  Wisconsin 


Estonia 
Germany 
statistics 
transportation 
bibliography 
Minnesota 


Dalla  Torre  G 
Danker s W  H 
Darlington  J  B 
Davidson  D  R 
Davis  E  M 
Davis  W  P 
Dawe  C  V 
Dean  A  S 
Del  Guerra  M 
Deloach  D  B 
De  Paul  U  Res  Bur 
Desmond  Act,  California 
630 
Deutsche  Markenbutter 
Devault  S  H 
Dewhurst  J  F 
Dietrich  F  J  M 
Dietze  C  Von 
Dinsdale  DH 
Dixey  R  N 
Doan  F  J 
Donley  J  E 
Dooling  M 
Dougherty  D  S 
Douthitt  Corp 
DowG  F 
Downs  FHJr 
Downs  P  A  234 

Drew  R  J 

Dried  buttermilk,  trade 
Dried  milk  34 

consumption 


271 
756 
169 
230 
1025 

880 
778 
441 
287 


351     442 

1025 

880 

surplus  261     703     917 

tariff  318 

trade    10  154   169  452 

538  645  857   889 

1027  1033 

541 

339 

539 


41 

684-5 


706-7 

914 
592 


230 
703 
916 
809 

35 

917 

36-37 

504 

14 
918 
800 
488 
632 
212 

38 
826 
231 

39 
505 
233 

42 
705 
809 
319 

43 
919 
921 
1045 
807 
857 

43 
1038 


grading  and  standardization 


France 

Netherlands 
Italy 
marketing  46 

regulation,  Great 
Britain 
packing  and  packages 
prices 

production        251     287 
1063 

Canada 

France 
quality 
trade 

Great  Britain 
utilization         250     365 


401 
756 
912 

818 


729 
272 

ms 

557 
1038 
818 
328 
401 
1003 
139 
557 
868 

Dried  skim  milk.  See  Non-fat 
milk  solids. 

Drinker  G 

Drummond  I  C 

Drummond  W  M  236 

Duane  M 


697 
959 


DuckRW 
Dugan  Mrs  F  C 
Durand  L  Jr 
Durham  H  L 
Duryee  W  B 
Duryee  WH 

Eastlack  J  O 


708 


235 
190 
302 
45 
507 
237 
922 
702 
709-10 
238 

239 


Item 
Eckles  C  H  ~M 

Eddy-Rucker-Nickels  Co      864 
Edel  H  240     923 

Efferson  J  N  924-25 

Efkes  U  241 

Eggs 

consumption,  Tennessee 

futures  trading  643 

marketing,  Belgium 

production 

trade 
Ehrlich  G 
Ehrstrom  W 
Ellenberger  H  3 


Elwell  Plan 


384     701 


2 

948 
291 
538 
538 
242 
243 
508-10 
711 
882 
953 
275 
302 


Elwood  creamery 
English  R  E 
English  Milk  Marketing 
Scheme.  See  Milk  Marketing 
Schemes,  Great  Britain. 
Ertel  H  245 

Erwin  RE  27 

Esche  E  246 

Etling  J  247 

European  War,  1914-18 

effect  on  prices  23     850 

Evans  D  M  511 

Evans  H  E  300 

Evans  R  M  926 

Evaporated  milk 
consumer  preference 


34 
993 
1049 
819 
536 
674 


consumption     153     663 
Canada 

New  York  City         672 
See  also  Income,  relation 
to  consumption,  of  evapo- 
rated milk, 
demand  1011 

grading  and  standardiza- 
tion 156     440   1024 
marketing 
Connecticut,  New  Haven  825 
costs,  Wisconsin  467 
prices               819   1011    1023 
New  York  City  613 
672-74 
retail                                 469 
production        287     312     846 
costs                                1023 
Wisconsin                        467 
Germany  211 
New  York                           109 
Texas                                  482 
sales,  retail,  New  York 
City                        476      673-74 
utilization                   250    1006 

Fabian  F  W  47     248 

Fairer  J  A  249 

Families,  low-income 
attitudes  toward  milk 
companies,  New  York 
area  780 

distribution  of  butter  to, 
Canada  954 

distribution  of  dairy 
products  to  928 

distribution  of  milk  to         570 
844     963 
See  also  Income,  relation 
to  consumption. 
Faron  S  927 

Farr  R  513 

Farr  R  H  1019 


68 


Item 

Item 

Feed 

Gauntt  E  A 

"267 

costs         95      143 

345 

446 

Gawlikowski  I  T 

264 

669 

996 

Gehl's  Guernsey  Farms 

923 

England            37 

107 

353 

Genin  G 

265 

519 

505      680 

691 

760 

Genung  A  3 

939 

869 

992 

Geraghty  M  L 

559 

Great  Britain 

682 

Germany  Reichsministerium 

Iowa 

907 

fur  Ernahrung  und 

New  York         33 

502 

584 

Landwirtschaft 

266 

Scotland 

496-7 

Germany  Reichsnahrstand 

471 

Vermont         196 

310 

334 

Geyer  D  N 

721 

Wales 

869 

880 

Geyer  K 

895 

West  Virginia 

66 

289 

Geyer  K  E 

520 

effects  on  milk  production  952 

Ghezzi  E 

268 

from  whey 

207 

342 

Giannini  Found.  Agr  Econ. 

homegrown,  Austria 

330 

146 

-8      427-8 

Louisiana 

925 

Gibson  L  A 

269 

production 

Gifford  C  G 

52L 

costs 

714 

Gillett  R  L 

270 

Finland 

448 

Giltner  W 

722 

Sweden 

546 

Giroux  I 

271 

Fellows  E  S 

741 

Glasgow  U  Hannah  Dairy 

Fellows  I  F 

513 

Res.  Inst 

172 

Fermentation  test 

528 

Glass  Container  Assoc,  of 

Fermented  milk 

287 

Amer. 

723-4 

Ferrari  A 

250 

251 

Gockel  A 

272 

Field  L 

826 

Golding  N  S 

« 

273 

Filled  milk 

753 

Goldsmith  I  B 

54 

Finneran  E  J 

252 

Golte  W 

274 

Fisher  R  C 

253 

Gosney  G  F 

276 

Fiske  M 

779 

Grade  A  Milk  Assoc. 

633 

Fleming  R  J 

801 

Grade  A  Milk  Law,  Illinois  962 

Fleming  W  C 

204 

515 

Gt  Brit. Com.  of  Invest 

55 

Fletcher  C  W 

254 

Gt.  Brit.  Food  Council 

278 

Flint  Ted 

537 

726 

Fla-Dept  Agr  Milk.Insp 

Gt. Brit. Milk  Mktg.Bd 

9 

Div. 

712 

56-58       91 

96 

141 

Foelsch  G  G        640 

713 

851 

279-81     470 

483 

498 

Foils,  for  packaging 

524      565 

647 

667 

butter 

314 

727-30    1039-40 

cheese 

424 

Gt.  Brit  Milk  Mktg.Scheme 

See  also  Aluminum  foil. 

See  Milk  Mktg-  Schemes 

Food  and  Drug  Act 

738 

Great  Britain 

Forest  H  L         619 

636 

928 

Gt-  Brit  Min.  of  Agr.  and 

1019 

Fisheries       57-8     227    280-2 

Foster  A  H 

255 

>24-6 

730 

Foster  D  H 

270 

GtBrit.Min.of  Food 

930 

1040 

Fouse  E  G 

29 

Gt.Brit.Min.of  Health 

731 

Fouts  E  L 

1045 

Advisory  Committee  on 

Fowler  H  C 

714 

Nutrition 

483 

Frank  L  C             27 

48 

303 
717 

Gt.  Brit,  Scot.  Off 

59 

283 
527 

Frederick  J  K 

257 

Committee  of  Investigation 

Fribley  Mrs  W  E 

258 

for  Scotland 

60 

516 

715 

Greenberg  P 

567 

Friedman  I  K 

517 

Greene  H  T 

61 

Frietema  H  J 

259 

Greenway  J  E 

809 

Frisbie  D  M 

518 

Gregg  V  L 

166 

Froker  R  K 

716 

Griffith  S 

779 

974 

Frozen  Dessert  Ordinance 

Griffiths  J  D 

300 

Tennessee,  Memphis 

'-277 

Griffiths  M  J 

528 

Frozen  desserts 

Grigsby  R  M 

931 

sanitation 

Grimes  M 

284 

regulation      512 

561 

859 

Guild  H  C 

62 

877 

Guin  M 

529 

See  also  Ice  cream 

Sherbet 

Fryhofer  C  W 

642 

Hadary  G 

932 

Fuchs  A  W 

718 

Haenszel  W  M 

504 

Futures  trading 

643 

Hale  R  W 

63 

732 

Chicago 

626 

Hall  Sir  D 
Hamilton  A  B 

764 
38 

Garrad  G  H 

260 

Hamilton  W 

629 

Garrett  0  F 

581 

Hamilton  W  A 

65 

Gasser  E 

719 

Hammerberg  D  O 

285 

933 

Gaumnitz  E  W 

49 

50 

Hannay  A  M 

934 

51        52 

261 

262 

Hanson  F  E 

286 

619 

720 

929 

Hanson  J  R 

636 

1019 

Item 
Hare  H  R  530     733-4 

835 

Harmon  E  M  735 
Harper  Adams  Agr.Col.Dept. 

Econ.  6S1 

Harris  E  S  1019 

Harry  E  L  736 

Harvey  W  C  287 

Haskell  W  H  737 

Hauck  E  288 

Hauser  392 

Hayes  G  G  290 

Heebink  G  289 
Heifers 

costs,  Northern  Ireland  732 

prices,  New  York  94 
tuberculin-tested,  Northern 

Ireland  732 

Henderson  H  O  289 

Henderson  R  290 

Hening  3  C  702 

Henry  A  291 

Hepburn  N  W  738 
Herrman  L  F                66    292-3 

Herz  H  294 

Hibben  R  C  295 

Hilfer  I  531 

Hill  H  287 

Hinde  W  296 

Hine  G  S  67 

Hitchcock  J  A      >68      186  532 

Hoar  T  P  74 

Hobson  A  533 

Hochleitner  A  297 

Hoffman  A  C       716     73S  936 

Hoffman  O  H  Jr            436  636 

Hole  E                             879  1017 

Holford  F  D  937 

Holland  G  867 

Holm  G  E  740 

Holman  C  W         69      534  938 

Holman  H  P  939 

Holmsten  E  298 
Holstein-Friesian  Assoc. of 

Amer-  103 

Milk  Program  Comn.  387 

Homen  A  298 

Homogenized  milk         70  135 
535 
consumer 

preference^  151 

marketing                    151  842 

sales  80 

Hood  EG  741 

Hood  H  P  &  sons  560 

Hopkins  J  A  907 

Hopper  WC  71   536      677  940 

955 

Hopson  G  H  742 

Horak  K  299 

Horn  D  W  72 

Horse  and  Mule  Assoc,  of 

Amer.  82 

Horses 

for  milk  delivery         82  707 

South  Dakota  129 

Hotels,  Consumption  of  cheese 

493 

Hoton  L  941 

Houston  J  216 

Howat  G  E  74 

Howe  F  C  942 

Howell  J  P  300 

Hudson  S  C  73 

Huebner  E  943 

Huffer  EG  81 

Huffman  G  L  944 

Hughes  EM  945-6 


Humrickhouse  C  W  743 

Hunziker  O  F  947 

Ice  62 

Ice  cream  34     295 

consumer  preferences        454 
481    592-3      598      694 
807     829     860 
consumption  1037-8 

Illinois  516 

See  also  Income,  rela- 
tion to  consumption,  of 
ice  cream, 
delivery  547 

equipment,  sanitation  72 

319 
formulas  872 

grading  and  standardization 

47     232      248     440 
1008    1045 
Tennessee,  Memphis        277 
industry,  public  relations  481 
1046 
marketing 
costs  30      547 

methods  773      872 

regulation,  District  of  Co- 
lumbia 855 
packing  and  packages  181 
548      551      558      635 
1031 
costs                                      746 
IUinois,  Joliet  537 
Michigan,  Detroit              367 
prices                          864     814 
production        287     312      519 
1038 
costs                30     309     752 
787 
Europe  11 
Nebraska                            551 
regulation                           248 
Texas                                  482 
quality                                      814 
judging                                234 
Kansas                                  872 
regulation                           877 
Nebraska                           551 
sanitation                      72      295 
regulation        47      512     658 
California                          585 
Eire                                  284 
Pennsylvania                    785 
Wisconsin                        354 
testing                                      865 
transportation 
costs                                     458 
refrigeration                        78 
Ice  cream  mixes                    864 
care  and  handling                484 
grading  and  standardization 

232     248 

California  595 

production  costs  581 

Ill.Agr.Col.Ext.Serv  7 

Ill.Agr.Expt.Sta,     8      185      581 

841 

I1L  Cheese  Mfrs.Assoc. 

public  relations  161 

111  Dairy  Prod.Assoc.  744 

IU.U-  883 

Dept.Dairy  Husb         558      832 

887    1001 

Imper,  Econ.Com.Intell.Br, 

538-9 
Income 
effects 
on  prices,  of  dairy  products 
601 


S9 


Item 
Income  -  -Continued, 
farm 
from  dairy  products         205 
New  York  568 

Texas  482 

from  milk  357 

relation  to  consumption  of 
evaporated  milk  674 

ice  cream  516 

milk     476      536     601     672 
Wales  736 

See  also  Families,  low  in- 
come. 
Ind  Milk  Control  Bd.    301      540 
Innis  H  A  302 

Institut  de  Recherches  Ecnom 
Economiques  495 

Inst  of  Pacific  Relations.  New 
Zeal  Br.  136 

Internatl.  Assoc.  Dairy  and  Milk 
Insp.  27       48        72 

Internatl. Assoc. Ice  Cream 
Mfrs.  548     746 

Internatl. Assoc. Milk  Dealers 

62     167     352     429     997 
Internatl.  Assoc  Milk  Sanit.     47 
174     303 
Internatl.  Conf ,  Agr.  Econ .       200 
215      563 
Internatl, Dairy  Cong.  175 

182      187      193      197 
199     207    211-3     216 
224    230-1    241-3  245-6 
250-1     264    9.68   271-2 
274  276     284     294      297-9 
308     313-7    320-2  328-32 
335     338     342-3     346 
350     359     365     383 
386     389-90     392     394 
397-404,  417-9   422-3     431 
433-4   448-9       453     455 
Internatl.Inst  Agr,     541-3     747 
Internatl,  Vet  .Cong,  722 

Interstate  trade  barriers. 
See  Trade  barriers,  inter- 
Iowa  Agr.  ExptSta.         96     360 
791-2     802     907 
Irish  Butter  Testing  Sta.       597 
Irradiated  milk,  gee  Vitamin  D 
milk. 
Irwin  H  S  948-50 


Jackson  C  J 
Jackson  H  C 
Jackson  J  C 
Jackson  R  C 
Jacob  A  W 
Jacobson  M  S 
Jarrell  T  D 
JaYvik  M 
Jeanneney  J  M 
Jennings  J  R 
Jensen  E 
Jensen  J 
Jensen  J  M 
Jesness  O  B 
Johansson  I 
Johnson  E  H 
Johnson  H  C 
Johnson  O  M 
Johnson  S  M 
Johnson  T  D 
Johnston  C  I 
Jones  E  H 
Josephson  D  V 
Judicial  decisions 
dairy  industry 
California 


74 

305      545 

440 

951 

306 

75 

939 

307 

76 

48 

952 

308 

953 

77      959 

546 

482 

3 

547-8 

310 

311 

954-5 

748 

229 

149     969 
544 


Item 
Judicial  decisions—Continued, 
milk 
containers 

New  York  142 

control     ■  430 

Oregon  369 

„  686 

marketing  429 

prices              45     821  1030 

Nebbia  vs.  New  York  54 

Judkins  H  F  312 

Kahler  KM  78 

Kans.  State  3d  of  Agr.  67 

Kelly  E  74S 

Kelly  S  562 

Kennedy  M               750-1  956 

Ky  Agr  ExptSta.  391 

Kessler  L  M  752 
Kieferle  F  313-4 
Kings'  Col. Newcastle  upon 

Tyne  Dept. Agr  505 

Kjaergaard-Jensen  N  315 

KlangJ  316 

Klinefelter  H  E  753 

Kling  H  1013 

Klueter  H  754 

Knight  H  W  957 

Koenig  N  958 

Koestler  G  317 

Koller  E  F  755  £59 
Kollmorgen  W         318      549-51 

Krauss  W  E  960 

Kriegel  N  W  961 

KrogAJ  318 

Krueger  P  F  552 

Kruisheer  C  I  756 

Kugler  A  320 

Kuhrt  W  J  87 

Kurmann  O  321 

Labor 

costs  £01 

wages,  West  Virginia  292 

Labor,  farm  923 

England  108  691 
Great  Britain      505    680-1 

866 

New  York                33  566 

783 

Scotland  4S7 

Vermont                  196  532 

efficiency                   68  345 

New  York  568 


wages 
Germany 
Lactalbumin 
Lactic  acid 


309 


267 

287      580 

14      740 

805      817 

Ljactoflavin  868 

Lactose  14      251      287 

580      740      787      830 

868    1006 

Lamprecht  F  322 

Larsen  C  83E 

Lasnet  de  Lanty  J  323 

Lattimer  J  E  302 

Lauterbach  AH  324 

Layson   S  V        48    80-1     325 

553-4      £62 

League  of  Nations  Health  Or  - 

gan.  1£0 

Lecuyer  R  757 

Leete  C  S  809 

Lefebure  R  82 

Legislation 

agricultural  prices,  Sweden 

420 


Item 
Legislation- -Continued, 

butter                            594  738 

butterfat  testing,  Ohio  78 
cream  control,  California 

86-7 
cream  grading,  Minnesota 

152 

cream  standardization  620 

dairy  industry                 3  848 

856  1027-8 

California  654 

France  100 

Pennsylvania  950 

Wisconsin  £43 

dairy  products            14E  156 

43c  53c 

781      858  1001 
Canada  6E3 
Great  Britain  276 
Massachusetts  561 
Netherlands  363 
New  Zealand  375 
Oregon  368 
Wisconsin  1041 
dairy  sanitation  553 
filled  milk  430 
Missouri  753 
ice  cream  industry,  Califor- 
nia 565 
milk                               £7  £38 
District  of  Columbia  854 
Germany                    212  405 
Great  Britain  7£6 
Illinois  349 
Indiana           301      540  743 
Ireland  542 
marketing      638      720  735 
£77  1030 
California            86-7  226 
428     488     630-2 
861 
Canada 
British  Columbia  215 
Nova  Scotia  102 
Great  Britain            9  276 
525  616 
Italy  268 
Louisiana  931 
New  York               637  610 
Pennsylvania  1051 
uniformity  103 
Wisconsin  254 
New  Jersey              583  763 
New  York       125     355  364 
457 
New  York  City  867 
Oregon  £86 
Pennsylvania  583 
prices                         45  487 
Connecticut  1044 
constitutionality  426 
Great  Britain        492  730 
Massachusetts  1044 
New  Jersey  1044 
New  York                45  457 
821  1044 
New  York  City  613 
Oregon  686 
Pennsylvania             45 1044 
Vermont  1044 
Wisconsin  406 
sanitation 
Illinois                   325  662 
Chicago  202 
Irish  Free  State  284 
New  England  478 
New  York  813 
Pennsylvania  785 
Texas  692 


Item 

Legislation- -Continued. 

milk- -continued. 

uniformity  718 

Vermont  748 

Virginia  447 

West  Virginia  165 

Leroy  A  M  190 

Levowitz  D  555 

Licenses,  milk 

England  249 

Germany  187 

Latvia  394 

Massachusetts  188     372 

Light,  effect  on  butter  390 

Lininger  F  F  326-7        556 

Little  J  L  759 

Lizee  D  328-9 

Lohr  L  330 

Lohse  T  331 

Long  H  F  356 

Long  W  H  760-1 

Lonza-Werke  Elektrochemische 

Fabriken  332 

Loomis  A  M  333 

La  Agr  ExptSta  924-5 

La  State  U  and  Agr  and  Mech 

Col  352 

Louwes  S  L  83 

Loveland  E  H  334 

Lucas  I  E  335 

Lucas  P  S  964 

Lucia  F  B  557 

Luebke  B  H  880 

Lueck  R  H  649 

Maack  AC  965 

McBride  C  G  336     815  966-7 

McCarthy  D  A  762 

McClelland  M  558 

MacCollom  D  B  562 

McCord  J  E  311 

McDermott  L  M  800 

Macdonald  Col  Econ  Dept  757 

McDonough  W  F  763 

McDowall  F  H                84  337-8 

MacGillivray  J  C  339 

McGrath  A  E  340 
Machine-milking,  Great  Britain 
581 
Machines,  for  milking.  See 
Milking  machines. 

Mack  M  J                         85  1045 

McKay  G  L  839 

Mackintosh  J  764 

Macklin  T  86-7 

MacLeod  A          341      559  968 

MacLeod  A  G  969 

Macy  H                               46  765 

Maddox  W  V  232 

Maine.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  44 

706     919  1042 

Majer  G  342 

Mality  H  343 

Malone  C  C  907 

Malott  D  W                     560  766 

Malted  milk  1038 

Manhart  V  C                88-9  344 
Manitoba.  Dept.  Agr. 

Dairy  Comnr.  269 
Manitoba.  Milk  Control  Bd.  970 

Mann  A  I  345 

Marchi  A  346 
Margarine 

Belgium  291 

consumption  663 

Belgium  495 

demand,  Sweden  1052 


70 


Item 
Margarine  -  -Continued, 
marketing 

control  690 
Nebraska  549 
prices  143 
Belgium  495 
Sweden  1052 
production  287 
Sweden  15 
taxation  371 
Marion  J  A  767 
Market  analysts  780 
Marketing  Agreement  Amend- 
ment Act  938 
Marquardt  J  C     347      768  971 
Martin  B  F  766 
Martin  D  L  795 
Martin  W  H                       72  795 
Md.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.        38  92 
705 
Mass.  Milk  Control  Bd.  90 
348 
Mass.  State  Col. 
Dept.  Bacter.  and  Chem. 

980 

Dept.  Dairy  Indus.  980 

Ext.  Serv.          188      562  890 

Mastitis,  bovine,  control  590 
688 

Masurovsky  B  I              769  770 

Mattheus  H  T  91 

Matthews  T  A  349 

Maxwell  SB  53 

Mayberrv  R  H  771 

Mead  R  K  92 

Meade  D  92 

Meadow  moor  Dairies  777 

Medlock  F  W  356 

Mehrens  B  563 

Melder  F  E  772 
Memphis,  Tenn.  Dept.  Health 

277 

Menafra  A  773 

Menke  H  H  350 

Merchant  I  A  351 

Mereness  H  A  440 

Merkel  H  266 

Merket  H  774 

Merrick  F                      924  925 

Merrill  A  R  345 

Methylene  blue  test      167  344 

528  628 

Metzger  M  J  352 

Meyer  C  H  360 

Meyrowitz  A                   779  974 

Michaelian  M  B  360 

Mich.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  170 

843      873  953 

Mich.  Milk  Prod.  Assoc.  775 

Mich.  State  Col.            171  456 

Midland  Agr.  Col  Dept  Agr  Econ 

353  564 

Mighell  R  L  879 

Miley  D  G  776 

Milk 

accreditation.  See  Accredited 

Milk  Scheme,  British. 

butterfat  content         240  388 

461      507      650  925 

labeling  103 

New  England  75 

tests                            573  763 

buying  plans                312  560 

Chicago  352 

care  and  handling         43  190 

252      423      577  812 

881      899      937  947 


Item 


Item 


Tilk- -Continued. 

Milk- -Continued. 

care  and  handling- - 

continued. 

delivering- -continued. 

Alabama,  Birmingham 

484 

New  York 

costs,  New  York  City 

574 

Buffalo 

1016 

Germany 

266 

Schenectady 

984 

New  York  City  market 

irea 

New  York  City  r 

194-5 

474 

473     475 

995 

1013 

regulation 

99 

Wales 

501 

736 

Canada,  Ontario 

13 

demand                51 

208 

1000 

certified 

480 

881 

1011 

consumer  preferences 

535 

research 

163 

666     903 

906 

1049 

Sweden 

1052 

Canada 

70 

535 

flavor 

Massachusetts,  Boston 

951 

effect  of  container 

42 

New  York  City 

779 

974 

research 

862 

Pennsylvania,  Johnstown 

grading  and  standardization 

993 

156      167 

169 

174 

Vermont,  Burlingt 

on 

508 

234      240 

323 

387 

510 

440      461 

490 

528 

young  people 

566-7 

718     812 

881 

947 

consumption       27 

98 

153 

973 

1045 

208     422 

519 

588 

Alabama 

921 

664     709-10 

819 

827 

Eastern  States 

633 

887 

895 

1000 

equipment 

759 

770 

Albania 

719 

farm 

555 

Austria 

655 

Germany 

213 

417 

Belgium 

719 

Great  Britain 

168 

808 

Bulgaria 

719 

Illinois 

962 

Canada                16 

536 

940 

Chicago 

203 

955 

Moline 

296 

Denmark 

719 

Indiana 

344 

effect  of  price 

468 

663 

Ireland 

542 

665 

888 

New  Jersey 

459 

England 

361 

New  York 

904 

estimating  methods 

640 

New  York  City 

239 

Estonia 

719 

897 

Finland 

719 

Northern  Ireland 

17 

Germany 

191 

216 

Great  Britain 

57 

59 

regulation 

737 

280-1 

483 

676 

Scotland 

124 

695-6 

Texas 

692 

900 

Greece 

719 

Vermont 

679 

Iceland 

719 

handling.  See  Milk, 

care 

and 

Italy 

24 

handling. 

Latvia 

719 

industry.  See  Dairy 

industry. 

Lithuania 

719 

inspection 

430 

628 

Massachusetts,  Boston 

19 

costs,  Illinois 

957 

951 

New  York 

994 

New  York 

612 

labeling 

461 

Buffalo 

504 

894 

market  areas 

51 

208 

New  York  City 

19 

672 

Bettendorf  Iowa 

1019 

Rochester 

19 

450 

Boston,  Mass. 

310 

562 

Norway 

719 

586 

636 

Philadelphia 

19 

Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

894 

Poland 

719 

Calumet,  111. 

1019 

research 

163 

Canada 

Rumania 

719 

Calgary 

223 

Scotland 

172 

527 

Edmonton 

223 

Sweden 

419 

719 

Ontario 

935 

Switzerland 

719 

Chicago,  111.      888 

1019 

urban  areas 

717 

1047 

Vermont,  Burlingt 

on 

510 

Cincinnati,  Ohio 

636 

639 

Wales 

736 

Council  Bluffs  Iowa 

1019 

Yugoslavia 

719 

Davenport,  Iowa 

1019 

cooling,  costs 

117 

District  of  Columbia 

836 

delivering          111 

599 

929 

1019 

1035 

Dubuque,  Iowa 

636 

1019 

costs       20        82 

255 

442 

Fall  River,  Mass 

562 

636 

700 

751 

Fort  Wayne,  Ind. 

636 

Connecticut,  New  Haven 

Germany,  Rhein-Westphalia 

825 

274 

England 

225    498 

Great  Britain 

866 

Maine 

707 

Indiana 

540 

Minnesota,  Minneapolis 

Kansas  City,  Mo. 

636 

701 

La  Porte  County,  Ind. 

636 

South  Dakota 

129 

Lexington,  Ky. 

391 

Great  Britain 

501 

930 

Item 

Milk-  -Continued, 
market  areas --continued. 
Louisville,  Ky.         636    1019 
Lowell-Laurence,  Mass 

1019 

Maine  44     919 

Moline,  111.  1019 

New  Bedford,  Mass  562 

New  Hampshire  341 

New  Orleans,  La.  931 

1019 

New  York  City     21   125 

218   474   514   556 

574      814     910    1019 

1044 

Ogden,  Utah  896 

Omaha,  Nebr.  1019 

Philadelphia,  Pa.  21 

556     636 

Pittsburgh,  Pa.        376      556 

Providence,  R.  I.  1019 

Rochester,  N.  Y.  450 

Rock  Island,  111.  1019 

St.  Louis,  Mo.  8      185 

636     888    103  9    1047 

San  Diego,  Calif.  636 

Shreveport,  La.  1019 

Sioux  City,  Iowa  1019 

Springfield,  Mass  684 

Toledo,  Ohio  1019 

Topeka,  Kans  ,  636 

marketing  3       46      103 

113      159      190     262 

387     812     856 

as  public  utility  977-8 

Austria,  Burgenland  320 

bibliography  414 

by  producers  68 

Canada,  Ontario  734 

Connecticut  513 

Maine  44 

Nebraska  550 

New  York  945-6 

Ohio  608     815     967 

West  Virginia        292    1026 

California  145 

Los  Angeles  146 

Connecticut  25     219-20 

933 

New  Haven  825 

costs  21-2       98      131 

208     469     509     588 

797     826     886     895 

901      927 

California  837 

Canada,  Manitoba  970 

Connecticut  285     513 

689 

New  Haven  893 

Florida,  Jacksonville  area 

776 

Great  Britain  354 

Illinois,  Danville  184 

Indiana  743 

Kentucky,  Lexington       391 

Maine  706-7 

Massachusetts,  Boston 

90     184    1010 

Michigan,  Kalamazoo     843 

Minnesota 

Minneapolis  77 

St.  Paul  77 

New  Jersey  811 

New  York         574-5   945-6 

New  York  City  195 

473      824 

Vermont  443 

West  Virginia  5     292 


71 


Item 

Milk- -Continued. 

marketing — continued. 

England,  Tynedale  810 

Europe  144 

Germany  192     266 

Great  Britain  9       55 

139-40     483      500 

565      647 

Illinois  922 

Chicago  158     823 

Rockford  834 

Italy  431 

Massachusetts         562     890 

Boston  619     823     951 

Springfield  area  685 

Worcester  705 

methods  7        18     185 

257     469     650     668 

836     887     929   1013 

1035 

New  England  721     981 

New  York  130     218 

228 

Buffalo  670 

New  York  City  820 

823     897    1013 

New  Zealand,  Wellington 

913 

Ohio,  Cincinnati  966 

Pennsylvania  29 

Chester  County  3tl 

problems  336     666 

quotas,  Connecticut  219' 

regulation        97      149      174 

177      199     246     294 

304     324     336     436 

489     560     616     629 

638     656     709     720 

809     895     942     969 

989     998    1004    1030 

Alabama  1018 

Austria  297 

California     86      164     226 

428     488      544     631-2 

861    1018 

Canada,  British  Columbia 

215     870 

Nova  Scotia  102 

Connecticut  1018 

Denmark  315 

District  of  Columbia  854-5 

England  26     383 

Estonia  307 

France  123 

Germany     267     274     398 

433     453      563 

Great  Britain  56      128 

141      180     278     282 

326     354     356     370 

410     451      524-5    726-7 

747     796    1039-40 

Illinois  349 

Indiana  301    1018 

Italy  268 

Latvia  394 

Louisiana,  New  Orleans 

931 

Maine  919 

Maryland,  Baltimore      157 

Massachusetts  348      561-2 

890   1018 

Boston       157      200     372 

882 

Missouri,  St.  Louis        157 

New  England  1036 

New  Hampshire  1018 


Item 

Milk-  -C  ontinued, 

marketing— continued. 

regulation — continued. 

New  Jersey  459      583 

788  1018 

New  York  28  93  125  355 

364   441   514   637 

648  735  910  982 

1012  1016  1018  1044 

Northern  Ireland      17 

Norway  359 

Ohio,  Cincinnati  157 

Oregon  369    1018 

Pennsylvania         358      583 

585   1018    1051 

Rhode  Island  1018 

Scotland  409      526 

small  communities  303 

Sweden  419     725 

Vermont  748    1018 

Virginia  1018 

Wales  383     798 

Wisconsin  406     605 

1018 

Scotland  60     409     526 

services  758 

surveys  895 

Buffalo,  N.  Y.  670 

Chicago,  111.  800 

Great  Britain 

Battersea  area  676 

Somerset  410 

Milwaukee,  Wis.  437 

New  Hampshire  118 

New  York  City  974 

Ohio  967 

Pennsylvania,  Luzerne 

County  762 

Switzerland  543 

Tennessee  874 

Twin  City  area  160 

Vermont  445 

Washington  120 

Wisconsin  922 

municipal  distribution 

New  Zealand,  Wellington 

913 
North  Carolina,  Tarboro 

579 

urban  communities  717 

Wisconsin  254 

non-fat  solids  content  75 

388 

Northeastern  States  614 

Northern  Ireland  17 

nutritive  value  116     190 

650     688 

packing  and  packages  42 

61   198  423   463 

578  588-9  602   649 

723-4   828  929   944 

1035  1043 

consumer  preferences   634 

costs  574  975 

Detroit,  Mich.  367 

Germany  272     403 

New  York  142      897 

standards  644 

See  also  Containers;  Milk 

bottles. 

pasteurization  99     480 

costs  574 

Pennsylvania  762 

regulation  430 

Germany  187 

Illinois  325 


Item 


Mllk--Continue< 

L 

prices         7 

48 

51 

112 

208 

257 

262 

338 

384 

519 

534 

601 

611 

758 

778 

819 

905 

929 

1000 

1005 
1011 

California 

Los  Angele 

s 

148 

San  Diego 

147 

Canada 

236 

940 

Manitoba 

970 

Ontario 

530 

935 

Connecticut 

25 

220 

effect  on 

consumptio 

n 

468 

demand 

570 

England 

564 

Midlands 

353 

farm 

132 

418 

744 

California 

146 

Indiana 

88-9 

Massachusetts 

562 

619 

New  York 

822 

983 

Pennsylvania 

556 

for  butter  manufacture 

55 

for  cheesem 
France 

aking 

76 

84 
247 

Germany 

274 

417 

Great  Britain 

23 

727 

Illinois 

922 

Chicago 

158 

352 

744 
777 

Indiana 

89 

344 

Italy 

24 

Louisiana,  Kentwood  area 

924 

Maine 

1042 

Massachusetts 

Boston 

208 

Boston 

208 

Springfield 

685 

Worcester 

705 

Michigan 

775 

Detroit 

775 

Kalamazoo 

843 

Minnesota 

Twin  City  area 

160 

701 
744 

Nebraska 

318 

New  England 

478 

New  York 

94 

106 

142     208 

270 

411 

413 

584 

678 

New  York  City 
672     780 

21 

239 

820 

824 

867 

New  Zealand,  Wellington 

913 

Ohio 

64 

Pennsylvania 

311 

327 
999 

plans               305 

882 

976 

quantity  discounts 

898 

Iowa 

751 

956 

legality 
Minnesota 

751 

40 
956 

Wisconsin 

751 

regulation       246 

323 

412 

415   429-30 

442 

465 

487      570 

629 

660 

663-5       698 

821 

888 

942     969 

976 

989 

998 

Argentina 

659 

Item 
Milk- -Continued, 
prices — continued, 
regulation  -  -continued. 

California              428  488 
630-2 
Canada 

British  Columbia  870 

Chicago  105 

Connecticut  105 

Denmark  315 

District  of  Columbia  4 

854 

Eire  542 

England    26   279  383 

730 

Europe  934 

France        183  392 

Germany   183   192  267 

288  398  417  774 

847 

Great  Britain     9  55 

58  180  278  282  326 

435  470  492  499 

667   695-6       726  731 

747 

Indiana        301      540  743 

Maine  919 

Massachusetts      105  188 

200 

Netherlands  641 

New  England     ■_  1036 

New  York   40   45  54 

105   109   130  228 

364   382  457  514 

613   735   982  1012 

1015-16" 

Northern  Ireland  17 

747 

Oregon        686  918 

Pennsylvania     45  179 

916 

Rome  183 

Scotland                   59  283 

Sweden                   420  617 

Switzerland  421 

Wales           279     383  730 

798 

resale,  fixing  427 

retail                        132  469 

Great  Britain  483 

Minneapolis  77 

New  York  City  476 

St.  Paul  77 

Scotland  653 

supports                   335  1027 

Great  Britain        483  1040 

Sweden           546     621  1052 

Switzerland  543 

urban  areas  717 

Vermont         310     443  879 

Wisconsin                744  928 

production  607 

Albania  719 

Austria  655 

Burgenland  320 

Belgium  719 

Bulgaria  719 

Canada           206     302  395 

Calgary  area  223 

Edmonton  area  223 

__city  market  areas  717 

costs                18       22  95 

112      113      143  190 

312     335     345  507 

580     588     611  698 

709     711     714  740 

797     805     849  895 

960   996-7  1000 


72 


Item 
Milk- -Continued, 
production- -continued, 
costs- -continued. 
California  147 

Marin  County  1007 

San  Joaquin  County      204 
515 
San  Joaquin  Valley     1007 
Sonoma  County  1007 

Canada 
Montreal  area  757 

Ontario      530    733-4    935 
Connecticut  25 

England  37        107-8 

505     609     680-1 
988      992 
Bristol  area  36 

Devon -Cornwall  area 

290 

Midlands  353      564 

691 

Tynedale  810 

Yorkshire  760-1 

Florida,  Jacksonville  area 

776 

Germany 

Rhein- Westphalia  area 

274 

Great  Britain        233      503 

682     866     869 

Illinois  1047 

Indiana  743 

Italy  24 

Louisiana  852 

Kentwood  area  924 

southeastern  925 

Maine  44 

Androscoggin  County 

1042 

Oxford  County  1042 

Maryland  38 

Michigan  456 

Minnesota  1017 

Missouri  1047 

New  Jersey  788 

New  York  32-3      114      502 

584       648     783      915 

1012    1015 

Orange  County  31 

Tully  Homer  area        114 

568-9      784 

Northern  Ireland  63 

Oregon  918 

Pennsylvania         885      916 

Chester  County  311 

Scotland  496-7      653 

Styrian  Enns  Valley        193 

Sweden  546 

Utah  896 

Vermont  334      532 

Lake  Champlain  Valley 

196 

Wales       300      680-2      988 

West  Virginia       289    1026 

Charleston  area  293 

Fairmont  area  66 

Huntington  area  293 

Morgantown  area  66 

Wisconsin 

Milwaukee  area  923 

Denmark  719 

effect  of  feed  952 

effect  of  price         663     665 

Estonia  541     719 

Finland  448     719 

Florida  408 

Germany  266 


Item 


Item 


Item 


Milk- -Continued. 

Milk- -Continued. 

Milk-  -Continued. 



production- -continued. 

sanitation-  -continued. 

testing,  regulation 

Great  Britain 

483 

696 

Connecticut 

25 

West  Virginia 

165 

727 

764 

farm  methods 

521 

trade 

845 

857 

Greece 

719 

Great  Britain 

462 

764 

Canada 

395 

Italy 

14 

182 

Illinois 

81 

Italy 

24 

Latvia 

719 

Massachusetts 

222 

transportation 

111 

214 

Lithuania 

719 

New  England 

221 

423      519 

812 

920 

Massachusetts 

348 

New  Hampshire 

118 

bibliography 

697 

Nebraska 

318 

New  York 

1014 

costs                20 

22 

101 

New  England 

721 

regulation      415 

442 

512 

162      185 

292 

299 

New  Jersey 

573 

553       662 

698 

718 

574     727 

RS9 

920 

New  York       106 

270 

814A 

722      749 

806 

877 

Boston  market  area 

586 

918 

908 

1001 

1032 

1010 

New  York  City  area 

474 

Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

1016 

Connecticut 

285 

933 

Northeastern  States 

494 

Canada,  Ontario 

13 

France 

247 

Norway 

719 

Connecticut 

520 

Germany 

267 

Pennsylvania 

29 

36 

556 

Denmark 
Eire 

315 
284 

Great  Britain 
Massachusetts 

58 

per  cow 

68 

204 

England 

801 

Springfield 

Poland 

719 

Kent 

260 

South  wick-  Agawam 

problems 

545 

Europe 

941 

area 

684 

regulation 

177 

Finland 

243 

Nebraska 

550 

Germany 

405 

France 

100 

New  Hampshire 

559 

Great  Britain 

91 

227 

Paris 

183 

968 

370 

Germany      183 

242 

433 

Pennsylvania 

585 

Indiana 

301 

Berlin 

183 

farm  to  plant 

937 

Italy 

431 

Great  Britain 

370 

377 

Great  Britain 

41 

282 

New  England 

478 

1036 

Illinois 

325 

957 

methods 

299 

321 

New  Jersey 

459 

Chicago 

202 

552 

Missouri 

8 

Rumania 

719 

Italy 

New  York 

162 

seasonal 

21-2 

185 

Rome 

183 

rates  and  services 

208 

statistics 

1021 

Kentucky 

237 

refrigeration 

79 

Sweden           419 

621 

719 

Latvia 

394 

utilization           14 

34 

43 

Switzerland 

719 

Minnesota 

84      109 

155 

287 

Tennessee 

874 

Twin  City  area 

160 

295     338 

444 

591 

Vermont         310 

445 

879 

New  England 

478 

607     614     623     708-9 

Yugoslavia 

719 

New  Jersey 

573 

797     830 

846 

868 

profits 

905 

New  York 

590 

813 

877     932 

939 

955 

Austria 

330 

New  York  City 

239 

441 

1006 

1021 

Iowa 

907 

Northern  Irelanc 

1 

17 

Albania 

719 

producer -dealer  division 

Pennsylvania 

785 

Belgium 

719 

668 

Pittsburgh 

376 

Bulgaria 

719 

Vermont 

68 

Texas 

900 

Canada 

16 

955 

quality                48 

321 

519 

Vermont 

679 

Denmark 

719 

521 

Wales 

801 

Estonia 

719 

California 

1 

Wisconsin 

943 

farm 

262 

607 

Germany 

398 

shipments 

Finland 

719 

Great  Britain 

462 

interstate  regulati 

ion 

218 

France 

224 

250 

Nebraska 

313 

into  New  Jersey 

263 

Germany        191 

211 

288 

Oregon 

918 

standardization.  See  Milk, 

417 

regulation 

668 

742 

grading  and  standardization. 

Great  Britain 

808 

costs 

335 

storage  and  warehousing 

321 

Greece 

719 

Denmark 

315 

supplies 

1000 

Iceland 

719 

England,  Tynedale 

810 

factors  affecting 

208 

Illinois,  Chicago 

800 

France 

271 

Florida 

712 

Latvia 

719 

Germany 

417 

434 

London 

65 

Lithuania 

719 

Italy 

230 

New  York 

1014 

Maine 

919 

Tennessee 

874 

New  Zealand 

337 

Nebraska 

318 

Utah 

618 

surplus             257 

382 

413 

Norway 

719 

receipts,  New  York 

799 

487     614 

668 

816 

Pennsylvania 

29 

336 

refrigeration,  costs 

117 

Connecticut 

220 

Poland 

719 

research 

979 

Germany 

211 

Rumania 

719 

sales 

Illinois 

922 

Sweden 

719 

Denmark 

399 

Kentucky 

391 

Switzerland 

719 

in  bottles 

778 

Massachusetts 

348 

Wales 

736 

New  Hampshire 

341 

Boston 

844 

Yugoslavia 

719 

New  York 

Springfield  area 

685 

See  also  Chocolate  milk;  i 

Con- 

Buffalo 

894 

Michigan 

775 

densed  milk;  Evaporated 

New  York  City 

441 

476 

New  York 

109 

514 

milk;  Families,  low  income, 

671 

New  York  City  market  ; 

area 

distribution  of  milk  to;  Fer- 

Ohio 

966 

983 

mented  milk;  Filled  milk 

Pennsylvania 

556 

Ohio 

608 

815 

Income,  relation  to 

consume  - 

sampling 

173 

841 

utilization 

178 

231 

tion  of  milk;  Malted  milk. 

sanitation          167 

190 

418 

France 

328 

Soft  curd  milk;  Vitamin  D 

480      588 

688 

722 
920 

Wisconsin 
tariff 

922 
534 

milk. 

73 


Item 
Milk,  canned  ~"EB6" 

consumer  preferences 

Vermont,  Burlington         508 

consumption  105     468 

production  538 

Milk,  cultured  868 

Milk,  dried  skim.  SSS  Non-fat 

milk  solids. 

Milk  and  Cream  Producers' 
Protective  Act,  Nova  Scotia 

102 
Milk  and  Dairies  Act,  Ireland 

542 

Milk  and  Market  Products  Act 

(Northern  Ireland)  17 

Milk  and  Milk  Products  Act, 

Northern  Ireland  216 

Milk  bottle  caps  484 

Milk  bottles  42     476      588 

778      987 

care  and  handling  491 

cases,  zinc-coated  449 

consumer  preferences        332 

724 

New  York  City  974 

contamination  463 

costs  554      723    1043 

design  463 

Europe  144 

Germany  403 

losses  385     554     600 

707 

sanitation  661      814 

Illinois  81 

sealing  equipment  175 

sizes  517     704      927 

Great  Britain  930 

Milk  Consumers  Protective 

Com.,  New  York  City  867 

Milk  containers.  £fie_  Milk 

bottles. 

Milk  Control  Act,  Oregon 

686      986 
Milk  control  boards,  opera- 
tion 698 
Milk  Control  Law 
New  York         355     364     457 
Pennsylvania                      1051 
Milk  Costs  Investigation 
Scheme,  Great  Britain         869 
Milk  cows.  See  Cows. 
Milk  Indus.  Act,  Gt.  Brit.      796 
Milk  Indus.  Found.  778 
Milk  jugs                        704    1008 
sanitation,  Illinois  81 
Milk  mktg.  agreements  52 
560     660     720    1019 
District  of  Columbia  4 
Massachusetts,  Boston       372 
New  York                    648     735 
Ohio,  Cincinnati                    639 
programs                    926      958 
Milk  Mktg.  Bd.  §ee  Gt.  Brit. 
Milk  Mktg.  Bd. 

Milk  mktg.  Indus.  660      720 

931      989   1016 

Milk  Mktg.  Scheme  282 

British  Columbia       215     870 

Great  Britain     23        26    55-6 

58       65      128      140 

180  278-9  326  383 

410  435  451  470 

492   522   525  616 

726-8  764  808  865 

1039 

Scotland  60     283     409 

526-7     747 


Item 
Milk  Mktg.  Scheme  —Con- 
tinued. 

Sweden                         420  617 

Wales                           616  798 

Milk  Pasteurization  Plant  Law, 

Illinois  325 

Milk  plants 

California  145 

cost  of  operation  21 

efficiency  336 

milk  losses  702 

policies  750 

quality  program,  Indiana 

88-9  344 

sanitation  881 

Mid-western  States  615 

regulation  662 

Canada  13 

Massachusetts  561 

New  York  1014 

Vermont  679 

Texas  482 

waste  519 
See  also  Creameries. 
Milk  powder.  See_Dried  milk; 
non-fat  milk  solids. 
Milk  products.  See  Dairy 
products. 
Milk  protein 

utilization  322 

Germany  211 
Milk  receiving  stations 

country  214 

New  York  City  820 

Milk  (Regulation  of  Supply  and 

Price)  Act,  Ireland  542 
Milk  Res.  Council    19        566-7 

779-80     902      904  974 
Milk  (Special  Designations) 

Order,  Gt  Britain  356 
Milk  Stabilization  and  Mktg. 

Act,  California  861 

Milk  stamp  plan  823 
Milking  machines 

costs,  Michigan  170 

England  and  Wales  681 

Milkmeter  769 
Milksheds.  See  Milk,  market 
areas. 

Miller  I C                       78  781 

Miller  P  L                     636  1019 

Miller  S  L  357 

Minn.  Agr.  Expt.Sta.  77 

646  1017 
Minn.  Cream  Grading  and 

Testing  Law  152 

Minn.U.  126 

MioUis  R  782 

Misner  E  G  94        568-9  783-4 

Mo.  Agr.  Expt.Sta.  593 

Mo  Filled  Milk  Law  753 

Moffett  W  K                   358  785 

Moffitt  EL  95 

Molyneaux  G  W  809 

Montgomery  D  E  570 

Monthly  Quota  Plan  1015 

Moon  HA  975 

Mooney  G  L  786 

Moore  A  V  89 

Moore  H  C  118 

Morbeck  G  C  35 

Mork  R  359 

Morris  C  G  976 

Mortensen  M                   96  360 

Mortenson  W  P               97  336 
977-8 

Moss  F  J  979 


Mueller  W  S 
Munn  M  D 
Murray  D 
Murray  K  A  H 


Item 

980 

98 

795 

361 


Item 


Nair  J  H  571 

Nanneson  L  572 

National  Assoc.  Mktg.  Oft     1004 

National  Dairy  Council  99 

National  Dairy  Prod.Corp.    252 

National  Farm  Chemurgic 

Council  787 

National  Milk  Publicity 

Council,  London  362 

Natural  Products  Marketing 

Act,  Canada  215     840 

Nebr.  Agr.  Expt  Sta.  234 

Nelson  F  E  972 

Nevot  A  100 

New  England  Inst  Coop-         518 

520      624 

New  England  Res.  Council  on 

Mktg.  and  Food  Supply       221-2 

478      714      981 

New  Fabian  Res  Bur.  483 

N  H  Agr.  Expt.Sta.  118 

N  H  Milk  Control  Bd.  341 

N  J  Agr. Expt.Sta.  811 

N  J  Dept.Agr.  459      573 

N  J  Milk  Control  Bd.  263 

412      788 

N  Y  Agr-  Col.      130     411     446 

669     799     819-20     822 

871      894      915      1012-3 

1015 

N  Y  City  Bd.of  Health  239 

N  Y  (CorneU)  Agr.  Expt.Sta. 

31      106      114      162 
173      473      568-9     584 
784      875     897      945 
971    1053 
N  Y  Mercantile  Exch.  643 

N  Y  State  Assoc. Dairy  and 
Milklnsp.  117     763      809 

814A     910     937      950 
994 
N  Y  State  Attorney  General's 
Off.  574 

N  Y  State  Dept.Agr.  and  Mkts. 
91      575     813      982 
Div.  of  Milk  Control  195 

N  Y  State  Legislature 
Com. to  Investigate  the  Milk 
Control  Law  364 

Joint  Com.  for  the  Study  of 
Milk  Control  218 

N  Y  State  Milk  Com.  789 

N  Y  State  Milk  Control  Bd. 

142     412     457 

N  Y  State  Supreme  Court      142 

NYU.  School  of  Law  1044 

New  Zealand  Dairy  Control 

Bd.  10 

Newark  U.  Res. Centre         566-7 

Newman  W  A  576 

Nichita  G  365 

Nicholas  J  E  577 

Nicholls  W  H  790-3 

Nightingale  E  578 

Nixon  A  J  579 

Non-fat  milk  solids      134     461 

830     868 

marketing,  regulation  52 

Great  Britain  729 

prices  305 

production  costs        305     426 

testing  75     769 


Non-fat  milk  solids— Con- 
tinued. 

trade,  subsidies 
utilization         365      591 
France 
Germany 

Norman  P  B 

Northeastern  Dairy  Conf. 

Northern  Ireland  Agr.Res.Inst 
63       732 

Northern  Ireland  Joint  Milk 
Council  17 

Northern  Ireland  Min.Agr.      17 

Northwestern  U. 

Nova  Scotia  Econ.Council 

Nova  Scotia  Health  Act 

Noyes  H  V  103 

Nugent  R 


50 
947 
329 
405 
867 
893 


481 
102 
102 
983 
984 


Oat  flour  concentrate.  See 
Avenex. 

Odell  E  A  104 

Ohio  Agr.  Expt.Sta.       608      815 

960      967 

Ohio  State  U.  78 

Col. Agr.  and  Domestic  Sci- 

Dairy  Technol.Conf.  454 

598      694      829 

Dept.of  Rural  Econ.  966 

Okla.Agr.and  Mech. Col. Dairy 

Mfg.  Short  Course  232 

Okla.Agr.Expt.Sta.       306      862 

Oleomargarine.  See  Margarine. 

Olson  J  C  765 

Olson  T  M  580 

Ommodt  B  J  985 

Ontario  Cream  Patrons' 

Assoc.  794 

OregDeptAgr.  368 

Or  eg.  Milk  Control  Act  918 

Oreg.Milk  Control  Bd .  369 

986 

Oreg. State  Col.  1050 

Orr  T  370 

Osterholm  B  243 

Overman  OR  581 

Owen  R  L  987 

Owens  J  S  345 

Oxford  Agr. Econ.Res.Inst.      23 

410     492     498      500 

988 

PabstWR  Jr  371 

Packard  A  372 

Packard  A  A  989 

Packlce  62 

Packing  and  packages.  See 

Cans;  Cartons;  Containers; 

Milk  bottles;  and  under 

specific  subjects. 
Palmer  J  T  105 

Palmer  M  E  990 

Palmer  W  B  48     248 

Paquette  L  N  532 

Parchment 
for  butter  packaging  314 

741     765 
Germany  390 

Parchment,  treated.  See 

Avenex. 

Parker  C  V  373      582 

ParneU  G  S  583 

Parsons  F  L  795 

Parsons  M  S  106      584 

Pasteurization,  milk.  See 

Milk,  pasteurization. 
Pasteurization  Law,  Illinois 

962 


74 


Item 
Pasteurized  milk,  Pennsyl- 
vania 327 
Pasteurizing,  plants,  sanita- 
tion, regulation 
Canada,  Ontario  13 
Patents,  in  dairy  industry     716 
739 
Paterson  Butter  Plan, 
Australia                          6     464 
Pease  V  A                                939 
Pelton  G  M                                 991 
Pa.Agr  ExptSta.          311     327 
556      560 
Pa.  Assoc.  Dairy  Sanit.            521 
Pa.Milk  Control  Bd.               585 
916 
Pa  State  CoL                            883 
Perga-package                        343 
Perring  C                               796 
Petersen  W  E                          797 
PettttGHU              107-8      992 
Phelps  C  S                               374 
Phillips  IRE     180     736     798 
Philpott  H  G                             375 
Phipard  E  F                             827 
Pierce  C  W         109      556      993 
Pincus  S                                    994 
Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Dept.  Public 
Health                                      376 
Plastics               265     683    1034 
Pollard  A  J         586      799      995 
Pollard  J                                  377 
Population,  relation  to  agri- 
culture                                    466 
Population,  fluctuations 
effects  on  milk  consumption 
7 
Post  J  W              110     378      587 
Potter  P                                    800 
Potts  R  C                 379-81      642 
Poultry  feed                             830 
Poultry  products,  trade         857 
Powdered  skim  milk.  See 
Non-fat  milk  solids. 
Powell  J  C  2 
Premium  payments 
butter                                   804 
California                          479 
Minnesota                 201     479 
Oregon                               479 
cream,  Minnesota               201 
milk                             568     816 
Great  Britain                      522 
New  York       173      239     678 
Prentice  E  P                       111-2 
Prescott  M  S                           382 
Price  H  B                                 391 
Price  W  T                     356     801 
Priestley  H                              588 
Primary  Products  Marketing 
Act,  New  Zealand                  375 
Pringle  C                                383 
Producer  Settlement  Fund 

735 
Proskie  J  223 

Protein,  milk.  £ge  Milk 
protein. 

Prucha  M  J  589 

Public  Admin.  Serv.  177 

Purdue  U.  Dairy  Dept .  344 

Putnam  PL  345 

Pyie  J  F  113 

Quebec  Dept  Agr.  16 

Quintus  P        77       802-4     884 


Item 


Railroads  for  milk  trans- 

portation 

111 

162 

920 

Randell  H  H 

115 

Rauchenstein  E 

1042 

Reed  O  E 

805 

! 

)96-7 

Reed  O  M 

49 

51 

262 

579 

619 

636 

998 
1019 

Regan  J  J 

590 

809 

Reichart  E  L 

591 

Reichart  G 

266 

Reid  W  H  E 

592 

807 

Reinart  A 

386 

Renner  K  M 

594 

Reorganization  Comn.for 

Gt  Brit. 

282 

Restaurants,  consumption  of 

cheese 

493 

Reynolds  A  E 

595 

Reynolds  H  C 

999 

Rice  E  B 

596 

803 

Rice  J  L 

809 

Richards  H  I 

636 

Richardson  C  S 

810 

Riddell  W  H 

116 

388 

Riedel P 

389 

Riedel W 

390 

Riley  E  D 

440 

Riley  H  W 

117 

Rinear  E  H 

118 

811 

Roberts  H  E 

598 

829 

Roberts  J  B 

391 

Robineau  M 

392 

Robotka  F 

1 

J02-3 

Rochester  A 

1000 

Rochester  Dairy  Co. 

750 

Rodgers  J  B 

393 

Rogers  F  E 

599 

Rogers  L  A 

119-20 

Rogers -Allen  Law,  New  York 

735 

Roland  C  T 

600 

Rolle  M 

394 

Ross  H  A 

121 

Ross  H  E 

812 

Ross  R  C 

232 

Rothery  W 

809 

Royal  Sanit  Inst 

249 

Ruddick  J  A 

302 

395 

Ruehe  H  A 

581 

601 

1001 

Rupel  I  W 

545 

Raeburn  7  R 


114 


Saddington  6  W  396 

Sadler  W  P  636 

Safford  C  E  813 

Saitner  M  397-8 

San  Joaquin  County  Farm  Bur. 

204 
Sanborn  J  B  602-3  814  1002 
Sando  G  399 

Sandwich  dispensers  1048 

Sant  P  E  460 

Sauer  H  400 

Savage  WG  356 

Savini  E  401-2 

Schilling  K  403 

Schneider  G  404 

Scho  405 

Schoen  A  123 

Schools,  Milk  programs, 
Scotland  59     283 

SchubringW  604    1003 

Schultheiss  F  406-7     605 

Schurmann  R  N  606 

Scotland.  Dept. Health  124 

Scotland.Sec.  State  526 

Scott  J  M  408 


Item 
Scottish  Milk  Mktg.  Bd.        ~~4TJ5 
Scottish  Milk  Mktg  .  Scheme. 
See  Milk  Mktg.  Schemes 
Scotland. 

Seale-Hayne  Agr.Col.Dept. 
Econ.  290 

Sealtest  System  Laboratories 

252 

Sediment  milk  test      344      528 

628 

Selby  H  W  1004-5 

Senseman  C  E  939 

Seuss  A  313-14 

Sexauer  F  H  125 

Sharp  P  F  1006 

Shaul  K  A  814A 

Sheffield  Farms  822 

Shepard  J  B  607 

Sherbets 

consumer  preferences        593 

grading  and  standardization 

California  595     654 

Sherman  R  W     608      815      966 

Sherrard  F  R  G  N        609     680 

Sherwood  E  J  239 

Shultis  A  1007 

Shurts  T  M  1008 

Silcox  W  B  126      857 

Skim  cheese. 

prices  786 

production  868 

Skim  milk  14 

consumption  1036 

Canada  940 

grading  and  standardization 

156     440 
prices,  Canada  940 

problems  119 

production  1038 

trade  \  857 

utilization         651      740     868 
947    1038    1049 
bread  251 

casein  189     251 

cheese  251      786 

cottage  cheese  404 

dried  milk  251 

for  feed  996 

Germany     191      288-9     350 
whey  189 

waste  876 

Skim  milk,  condensed,  market- 
ing, regulation,  Great  Britain 
789 
Skim  milk,  dried,  8&e  Non-fat 
milk  solids. 

Slide  rule  759     769-T0 

Small  E  642      851 

Smith  B  L  110 

Smith  C  W  1019 

Smith  H  P  610 

Smith  L  T  817 

Smith  R  G  C  818 

Smith  R  K  607 

Snow  C  H  1009 

Snow  H  P  689 

Soda  fountains,  sanitation, 
Alabama,  Birmingham         484 
Sodium  caaeinate,  utilization, 
Germany  350 

Soft  curd  milk  116 

Soil  Conservation  and  Domes- 
tic Allotment  Act  1027-8 
Solids -not -fat.  gfifi  Non-fat 
milk  solids. 

Sommer  H  H  424 

Sonley  L  T  1010 


Item 
Sorenson  H  128 

Sour  cream.  See  Cream,  sour. 
So.  Dak.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  129 
Spencer  L  130-3  195  336 
411-15  450  611-14 
819-24  1005  1011-16 
Sprague  G  W  640     851 

Stamp  plan.  See  under  specific 

commodity. 
Standard  Metal  Container  Act 

644 
Stanford  U.  Food  Res.  Inst. 

477 
Stanley  L  134 

Stearns  J  T  508      510 

Steck  L  J  49-50     616 

SteenH  416 

Steere  L  V  617 

Stelzer  R  O  5       66 

Stephens  F  B  10     136 

Stevens  G  P  618 

Stevenson,  Jordan  &  Harrison 

825 
Stewart  P  W  826 

Stiebeling  H  K  827 

Stine  O  C  849 

Stiritz  B  A  137 

StittsTG  138     619 

Stacker  W  417 

Stoltz  R  B  .  -  828-9 

Stores 
milk  sales,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

670 
See  also  Chain  stores. 
Strainer -dipper  milk  test     628 
Strand  E  G  1017 

Strikes,  Chicago  777 

Stringer  W  E  830 

Stuurman  S  418 

Sullivan  W  205 

Sullivan  W  G  285     636 

Sunlight,  effects  on  milk 

flavors  42 

Sutermelster  E  831 

Svardstrom  F  621 

Svardstrom  K  F  419 

Synthetic  wool  683 

Szanyi  I  422 

Taffoureau  M  423 
Tanks,  milk  299 
Tanner  F  W  622  649  832 
Tariff  (U.  S.),  effect  on  dairy 
industry  in  Canada  302 
Tatar  S  W  689 
Taussig  St  623 
Taylor  C  C  139-41  833 
Taylor  G  R  624-5  848 
Taylor  H  B  456 
Templetoa  H  L  424 
Ten  Eyck  P  G  142  218 
Tenn.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  2  460 
880 
Tenny  L  S  626 
Tetro  R  C  1019 
Tex.Cream  Impr.  Assoc.  626 
Tex. Milk  Grading  and  Label- 
ing Law  692 
Tex.U.  961 
Bur.  of  Business  Res.  482 
Theophilus  D  R  393 
ThieuUn  G  444 
Thomsen  F  L  143 
Thomsen  L  C  426  627  835 
Thomson  G  S  836 
Tiedeman  W  D  628 
Till  I  629 


75 


Item 

Tilson  D  H  144 
Tin  foil.  See  Foils. 

Tinley  J  M                  145-8  336 

427-8   630-2  837 
Tobey  J  A                149     429-30 

Toma  R  431 

Tomlinson  F  R  838 

Totman  C  C  839 

Tovell  G  W  840 

Tracy  P  H       150-1      610  634 

841-2  965 

Trade  Agreement  Act  938 
Trade  agreements  program 

69      154      186  452 

534      539     645  652 

857  1033 

Trade  barriers 

international  49 

interstate          520     625  690 

772      781      824  848 

858      892      908-9  1001 

1029 

Trebler  H  A  600 

Trelogan  H  C  797 

Trimble  C  S  432 

Trout  G  M  1045 

Trovatten  R  A  152 

Trucks 

for  delivering  milk  20 

129     700  707 

for  hauling  milk  937 

refrigeration  79 

tank  299 

Tuberculosis,  bovine 

control  430 

Denmark  462 

eradication                 542  590 

Nebraska  318 

France                            ,  444 

Tuckey  S  L  841 

Tufft  J  E  635 

Twin  City  Milk  Prod.  Assoc.  160 

Ulrey  O  843 

Dmbrecht  J  433-4 

Union  Nationale  des  Laiteries 
Beiges  197 

U  S  Agr.  Adjust.  Admin.  49 

50-2    153     261-2   436-7 
465      514      570      579 
616     636-9   777     844-5 
1018    1021 
See  also  Milk  Mktg.  Agree- 
ments. 
U.  S.  Agr.  Mktg.  Serv.  846 

1020    1049 
U  S  Bur.  Agr.  C hem  and 
Engin.  •         939 

U  S  Bur.  Agr.  Econ .  154-5 

437A-8  607     640-2     713 
739      799      819      847-8 
850-2     880-1     891-2 
1017    1022    1026 
reports,  accuracy  586 


Item 
U  S  Bur  of  Dairy  Indus  156 

189     805     817     852-3 
1023-6 
U  S  Commod-Exch.  Admin      643 
948-9 
U  S  Cong.  House 
Com- on  Agr.  1027 

Com.on  Coinage. Weights  and 
Measures  644 

Com.on  the  Dist.of  Columb-   • 
854-5 
U  S  Cong.Senate.Com.on  Agr. 
and  Forestry  439    1028 

U  S  Container  Act  127 

U  S  Delegto  the  Internatl 
Dairy  Cong- 
U  S  Dept.of  Agr.  205 


U  S  Dept  Labor. 

U  S  Dept.State 

U  S  Ext.Serv-  -857 

U  S  Farm  Credit  Admin 


856 

942 

1038 

440 

645 

963 

614 

619 

U  S  Fed.Surplus  Commod. 

Corp  928 

U  S  Fed. Trade  Comn.      157-60 

441-2 

U  S  Food  and  Drug  Admin      67 

U  S  Mktg.  Laws  Survey  858 

1029-30 

U  S  Natl.  Bur-  Standards  127 

1031 

U  S  Pub. Health  Serv.  717 

859     877      942    1032 

Off  .Milk  Invest.  979 

Standard  Milk  Ordinance  and 

Code  27       202-3     237 

552     692     718     737 

900      957    1032 

U  S  Supreme  Court  54 

226      369 

U  S  Surplus  Mktg- Admin.      £28 

U  S  Tariff  Comn-  1033 

U  S  Temporary  Natl. Econ. 

Com.  936      942 

Utah.Agr.E3rot.Sta.  896 

Vacuum  packing  61 
Van  Arsdel  W  B  1034 
Varney  H  R          162      443  1036 
Vehicles 
horse-drawn  20 
See  also  Trucks. 
Vehlow  EL  87 
Verge  J  444 
Verger ont  G  W  545 
Vt.  Agr.  Col  443 
Vt.Agr.Expt.Sta             196  310 
508  1010 
Vt.  Special  Milk  Investiga- 
tional Com  445 
Vt.U.and  State  Agr  Col. Dept.of 
Anim.and  Dairy  Husb.  334 
509     651     664  666 
679     710     721  748 
983    1006  1036 


Item 
Vial  E  E        437-8   446    1037-3 

Vinter  P  483 

Va.  Dept  Agr  447 

Va.  State  Milk  Law  447 

Vlrtanen  A  I  44  S 

Vitamin  D  milk  116 

marketing  256 

nutritive  value  256 

Vopelius  O  266 
Vouchers,  distribution  and 

redemption,  Canada  654 

Wagner  R  44  i 
Waite  W  C  77      163  646     699 
WaUace  L  K  1019 
Walworth  G            647  1039-40 
Warner  E  E  636 
Warner  G  1041 
Warth  AH  831 
Washburn  R  M  860 
WashState  Col  12 
Inst.Dairying  12        96 
119-20     273 
Watson  A  E  1042 
Watson  J  164 
Watson  J  F  1043 
Watson  J  S  861 
Waugh  F  V  848      909 
Weather 
conditions 
Canada  206 
Scotland  4S6 
relation  to  ice  cream  con- 
sumption 1037 
Weaver  E  862 
Weinstein  SB  369 
WeldenWC  619 
Wellinghoff  E  F  863 
WeUwood  R  M  648 
Wentworth  W  A  469 
Werne  B  1044 
West  G  A  450 
West  W  A  918 
W.  Va  Agr  Expt  Sta  5 
WVaColAgr  1026 
W.Va  Dept.  Agr  165 
Wheaton  E  64  S 
Wheeler  L  A  451-2 
Whey                      14  189      287 
problems  119 
production  189 
utilization         251  651      805 
868    1006 
England  207 
for  feed  342     996 
France  329 
Germany  350     389 
Whey  protein,  production 
costs,  Germany  400 
Whitby  H  410 
White  AH  741 
White  E  D  166 
White  F  C  865 
White  G  C  650 


Item 

White  R  G 

866 

White  W 

1045 

Whitmore  B  F 

1046 

Whitney  C 

867 

Whittier  E  O 

651 

868 

Wiedemann  W 

453 

Wilcox  R  H 

1047 

Williams  D  O 

10 

Williams  H  T 

869 

Williams  S  W 

68 

Williams  W  E 

870 

Williamson  P 

871 

Wilson  G  S 

167-8 

190 

Wilson  H  L 

1048 

Wilson  J  L 

607    1049 

Wilson  T  E 

440 

Wilster  G  H 

1050 

Winks  G  W 

54 

Winnebago  Cheese  Co-         244 
Winning  P  J  454 

Winsauer  K  455 

Winter  T  505 

Wis. Agr  Col. Ext  Serv  652 

Wis  Agr  Expt  Sta  122 

533 
Wis. U. Dept  .of  Dairy  Indus. 

903      906      943-4 
Dairy  Mfrs.Conf  1041 

Wise  W  S  1051 

Witney  D  653 

Wold  H  1052 

Wood  V  A  223 

Wood,  for  butter  containers 

35      741 
Woodward  B  T  654 

Wool,  synthetic.  SLee 

Synthetic  wool. 
World  War  I,  effects  on 

prices  850 

Wrappers,  paper,  for  soft 

cheeses  313 

Wright  KT  170-1      456 

873 
Wright  N  C  172 

Wutz  A  T  655 

Wylie  C  E  874 

Wynne  S  W  457 

Yale  M  W  173      875 

1053 
Yarnell  R  458 

Yarnell  Ice  Cream  Co- 

458 
Yates  J  W  656 

Young  G  657 

Young  J  L  459 

Young  M  G  658 

Young  Act,  California  488 

630      632